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Full text of "A history of Columbia County, Pennsylvania"






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OLUMIUA COrNTV, 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



m02^ XJXE E-A^ni-IEST Xli^ES. 



COrXSKLLOIt A I I.WV 





EMVELL * BITTKNIIENDER. PrDusniBS. 
IJi.o«tMsnrno. Pa. 



2=I^EI^JLCE. 



IF the time ami labor wliich have been required to prepare this 
vohime for the press had been fully fo'eseen, it would not have 
been uudertaken. Those who are the most competent judges of 
what has been done, will be the fiist to excuse and overlook what 
may have been left undone. If it had been attempted many 
years ago, while the actors in our early history were still alive 
much valuable information might have been recovered which is 
now forever lost. We have at this day only glimpses of the ear- 
ly tinv-'s a. id til'' actors iji thu:ii. Diligent inquiry has in some 
oasu.-4 been rewarded, but in most cases no information has been 
vouch- safed. For suhstantial reasons the publication could 
not be longer delayed. :ii.d what has been gathered is here pre- 
sented. 

An examination of I lie table of contents will give full knowl- 
edge of the subject n^ fitter ; jii.d the extended and exhaustive in- 
dex will enable the reader to turn readily to any subject he may 
wish to look over. The bitdy of i!ie book >» ill sufficiently show 
the authorities ad persons to whom I have been indebted for as- 
sistance and information in t' e conij)ilation of the work ; ard it 
is only necessary here totend.r them my niost sincere thanks. 

The publ'shers have be ju at considerable expense in illustrating 
the work, thus reudeiin^;^ it more valuable and entertaining. 



T-£^BIjE (DIP COlSTTEnSTTS- 



y 

8DB.Ii:(.'T*. PAGE. 

I 

Early llistory , 1 

The Kiv.rs 9 

The Fort. 13 

Iu(,lian Purchases 35 

Organization of the Count)' 39 

Streams ;iii>1 Mountains 46 

I iii;>rovement8 and Productions 52 

^•.yi;s'iiis and Borough'^ 55 

^'^^'••=^''"' '■ .r-^Yttr •• ^9 

liemoval . f. 65 

Ele (ion Returns 74 

Bl- .mshui tr 85 

I'xrwrjck.. 96 

(':itawiss:i 101 

.lirseytowii 198 

> nailer Towns 113 

The Courts 1 22 

IVio^raphies of President Judges 130 

Normal School 151 

( "oiiiinon Schools 167 

Au'iii^'ultural Soeiety . 181 

Pop; iroiises. . . 184 

Bibliuuiaphy 187 

Madame Montour 195 

Post OHices ...;.. 206 

Legislative 1\< j'l ■<t*ntation 209 

Militarv Record 235 




f 



Brower's Building 86 

Mover Brothers' Buildiiitj^ 88 

Columbia County Prison 89 

Sanitarium 91 

Bloom Fui nace 92 

Exchange Hotel 94 

Keay's Paint Works 113 

Orangeville Academy 116 

Columbia County Court House 122 

Hon. Warren J. Woodward 142 

Hon. William Elwell 146 

Normal School Building 153 

Columb'an Building 189 

Hon. Charles K. Buckalew 211 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



(JHAPTEK 1 

KARI.Y IllSTOKV. 



IT is hiinlly possible to write the history of any county lying^ 
within the Forks of the Susquehanna, without giving as an 
introduction to it, a sketch, more or less extended, of the celebni- 
U'd valley in which it lies ; and that is especially the case with 
the territory now known as Columbia county, because it is com- 
prised within a region of country, which from Fishingcreek to the 
upper end of what is now called Lackawanna Valley, was origi- 
nally known as Wyoming, or in Indian, Maughwauwame, signi- 
fying "large plains." A number of tribes inhabited the region 
now composing the counties lying on the North and West Branch; 
but the earliest historical bands in C'olumbia t;ounty seem to have 
been tlu> Shawanese, who had a village (mi the flats below Blooms- 
burg near the mouth of Fishiiigcreek, another at ("atawissa, lusar 
the site (tf the present village, and also another near the mouth of 
r.riann-ek below Berwick. The Delawares were also settled 
within the valley, and with some others, were under the control of 
the Six Nations, and were «n-dered by them from ])oinl to point, 
:it will. 

The Sliawanese came from the (-arolinas, and kept moving 
north, until by agreement they wore allowed to settle upon the 
Susipiehanna, about IG97. They were a brave and warlike tribe, 
and gave the Proprietary Government a good deal of trouble. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 3 

•encry f^r liner than any one would believe them to be from any 
Aeseription, if they have not seen them." 

It is not generally admitted which valley bears ofiF the palm of 

eaiity. The denizens of each are strenuous in the praise of their 

\vn locality, and point with exultation to many an historical spot. 

'he counties properly included within The Forks of the Sus(pie- 

anna should perhaps lie south of a line, to he drawn from the 

■est line f)f (Minton county at the river, to the point where the 

lorth Branch strikes the Pennsylvania line : and would include 

linton, Lyconiini;. Bradford. Sullivan, Wyoming, Luzerne, C'o- 

imbia, Montour and Northumberland. 

No region of Pennsylvania has been written over with so Tuuch 

ire and vim and zest. The historian, the poet and the roman- 

ist have labored to illustrate its valleys, aiwi to heighten, if ))Os- 

ble, the cliarins of its scenery. Comprising many rich and po)>- 

loiLS countu's. to which, years ago. the hardy settlers flocked foi' 

heap lands, the pleasures of the chase and the fishing-rod, its 

)cal history is peculiarly rich. A fierce warfare raged l)etween 

nr own people for the possession of its rich alluvials, and at 

ist the Legislatures of the several States were obliged to interfere 

) stop the feud. Within its borders occurred some of the most 

loody battles in which the white and red man contended for life 

nd sulisistence. Fierce and protracted were the struggles ; and 

.e find marks of them not only on their very sites, but so tena- 

ious was the hold of the Lidian. that he has indelibly stamped 

lis nomenclature upon almost every one of the streams, the moun- 

ains. the passes, and the valleys. 

Here no cockney has built his Londons, Liverpools, or Man- 
;hesters : no matter-of-fact emigrant from "Der Faderland'' has 
;>e-Khined or be-Hhoned our most beautifid river; nor have the 
Teeks and valleys to [)lay second fiddle to some European local- 
ity. Their nuisical, aboriginal names still cling to them, and will 
ding to them forever. 

Flark to the nuisic of a few of them : We have Wyalusing, 
Tunkhannock, Lackawannji. Wyoming, Nanticoke, Catawissa, 
Mahoning, Shamokin, ('hillis(pia(jue. IMuncy. Loyal Sock, Lycom- 
ing. Towanda, Kittaning. Sheshecpiin. an<l many others. 

The Indians seem to have called what is now Towanda. "'Awan- 
dse :"" aTid perhaps what is known as I'ine ("reek is a little ejisier 



4 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA aOUNTY. 

of pronunciation than the aboriginal "Tiadaghton, So, also, 
what is known as Muncy Creek was, in the native «lialect, "Oo 
cohpocheny," and by some of the tribes was called"Lojigeserango." 
The name Muncy was doubtless given by the whites as easier of 
pronunciation, or because the tribes inhabiting the region were 
called the "Monseys," or Wolf tribes. 

Lycoming was in Indian "Locomick ;" and "Stonehauge" is by 
some given as the Indian name of Loyal Sock. It, as well as 
Muncy, may have been known to different tribes by different 
names ; for Loyal Sock is undoubtedly Indian, and signifies "Mid 
die Fork" — the explanation being that it enters the Susquehanna 
about mitlway between Muncy Creek and Lycoming Creek. There 
is reason in this, and the authority for it., though mislai<l, satis 
ties my mind. 

Chillisqua(|ue, "The Frozen Duc^k," is named from the legend 
of a beautiful squaw having met an untimely death u})on the 
banks of that quiet stream. 

Nanticoke and Lackawanna are most certainly Indian, and I 
am informed by a Welshman that the roots of both words are 
certainly Welsh. He explains them to have reference to streams 
of water, in his own language, and their peculiarities answer ex- 
a(^tly to those of the streams which they hei-e designate. It is 
impossible to say if the meaning of the words in both languages 
is the same ; but it is a little renuirkable, that in both, the words 
should have reference to water, rather than woods, fields or 
mountains. 

Born within the Forks of the Susquehanna, on the very bank 
and directly at the mouth of one of its romantic tributaries, with 
the tempest roar and sunny s])arkles of both streams, the most fa- 
miliar sounds and sights of my childhood, and the peculiar, sweet- 
sounding Iiulian name of each in my young ears, it is no wonder 
that the region watered by "the river of the win<iing shore" 
should be to me the loveliest spot on earth, and from which God 
grant that war, pestilence, and famine be ever absent. And 
there is no valley in the world which for beauty of scenery, fer- 
tility of soil, salubrity of climate and facility of access — for the 
mineral wealth of its hills, the moral health, hospitality, and in-f^ 
telligence of its inhabitants — surpasses that lying in the Forks oi ' 
the Susquehanna, in the good old commonwealtli of Pennsylvania.! 






HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 5 

B;.t it is not only for the things n>entiuni-.l that this valley is 
cc4el>i-ited Its historical associations and recollections are fully 
w.rthv of its high character in other respects. Within that ter- 
ritorv'lic's the beautiful Valley of Wyoming, the plain tale of 
the massacre <.f whose citizens hrinos tears to the eyes of the 
,nost careless reader, and whose charms and horrors have been 
tainted but not heightened, by the magic pen of Campbell. 
IIcM-e too. the celebrate.l Van C'ampen followed the trad oi 
,lu> Indians, or suffered as a j-risoner in their cruel handsr 
., i.irrative of whose advent.ires, some of them occurring almost 
i„ si.dit of where 1 write, would be more exciting than a ro- 
,,y,Zv In this c-hanned region, Captain Samuel Brady perform- 
c.d ncu.v of his famous exploits, and made his hairbreadth escapes. 
And no greater name than his brightens the rull of Indian 

\lie celebrated Montour family, of which Madame Montour, the 
ir.terpretess, seems to have lu-en the hea.l, and whose name is m- 
.k.liblv stamped upon one of our most beautiful ranges of hills, 
liv.Hl 'ac-te.l. died, and some of them are buried in the forks of the 
Susquehanna. Catharine Montour, whose heii.1 quarters were at 
Catharine's town, at the head of Seneca lake, and whose sons are 
•dle-ed to have been at the massacre of Wyoming, and also at 
Ihe butchery at Fort Freeland, and a woman called Queen Esther, 
sometimes confounded with them, and who is alleged to have been 
the executioner at the bloody rock of W^yoming, all have helped 
to give to the Forks of the Susciuehanna a romantic history. 

Here dwelt the Lenni Leiiape, -the original people ; and the 
council-fires of Tamanend, their most illustrious chieftain were 
kindled in its forests. For many years annually on the first of 
Mav throughout Pennsylvania, his festival was celebrate<l. In 
Philadelphia, the members of the -Tammany" society walked the 
streets in procession, their hats <lecorated with bucks tads, and 
;,pon reaching the wigwam, had a talk, smoked the "peace pij.e, 
and performed Indian dances. From him also the celebrated New 
York societv to<.k its name. Here, too, in his early youth came 
Lo<ran, the famous chieftain and orator of the Iroquois. He has 
U.ft" a name that can never be forgotten while ^'loq^'^'^f^;;"" 
I.Uhos are admired. -Who is there to mourn for Logan ^ ' Not 
',„,. " sayest thou, O ohl man eloquent ! Thou art mistaken, most 



6 /[ISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

disconsolate chieftain ! Who has not rca.l of thy beloved Alvar- 
etta, and shed a tear over her sad and untimely fate, addinjr t.) it 
a (topious Hood for tlie ^n'M grief that rent thy heart ? 

Would that r had a pen that could fitly narrate the story of the 
Forks of the Susquehanna ! How could a Cooper or an Irving 
people its hills and valleys with ever-living characters ! Not one 
of the localities made everlastingly famous by thosi- magic writers 
had half the natural beauties an.l adaptations t.. romance and song, 
whi(;h lie uncelebrated and almost unknown within the windings 
of this exquisitely beautiful stream. What withering satire lies 
in the fights of the Pennamites and Yankees over the Connecti- 
cut surveys ! What romance in the history of Madame Montour 
the Canadian half-breed, liberally educated, and mixing in the 
best society of Philadelphia, and anon leading the life of the 
tramping scpiaw, witlj the roving tribe of her husband. What 
room for incident and adventure, not the imaginings of romance 
but the narratives of sober truth, in the lives of Van Campen and 
of Brady ! 

For although thinly populated before the Revolutionary war 
that portion of the Forks of the Susquehanna embraced within' 
the original limits of Columbia <!ounty was by no means destitute 
of a place m its history. It had its Fort Rice, located near the 
head waters of the Chillisquaque—Fort Bosley, located at Wash 
ingtonville, on the CMiiUisquaque— McClure's Fort, on the Hats be- 
low Bloomsburg-Fort Wheeler, three miles above Bloomsburg 
on Fishmgcreek-Fort Jenkins near Briarcreek, about Jacob 
IIiU s present residence-Fort Freeland on Warrior's Run-Boone's 
Mills about seven miles distant from the last— Fort Montgomery 
about twelve miles below Fort Muncy and not far from Bosley's 
Mills— Fort Meninger at the mouth of W^irrior's Run— and 
Fort Swartz about one mile above the present Borough of xMilton 
Each of these forts h. -is its local history which will be spoken of 
in its oi-der. 

The valley must have been very thickly poj.ulated by the In- 
<lians, for many remains of Indian towns are pointed out Very 
extensive burial grounds are known to exist at several places 
within the Forks. Curiosities of various kinds-mounds, excava- 
tions and fortifications, of undoubted Indian origin— are found in 
large numbers. Through this valley ran some of the most impor- 



IIISTOIIY OF rOLVMHlA (U)UNTY. 7 

taut .ukI frcqiu'iitly travi'lcd '•wai-|»atlis" known in the liistury of 
the i:u'(.'. Sliall I trai-i' t}nMn out for you by I'xislinjj; roads and 
villuires '.' \'oii can put your tinker on the "jjatlis" on almost 
any map. 

••The Slianiokin I'atli" hcijan at tlic place iii»\v called Simbury, 
and continiu'd up tlie West Hiancli by tlie inoutli of Warrior 
linn and an Indian town there loeali'(l, thence througli the gap 
in Muncy liills to the town of Muiicy. wliere the jiublic road now 
passes. 

"The Wyoniing I'ath" left Mnncy on the West Branch, run up 
(Jladi' l\un, thenct' throu<i;h a gaj> on the hills to Fishingcreek, 
which eni|itii's into the North Hiancli at Blooinsburg, twenty 
miles above the junction, crossed the creek, passe<l into (now) 
Lu/erne CA)unty through the Nescopeck gap, and up the North 
Brantdi to Wyoming. 

"The Wyalusing Path" was trace<l up the Muncy creek, near 
w lure the Berwick turn|)ike crosses, then to Dushore, thence to 
Wyalusing creek and to the Hats above. 

"The !Sheshe<juin Patli" ran u)» Bousers Run. thence to Lyi^oni- 
ing Creek, near the mouth (d' Mill Creek, thence up l^ycoming to 
the lieaver Dams, thence down Towanda Creek to Sheshequin 
Hats. 

"The Fishingcreek I'ath" startc*] on the flats neai- Blooinsburg, 
on the North Branch. ii|i Fishingcrt-ek to ( )rangeville, on to near 
Long I'oml, thence across to Tuidvhaniiock Cre<'k. It was on 
this very path that \ an Campcn. the most piomiiient Indian figh- 
ter on the North Branch, was captuicd. and within siv miles of 
where 1 writ<'. 

Several other less im|ioitant paths led into these great thorough 
far»'s, and are well known in their neighborhood. 

Such are the materials for a h.istory of The Forks of tli Sus- 
(pichanna. In detached pii-ces and from other points of view it 
has been written ; but there is the more interesting one of perso- 
nal a<lventure which it seems is lost for ever. The many books 
and narratives which have been written provi' the eagerness with 
which the piiblit- desired to know whatevi-r was remembered of 
tlu' different localiti«'S wiru-h. by lo\»' and war. have been made 
famous. 

Some day justice will be done to our most l)eautirul river: some 



M HISTORY OF i'OLVMIilA ('OVNTY. 

tliiy rtii l!ii<i,lisluii:iii or :i (Icnnjui, :in Ituli;iii or !i Hussiiiii, will 
Irnvcl :iloii!4 its "vvindiiiii: shore" :iii<l «'clcl)r:it(' its l)(>!iiitic'S ; sifter 
\vhi<'li our coiiiit rvnieii will :i\v;ikeii to its roiiiiiiice, uiid conseiil lo 
:i»liiiire its valleys and love its liills. From tlie lake in wliieli it 
rises, to the bay into which it <liseliiirges its waters, it is tiie most 
beautiful stream on the continent ; tlie history of the jteople who 
livoil upon its banks is the most mournful and romantic ; the ad- 
ventures of its heroes the most thrillitifi' and exciting, and the 
most worth V of lh:il ancient lace who roamed throuii,h its 
forests. 







/nsToin OF COL CM HI A county. 



CIlArTKIi II. 

rilllK Sus<|M('h;iiiii;i was always a favorite stream aiiiori<^ the Iii- 
I diaiis, and a resideiiee upon its hanks was (toveted hy all the 
trihes. We tin<l tlie Delawares, the ShawaneHe, the (iangawt'He, or 
( 'onays, tlie Monceys and others on the two brandies and in the val 
leys lying in the Forks of the Sus(jiielianna. But ahove the F(>rkH 
the weHt side of the West Branch was niiicli l»ett(i- known than 
tlie west si<le of the Xortli Branch. On tlie former, almost every 
stream can he i<h'ntilie(l hy its Indian name, ImiI not in the latt('r 
Fishingereek and Hemlock an<l (rreen and Ilnnlingdon poem to 
have lost all trace of the aboriginal title, an<i in no antliority 
which I have be(Mi able to consult, have I found any certain cIim" 
to ttie Indian name. 

And that is the more singular, because the war an<l hunting 
paths of the different tribes lay through Columbia county, and 
atTOHH and along the streams I have mentioned. 

Van Canipen tells uw that when in 1778 he headed a scouting 
party, tliey started from McCIure's Fort, went up Fishingcreek 
about three miles to Wheeler's F'ort, thence to the head waters of 
Green Creek, crossed over through Eves' swamp to Little Fishing 
creek, thence to the Chillis<iuaque Creek, and from that stream to 
the Muncy liills, aiul crossing tliem struck tlie waters of Miincy 
C'reek, and tlience ascended or descended as the exigencies of t.h<- 
service required. 

Subse«piently. in 1780, a party of Indians came upon th< set- 
tlers about Wlieeler's Fort, killed Van Campen's fatlier and 
brother, and taking Moses prisoner, went uj» Big Fishingcreek to 
Huntingdon creek, tlience to the mrmth of Little Tunkhannoek 
Creek, tlieru-e up tlie river to Big TunkhantMMtk, and on to Mes- 
hoppen, Wyalusing and so by the Painted Post to AlVmny. In 
nfine of the narratives of such exjieditions which I have read, does 



10 IflSTom' OF <'<>!. rxiiiiA CorXTY 

the (irigiiial Iinlian iiiimt' of I*''isliiiif>;fn't'k or :iny of its iiffliiciits 
;i|)|)<'ar. 'IMu'it must !»«• such a (t('siij;iiati()ii aiid any authentic iii- 
foniiatioii u|»()ii the stil>ji'ct will interest all <>ui- eili/eiis. 

It is perhaps proper to add here that the llislorieal iMaj» of 
tlu' Pennsylvania llistorieal Society oives llie Indian nanu' of 
Fisllinjj;ere<'k thereon, from some old anthority, as heing Names- 
cesepony. 

Nescopeck was the only southern Imlian route i'oi' travel be- 
tween WyominL!; and Shamokin. (.'omiiii;- down tlu' Susipiehanna 
(Ml tiieir way to Kaston, Chester, Lancaster, Coneslo^a, I'hiladel- 
pliiil, or other |tlaces for holdiny' councils, tlu'y left tlu' river at 
Wyoiiiinjx or at Nt'scopeck, and only pi-edatory raids foi- nuirder 
or plunder camt' down the rivei' on tlu' west side. Consequently 
we have less krutwli'diije of that than ol" other portions of (he 
Valley. Tlu' name oi" the Shawaiu-si' villa^'c located near where 
liloomshurt; n(»w stands has nevei' tiiiiu'd up ainon^;st all my 
researches. 

Catawissa is "yt- most ancient" village of which we have any 
kn(»wdedi4;e. and was known by that nanu' to whites and Inilians 
in I72M, and doubtless much earlier. .lames Le 'Port writes under 
date of "Cat aw asse, May ye 12, 1728," concernin<;- a ditliculty 
near lliat place ''We always thought that the Covernor knew 
itolhing of the Hight between tin' Shawaynos and the white [»eo- 
ple." And the famous chieftain Lapackpitton, w ho left his name 
temporarily upon the place, was therein IT.')!. 

The West liranch, as it is now calU'(l, was known to tlu' In- 
dians by the name of Otsinachson ; and I ref(M- to some of the 
localities upon that rivi-r because all the t»'i-ri(orN' above I'uint 
Township to the Lycoming county line was once a part of Coliun- 
bia county. In 17')") Mr. Weiser writes to the (ilovernor that a 
<-ompany of Indians had informed him that they intended to build 
a town on the river Otsinachson. at a place called Otstuagy, oi- as 
givi'n •! sew here, (>tstuacky. and desiring him to send some men 
to fence a »'ornliel<l for them. This place is lu'lieved to be Loyal 
Sock, and it is said that a largt' Indi'in vi!lag<" was Ux-aied at the 
nioi|th of tlu' creek on the north side. And act-ordingly, in 
June following, we tind him writing to the (Jovernor as follows : 
"Last night I arrived safe at my housi' from Otstmu-hy, an Indian 
town about IT) miles above Shamokin, on tlu' luutli wi-st branch 



lllsrollY or colAJMlilA COUNTY. W 

(,f Si(s.|ii<'li;imi:i riv<T. where I liuve l.een with ten hiici nieii to 
leiice in ;i corn fiehl I'orthe liidiiUiH, jicconliiif; 1<» your Honors 
(M'ler." F:irthcr ah)nf^ in his lett<M he siiys : "I h-fl one sjiek of 
Kh)wer with theiu, \\w s;iine 1 .li<l to the In.liuiis :it ( 'iinasorsij^y, 
iihoiit ten inih'S on this sidf of Otstuachy." 

S(,, in anollier letUT from the siitne ("onra<i Weiser, from the 
sa.ne' phiee. -laU'.! May 2, 17.-»4, he Kays : "Last ni-hl I arrive.! 
safe from my journey to Shamokin and VVyomink, of whicli I 
think I am ol)liKe(l hy your Honor's onh'rs to hiy before you a 
just an. I .lislinct account, which is as folh.ws : April the hcvcii- 
te.etith I set out from home and went hy the way of .lohii liar 
riss an.l Thomas McKee's, being afraid of tlie two high moun 
tains an.l the l)a.l road that h-ads from tliem to Shamokin. I ar 
rive.l at Shamokin th«- twentieth .)f A|)ril, found that two of llie 
Shick Cahimys Vniing al»out thirty miles .)fT on the norlh-wetjt 
branch of SaHc^uehannah, commonly call<Ml Zinachson, I sent a men 
sage for tlieni, tln-n- being a great mnnber of In.iians at an<l about 
Shamokin. I thought lit to send my son with .lames Logan, the 
him.- son of Shi.-.k (^alamys, with another Li.lian to Oskohary, 
Nishkibe.kon an-l Woyamock, lliree Lwlian t<»wns on Sasquehau- 
nali (North Kast IJranch), with your Honor's message. They set out 
from Shamokin on the twenty-second, by waU-r, because tliere was 
no f.;.l.h-r to be Jiad by the way for horses. On th.- twenty-sixth 
tliey <-.ame ba.k again and reported that they lo.lgedth.' lirwt 
night at ()sk(diary with Lapackpitton, the chieftain, an.l Sannny 
interprete.l your Honor's message in Mohock t(. James Logan,an.l 
he to Lapackpitton in Delaware. That Lapackpitt.»n was well 
pleased with the message, thanked them very kindly, an.l gave 
them th.- string of wampum ba.-k again which they had given 
him, and t.,1.1 them that it was b.-st K. l.av.- th.- string at Niski- 
l,.-.-k..n, where there were more- In.lians. with .)i.l Nutimus, their 
,hi,.f. Wh.-n tht-y arrived at Niskil>e<-kon, ohl Nutinms was from 
h..me, but th.- rest ..f th.- In-lians receive.l th.- message very 
kin.lly, an.l sai.l they w..ul.l lay it b.-fore Nutimus and the rest of 
their In.lians after th.-y shouhl .-..m.- home. At Woyanux-k it waH 
just th.- same, raxan..sy, th.- .l.i.-f n.an th.-re, was frorr. hcune 
als.., th.- m.-ssage with an..th.-r string of wampum was tak.-n w.-ll 
by th.)se that w.-re at hom.-. 

Its.-.-nLs alt..g.-th.-r lik.-ly that th.- points m.-ntione.j an- Cata- 



12 



//is/oh'Y or coiJM liiA coiwrv. 



\viss;i, Ni"sc<i|»rck ;m(l W'yoiiiiiiL;' ; .-ukI :ll^<> tli:it ()sk«ili:u\ \\:is ;i 
I>»'l:i\\ MIC iiMUir of CmImw iss:i, :iii(l lliiil (lie otlicr two iiaiiu's .•ir«' 
tlu' same (lialiTt. So I \\:i\v soiiu'liiucs hct'ii (lispdst'd to tliiiik 
(hat "(Miciiastrv, an Indian town on tlic Susniu'lianna, spoken of 
in ("ohmial luconls III, pilge L*!>.'>, tom'llur with the Indian Man 
aiikyliiikon. ihid l*!>.">, MO 1, .SI ."> and Pennsylvania Ai«lii\t's I, iM I, 
21"). 2hi, «Miniiiaii'd w itii the h'ltci' oi' James \,v 'Vor[ Irom *'("ata 
WilSKe," all reli'ired lo the same |»laee and the same dilVuultv, 
and that 1>\ ••C'henasli-\ " Catawissa mav 1>»' intended. 

Tliece was an Indian town ahoiit hall ua\ between the month 
of Catawissa ereek and the month ol lioarinn* reek whieli liv 
some anthoi-ities is ni\en as the town of llu> eliiel" I.apaekpitttxi, 
and mav have been the plaet' ealK'd Oskohaiy. 

No two m«'n spell llu' san\e Indian name alike, and the same 
mail seariH'ly ever spells it twice the same way. The dill'erent 
tribes called (he same place l>v ditTcient names, as Catawissa and 
( >skohary, as Wyotnoc-k and Seahaut«>wano and Mau«j;hwauwame 
For \Vy(>minu' ; distanei's are yivi'ii by mt>re i^ui'ss, and seem to 
depend on the strength ot tln' rower or the swiftness of the hors»> 
making- the journey 

Fifty yi'ars as^o much was known which is now lost ; but 
rtiuonn'st ol<J letti'rs and old newspapers some thin>;s may yet be 
nHH>vered and madi' to eontributi' t(» the personal interest and lo 
oftl and ehrouohigieal i't»rn'ctness of (his attempt. 






insi'OliY OF CO HI M HI A (BOUNTY. 



( IIAITKIl III. 

THE I^OI^T3. 

ri"^IfK territory origiritilly cornjiOHing Columbia «^y)nnty was of 
J_ iorisi(k'rab]e extent. It (j^nnprised all that portion of North- 
urnhcrlaiKl county which lay we«tofthe North Branch, exc<*pt the 
s\\\y^\t lowtisfiip of Point. Within itH first dewcribed limits were 
three towiiHhips now in S<;huylkill «'-ounty, the whole of Montour, 
and the townwhipH of Chillisquaque, Turbot, LewiH and Delaware, 
now in Northumb<'rlari<l county. All this, itH cause and history 
will be more particiilarly referred to and given hereafter ; but it 
l»ec<jrneK necessary to state the fact here, because in giving some- 
what of th«! revolutionary history of the county, it is proposed to 
include' sketches of all the torts and military stations within its 
original Vjoundaries. 

It had at least t«!n such forts or military stations within its bor- 
ders, named and located as follows : 

Beginning on the North Brancli, we have "Fort Jenkins," loca- 
ted on Ja(;ob Hill's farm, near Briarcreek — "P'ort Wheeler," on 
I' i^liitigcreek. about three miles above its mouth — '"McClure's 
Fort," located just below Bloomsburg on the site of the Douglas 
Hughes farm buildings — "Fort Rice," on the hea^l wat^^rs of (Jhillis- 
<)iia<jue creek, about thirteen miles from Sunbury — -Montgomery's 
Fort, " twelve miles below Mun(-y, on the West Branch — "Bosley's 
Mills," on the Chillis<juaque, and supposed to be where the borough 
of Washingtonville now stands — "Freelands Fort," on the War 
rior I tun. between four and five miles above its mouth — "Boone's 
Mill,' said to be about seven miles from Fort Freeland, at the 
mouth of Muddy Run — "F'ort Swartz," situate about one mile 
al»<nf Milton — and "F'ort Meninger,"' at the mouth of Warrior 
Run. 

Bosi.KYs Mii.LH seems to have been an ira|K)rtant military station, 



i-j rrisfonr of voluMbia rorN^rr. 

stockaded and held by the neighborhood militia. The earliest 
information as to this post is of the date of August 10, 1778, in a 
letter from Col. Hartley to the Council of War. Speaking of the 
posts at Jenkins on Briarcreek, and Wallace's at Muncy, and at 
the head waters of Chillisquaipie which was no doubt Fort Rice, 
he adds : "I have a body in the Forks of C'heles(iua(iuc," which 
the maps show to be where the borough of Washingtonville 
stands, and was Bosley's Mills. The Chillis(|uaque and tlu' forks 
of that creek are very frequently mentioned, for the forts on that 
stream were in the line of )K)sts from Wyoming to Muncy. No- 
vember ;t, 1778, writing to the Executive Council the Colonel says : 
"The enemy have come down in force and invested Wyoming. 
They have burnt and destroyed all the settlements on the North 
East Branch as far as Nescopeck. Fort Jenkins where we liave 
a small garrison has supported itself for the present. About 70 
Indians were seen about 22 miles from here [Sunbury] yesterday 
evening, advancing towards the Forks of Chillis(|ua(jue, they took 
some prisoners yesterday. * * * j .j,,^ drawing some 
little force together, and to-morrow will endeavor to attack those 
Indians on Chillisipiaque, if they keep in a body and make a move- 
ment towards Fishingoreek, which will })robably be of use to the 
peo])leof Wyoming." The Colonel advanced to the relief of Wyo- 
ming, and on Noveml)er 14, was at Fort Jenkins. 

On the 26 of June, 1779, Capt. Thomas Kemplen was stationed 
with the few men under his command, at "Bosley's Mills on Chill- 
istjuaque." The letter conveying that information also mentions 
that the muster roll of Capt. Kem|)lin is enclosed, but it has not 
been preserved. It would be now a most interesting document. 
Fnder date of November 27, 177!', Col. Hunter recommends re- 
building Fort Muncy and putting in a garrison of one hundred 
men, twenty-five men at Fort Jenkins, and a "serjent's guard at 
Bosley's Mills on Chillisquake." At this time C-apt. Kemplen was 
stationed at Mineger's place on the West [>ranch about seventeen 
miles from Sunbury. Lieut. Col. Weltncr, under date of North- 
umberland, April 9, 1780, says : "I have manned three material 
outposts, viz : Fort Jenkins, Fort Montgomery, and Bosley's 
Mills." On the 14th of October, 1782. the Indians killed and 
scalped an old couple of the name of Martin, living on the Chillis- 
(piacpie about one mile and a half from Col. James Murray's, and 



IIISTOIIY OF COLUMBIA (JOUN^TY. l.^i 

took three young women prisonerH, being all the family that wsis 
in the house. "This old couple. Col. Hunter ^ays, being man and 
wife, I saw laying killed and scalped, and was one that helped to 
bury tlicrii." He complains bitterly of the pei-fidious enemy, and 
of the f-al.sehood of British assurances that no more parties of sav- 
ages should be permitted to be sent against the frontiers. He feais 
also that these murders will prevent settlers from returning, and 
adds that the Martin family had been back only a few days. After 
the summer of 17H0 we hear nothing more of Bosley's Mills, but it 
would seem that the post was maintained throughout the Indian 
hostilities. Of Cajit. Kemplin, who appears to have been a good 
and active officer the Hon. John B. Linn in his "Annals of Buffalo 
Valley." gives the following paragraph, [page 108]. "'In a letter 
to (ieneral I'otter, Colonel Hunter states that Captain Tliomas 
Kempling, as he writes it, and his eldest son were killed by the 
Indians at the mouth of Muncy Creek, in March 1781. In the pe- 
tition of his widow, who writes her name Mary Campleton, pre- 
sented to the Assembly, September 23, 1784, she says : My hus- 
band aud soji, with others, went on a tour of duty up the West 
Branch, early in the spring of 1781, and lying one night at the 
mouth of Muncy Creek, in the morning the savages carne on them, 
when my unfortunate husband and son with one William Camp- 
bell, fell a sacrifice to all the cruelties and barbarities that savages 
could irifiict, leaving your petitioner and six children. We were 
driven from house and home, and so reduced that I am unable to 
return to the place we had improved upon." 

Fort MoNT«;o.MKRr wa.s twelve miles below Fort Muncy, and 
about two miles from Bosley's Mill, and in November, 1779. there 
were forty men stationed there. The place is mentioned in a letter 
from CJol. Weltner to the Board of War, Dec. 13, 1779, as being 
well situated for the defense of the trtmtier, and that the detach- 
ment sent there had erected barracks and other necessary defenc^^. 
On the 0th of April, 1780, he writes again to the Board of War, 
and speaks of Montgomery's as a material out-post, which with 
Fort Jenkins and Bosley's Mills he had manned. After the latter 
date I do not tind the place again mentioned. 

FuRr Mknin<;kr, the place at which Capt. Kemplen was sta- 
tioned in November, 1779, is reported to have been at the mouth 



16 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

of Warrior's Run on the West Branch, about seventeen miles from 
Sunbury. At this time the Captain had but fourteen men. It is re- 
ported to have been a military post previously, and to have been 
abandoned in June 1779, when McDonald made his raid into the 
county. Nothing further seems to be known of its history. 

Fort Schwartz was located about one mile above Milton. The 
first mention of the place occurs in a letter from Colonel Hunter to 
President Reed, dated "Sunbury, 1 7th April 1780," in which be 
says . "Last Saturday a party of twenty Indians struck at Peter 
Swartz's plantation about twelve miles from here on the West 
Branch. They killed one man and wounded three which are now 
in this town under Dr. Alison's care." He adds that a party in 
pursuit came within sight of the enemy, who di'opt their packs and 
turned up the mountain, and so escaped. Between the above date 
and September 18, 1780, the place must have been fortified ; for 
under that date Gen. Potter writes from Sunbury, that on receiv- 
ing mformation of the attack on Fort Rice, he assembled some 
forces, and the next morning marched with 170 men to Fort 
Swarts. On the 21st of the same month Col. Hunter writes to 
President Reed and says : "When the German Regiment marched 
off from here I gave orders to the Frontier Companys to embody 
and keep one fourth of the men constantly reconnoitering, after 
garrisoning P^ort Jenkins, Fort Rice, and Fort Swartz with twenty 
men in each of them." 

Fort Rice is stated by Col. Sam Hunter to have been erected 
by Col. Weltner's troops on the head waters of C-hillisquake about 
thirteen miles from Sunbury. It is first mentioned by Col. Hart- 
ley in a letter to the Council of War, August 10, 1778, where 
speaking of maintaining posts at Muncy and Fort Jenkins, he adds 
that he "was resolved to hold posts at both these extremes, and 
have an intermediate one on the head waters of Chelesquaque." It 
seems not to have been molested for a considerable period of time, 
but it was attacked about the 6th of September, 1780. by 300 In- 
dians, who were repulsed by the 20 men by whom the fort was 
manned. In this attack on Fort Rice the enemy had killed but 
one man and taken one prisoner. It was at this time and by a por- 
tion of this force that P^ort Jenkins at Hill's place was burned, hav- 
ing been evacuated by Col. Hunter upon information of the con- 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 17 

toinplated attack on Fort Rice. Col. Hunter says "the enemy at- 
tacked the Fort, (Rice) about sundown and fired very smartly, the 
garrison returned the fire with spirit, which made them withdraw 
a little off, and in the night they begun to set fire to a number of 
houses and stacks of grain, which were consumed. In the mean- 
time our militia had collected to the number of one hundred men 
under the command of Col. John Kelly, who marched to the re- 
lief of the garrison, and arrived the next day. The people in the 
garrison acquainted Col. Kelly there must be two hundred and fifty 
or three hundred of the enemy, which he did not think prudent to 
engage without being reinforced." Expresses were sent out and 
Col. Purdy on the Juneate, turned his forces toward Sunbury, to 
engage in the pursuit of the enemy. Volunteers and militia to 
the number of several hundred poured into Sunbury. Gen. Potter 
coming to Sunbury at this time took command of the militia, hav- 
ing dismissed the vohmteers, and pursued the enemy. He marched 
on to Muncy hills, but did not find the route taken by the enemy 
till the 13th, and then followed on across the country, up P^ishing- 
creek, and to nearly opposite Wyoming, where the General writes, 
the enemy were found to be so far ahead as to make it useless to 
follow them. At the same time, he writes that another band 
"crossed the Moncey hill near one Eveses and went up the Moncey 
creek." 

Nothing further worthy of mention seems to have occurred at 
this post, until October 24, 1782, when it is related in a letter from 
Capt. Thomas Robison to the Executive Council, that Sergeant Ed- 
ward Lee and Robert Carrethers were sent out from Fort Rice as 
spies ; and when about two miles from the fort fell into an ambus- 
cade of about eleven Indians, were fired on, and Lee was killed 
and scalped- —Carrethers was missing and snpi)Osed to be taken 
prisoner. Subsequent mentions of Fort Rice are merely incidental. 

Boone's Fort was located about two miles above Milton on 
Muddy Run, and was about seven miles from Fort Freeland. The 
fort at Muncy having been evacuated, the Indians made an incur- 
sion in July 1770, and on the 3rd killed three men and took two 
prisoners at Lycoming — on the 8th burned the widow Smith's mill 
— on the 17th burned Starret's mill and all the principal houses in 
Muncy township — and on the 20th killed three men at Freeland's 



IS HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Fort and took two prisoners. Col. Hunter writes "that unless 
succour arrives, the forts at Freehand's and Boone's cannot stand 
long, but that he has never seen the people behave more spiritedly." 
At that time every thing above Muncy Hill was al)andoned, and 
the scouting and scalping parties of the Indians having driven in 
all the inhabitants, gathered themselves together and on the 23th. 
of July a large party of British and Indians attacked Fort Free- 
land. The firing was heard at Boone's, and Capt. Boone and 
Capt. Kemplen marched off with thirty-four men to reinforce the 
fort at Freeland's. Before they arrived it had surrendered, and a 
detachment of the enemy met the company under Capt. Boone 
at a little distance from the fort and cut them to pieces. It is re- 
lated that the enemy were within the fort, the women and chil- 
dren being outside and unguarded, and Capt. Boone thus fell into 
the ambuscade, thinking nothing wrong. The women made signs 
to him to retire, but it was too late. Though surprised, the thirty- 
four men fought desperately, and Col. McDonald, the British 
commander, long after, spoke of Capt. Boone and his heroic 

bravery. . 

The following are the names of the killed belonging to Capt. 
Boone's party : Capt. Boone, Capt. S. Dougherty, J. M. Mc- 
Glaghlen, Natt Smith, John Jones, Ezra Green, Samuel Neel, M. 
W. McClintock, Hugh McGill, Andrew Woods and Edward Cost- 

ikan. 

These are all the names of killed which are given, but another 
account says that thirteen scalps of Capt. Boone's party, were 
i,rought into the fort in a handkerchief, Capt. Boone's among 
them; and Col. Hunter writes under date of "August ye 4th., 1779,' 
that there were of the relieving force, fifteen killed and two 
wounded. William Maclay writes on the 5th. of August, that 
none of Boone's men were made prisoners. The list above given 
is furnished by Matt'w Smith, who says: "This acct. I Believe is 
the Fact as the party out yesterday have Bury'd the Dead, gave 
me the List." 

Nothing further appears relative to this out-post, though it was 
doubtless maintained as such so long as danger from roaming 
bands of Indians made such points of refuge necessary. 

Fort Fbkei.and was situated about four miles up Warriors 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 19 

run, which eini)ties into the Susquehanna about five miles above 
Milton. It is said by Col. Hunter to be "a little fort near Muncy 
hill, called Fort Freeland." It was six and a half miles north of 
Milton, and half a mile from Warrior's Run Presbytei'ian church. 
It is first spoken of as a fort in 1770. There was a gristmill 
built near there by Jacob Freeland in 1773 or 1774. The Free- 
land two story log dwelling house, which constituted the fort, 
seems to have l)een picketed in the fall of 1778. It contained 
within the i)ickets half an acre of gi-ound. Tlie timbers were set 
close and were about twelve feet high. The PVeeland 
party were from Essex county, New Jersey. On the 20111. 
of Ajtril 1779, a scouting party of Indians killed or captured 
seven of the militia men stationed there, but it was iu)t until the 
28th. of July following that the real attack on the Fort was made. 
There were at the time forty or fifty women and children in the 
fort, and by some accounts thirty-two men, and by others only 
twenty-one. At daybreak on the 28th. of July 1779, a party of 
about three hundred, consisting of British and Indians, com- 
manded by Cajjt. McDonald, surrounded the fort. There was 
but little ammunition, and Mary Kirk and Phebe Vincent inmie- 
diately commenced to run their spoons and plates into bullets. 
The distress of the women and children and the want of ammu- 
nition made successful resistance hopeless, and about nine o'clock 
a fiag of truce was raised. John Little and John Vincent con- 
(bicted the negotiations, and after consultation agreed u})on the 
following articles: 

AuricLKs OK C.vprm.ATioN, Four Frkki.and 1779. — Articles of 
capitulation ent'd into Between Capt'n. John McDaniel on his 
Majesties ])art and John Little on that of the Congress. 

Aurici.K 1st. Tlie men in (Tarrison to March out and Ground 
their .Vrms in the green, in front of the fort, which is to be taken 
in Possession of immediately by his ^Majesty's Troops. Agreed 
too. 

2dly. All .Men Bearing .Vrnis are to Surrender themselves Pris- 
oners of war and to be sent to Niagara. Agr'd too. 

3d. The Women and Children not to be Strip'd of their cloath- 
ing nor Molested by the Indians and to be at Liberty to Move 
down the country where they Please. Agr'd too. 

JoHX MoDoXAI.I), 

Capt. of Rangers. 
John Litti.k. 



20 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Col. Samuel Hunter, under date of " Suuhury August ye 4th. 
1779," gives the following graphic account : "There Avas in the 
garrison at the time twenty-six men and fifty women and children, 
who is all come in safe ; the fireing at Freeland's was heard at 
Boon's Mill, about seven miles distance, where a number of the 
inhabitants had collected. Captains Boon and Kemplen march- 
ed off witli thirty-four men to reinforce the Fort at Freeland's, 
but was met a little way on this side by a number of the savages 
who surrounded them immediately ; our men behaved with great 
bravery for some little time, but being overpowered by numbers 
was almost cut to pieces ; our loss there was fifteen killed and 
two wounded. Among the dead is Capt. Boon and Capt. Saml. 
Dougherty, two very good men." 

It was after the surrender of the fort that Capt. Boone's party 
came uj), so many of whom were uselessly slaughtered by the en- 
emy. 

In the fort but five men were killed, viz : James Watts, John 
McClintock, William McClung, James Miles and Henry Gilfillen. 
Thirteen scalps of Capt. Boone's party were brought into the fort 
in a pocket handkerchief. Among them was Capt. Boone's. 

The whole garrison left the fort by twelve o'clock, and the wo- 
men and children reached Northumberland, about eighteen miles 
distant, that night, not having eaten a bite during the 
whole day. Col. Smith writes to President Reed from 
Sunbury, August 3rd, 1770, that he is there "with sixty Paxtang 
boys and intends to follow the savages. He reports that fifty 
two women and children and four old men came safely from Fort 
Freeland. He says the distress of the people is great — the town 
now composes Noithumberland county — houses, barns, wheat, 
stacks of hay, all is consumed. Such devastation he has not yet 
seen. The surrender of Fort Freeland and the defeat and death 
of Capt. Boone left every thing exposed." Col. Hunter writes 
under date of July 29th, "The town of Northumberland was the 
frontier last night, and I am afraid Sunbury will be to night," 
And he begs for assistance, as well he might, seeing the helpless 
women and children flying down the river, many of the husbands 
and fathers slain, and those yet alive going off into hopeless cap- 
tivity. 

It would be interesting now to know who were taken prisoners, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 21 

and wlio returned from the captivity. We have only the names 
of Beujaiuiu Vincent, Michael Freeland, Bethuel Vincent, Daniel 
Vincent and Capt. John Little. 

Daniel Vincent had been married a short time before he was 
taken prisoner,to Miss Angelica Heuff of New Jersey. Upon the 
capture of lier husband she returned to the home of her parents, 
and for a period of something like four years, heard nothing from 
him. One evening she was out with a sleighing party, and hav- 
ing stopped at a tavern, a roughly dressed stranger happening 
there, inquired if a Mrs. Vincent lived in that vicinity. She was 
pointed out to him, whereupon he introduced himself to her notice, 
and soon convinced her that he was her long lost husband. The 
hilarity of the party was doubtless much increased by this unex- 
pected but joyful reunion; which as I aju informed by a de.'icend- 
ant, took place at the tavern, and not, as reported, after the party 
had broken up and on the return home. 

Capt. Little returned to find his wife, deceived by false infor- 
mation of his deatii in captivity, inavric(l to another man. Ex- 
planations ensued. Letters detailing liis death were })roved to 
have been received, their falsehood was evident — the false hus- 
band Med the country, and the })air so long and cruelly separated 
were re-united. 

To tins sketch of Freeland's Fort I add a most interesting and 
graphic narrative of Benjamin Patterson, the hunter, published in 
Judge Mc Master's History of Steuben county. He says : At the 
Mkirmish of Freeling's Fort in 1779, he and his younger brother 
Robert fought in the party of Capt. Hawkins Boone, and narrow- 
ly escai)ed with their lives. Freeling's Fort on the West Branch 
of the Susquehanna, had been taken by a i)arty of Tories and 
Lidians, the former under the connnand of McDonald, a noted 
loyalist of Tryon county in New York, and the latter led by 
Hiakatoo, the husband of Mary Jennison, the white woman. Capt- 
Boone's party of thirty two, volunteered to scout in the neighbor- 
hood of the ca}>tured Fort, and to attack the enemy if it could be 
I advantageously done. They advanced cautiously and succeeded 
in concealing themselves in a cluster of bushes overlooking the 
<;ami» of the enemy. Both Tories and Indians were engaged in 
cooking or eating, while a single sentinel, a Hne tall savage, with 
I a blanket drawn over his head, walkeil slowlv to and fro. Boone's 



22 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

men commenced firing by platoons of six. The sentry sprang in- 
to the air with a whoop and fell dead. The enemy yelling fright- 
fully ran to arms and opened a furious but random fire at their 
unseen foes. Their Ijullets rattled through the bushes where 
Boone's men lay hid, but did no mischief. The slaughter of In- 
dians and tories was dreadful. The thirty two rangers firing 
rapidly and coolly by sixes, with the unerring aim of frontiers- 
men, shot down one hundred and fifty (so the story runs) before 
the enemy broke and fled. Boone's men with strange indiscretion, 
rushed from their covert in pursuit, and immediately exposed their 
weakness of numbers. Hiakutoo with his Indians made a circuit 
and attacked them in the rear, while McDonald turned ujion their 
front. They were surrounded. "Save yourselves, men, as you 
can," cried Capt. Boone. The enemy closed with tomahawks and 
spears. This part of the fight occurred in the midst of the woods. 
The rangers broke through their foes and fled with such success 
that many escaped, but their Captain and more than half his men 
were killed. 

Patterson further relates the particulars of his own escape, with 
others of the rangers, and their pursuit by a party of the enemy, 
while on the return trip to Niagara. 

The discrepancies in these several narratives are in a great 
measure reconciled by the fact that each writer told what he saw 
and knew, without observing what was the condition of affairs at 
other [)oints; and having no persons with whom to compare and 
correct their respective remembrances. But the killing of one 
hundred and fifty Indians and Tories at Fort Freeland on that 
occasion seems to need confirmation, and is certainly not sustained 
by any authority which I have consulted. "The hunter" seems to 
liave been drawing upon his imagination. 

McClure's Fort vv.ms located on the North Branch of the Sus- 
quehanna, "on the farm of Mrs. McClure, about one mile above 
the mouth of Fishiugoeek." It was built by Lieut. Moses Van 
Campen in 1781, and occupied tlie exact site of the present dwell- 
ing house on th^ farm of Douglas Hughes, below Blooiusburg. Sev- 
eral families had settled along th(i rivtr andon theFishingcreek and 
this was a central point for the dai ing Indian fighter. Hei e he gathi r 
ed his stores, and from this point proceeded on his excm-sions through 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 23 

the wooils. It was while he held his headquarters at McClure's 
Fort, which was no doubt a pleasant rendezvous to him, as he 
married a daughter of Mr. James McClure subsequently, that news 
was brought him of the assembling of a body of three hundred 
Indians at Sinnemahonitig, with the intention of making a de- 
scent on the frontier. They were to divide into small parties and 
fall upon all the settlements on the same day. Lieut. Van Cam- 
pen communicated the intelligence to Col. Hunter, who selected a 
party of five to go out in disguise, reconnoitre and ascertain their 
movements. The company consisted of Capt. Campbell, Peter 
Grovf. Michael Grove, Lieut. Cranmer and Lieut. Van Canipen. 
It was call'-d the Grove party and was under th^- command of 
Van Campeii. Thi-< statement made in the life of Van Camf»en is 
corroborated i'l a 1 -tter from C ipt. Robirison, t> whose company 
Van Campen belonged, in a letter to President Reed, dated Sep- 
ternber 8th., 1781. The expedition was highly successful, and 
soon after the return from the Sinnemahoning, the Lieutenant 
returned to his headquarters at McClure's fort, and entered again 
upon the service of conducting scouts around the line of the 
settlements. No further mention is made of the fort. Van Cam- 
pen was made prisoner in the spring of 1782, about the Bald 
Eagle creek on the West Branch, and was not paroled until near 
January 1783, and upon his exchange he was ordered to Wilkes- 
Barre, where and above which post, he remained until November 
1783, when the Treaty of Peacn was ratified and the army dis- 
banded. Mr. James McClure was dead, and the family was then 
living near Northumberland. Major Van Campen followed, and 
McClure's was again his headquarters. He remained with the 
McClure family and tarm for several years, and then removed to 
Briarcreek where he remained for five yea's, whence in 1795 he 
removed to the state of Nfw York. He died in Livingstni 
county between 1845 ajtd 1850, aired nearly ninety years. I find 
no ace 'unt of any adventures or any hair breadth escapes related 
about th's fort, and if there is a tradition of any I should be glad 
to ha-e it put m writing. 

WiiKr-'.i.Ku's Fort. In the spring of 1778 Lieut. Van Campen 
was in connnand under Col. Hunter, of a comj)any of six months 
men, raised for the protection of the frontiers, and with these h 



24 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

was ordered to proceed up the North Branch of the Susquehanna 
to the mouth of Fishingcreek, and following up this three miles 
to a compact settlement located in that region, build a fort for 
the protection of the inhabitants. He selected for a site the farm 
of a Mr. Wheeler, whence it was called Wheeler's Fort. It was 
built with stockades, and was sufficiently large to accommodate 
all the families in the neighborhood. Before the fort was entirely- 
completed, a runner brought word of an approaching band of In- 
dians. The inhabitants lied to the fort, and their houses and 
barns and grain and furniture were delivered up by the savages 
to the devouring flames. Then the fort was attacked, but it held 
out against them. By evening the ammunition being nearly ex- 
pended, Van Canipen sent two men to Fort Jenkins, about eight 
miles off, on the river at Hill's place for a supply. They return- 
ed before morning amply provided, and the remainder of the 
night was spent in running bullets and preparing for a renewal of 
the fight on the approaching day. The attack was not resumed. 
This was in May, 1778. "What loss they sustained we could not 
ascertain, as they carried off all the dead and wounded, though, 
from the marks of blood on the ground, it must have been consid- 
erable. The inhabitants who took shelter in the fort had built a 
yard for their cattle at the head of a small flat at a short distance 
from the fort, and one evening in the month of June, just as they 
were milking them, my sentinel called my attention to some 
movement in the brush, which I soon discovered to be Indians 
making their way to the cattle yard. There w^as no time to be 
lost — I immediately selected ten of my sharp-shooters, and under 
cover of a rise of land got between them and the milkers. On as- 
cending the ridge we found ourselves wuthin pistol shot of them 
— I fired first, and killed the leader, but a volley from my men 
did no further execution, the Indians running off at once. In the 
mean time the milk pails flew in eveiy direction, and the best 
runner got to the fort first. The poor cattle equally frightened, 
leaped the fence and ran off in every direction into the woods, 
with their tails in the air and bellowing at a most terrible rate. 
It was, continues Van Canqjen, a scene of confusion as wild, and 
to us Avho knew there was no danger, as laughable as can well be 
imagined. But though it w^as an amusing scene to us ; to the 
timid women and girls it was a serious fright, for when we return- 



IIISTOEY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 25 

ed, we found them trembling with agitation, and their faces [tale 
from fear. Yet they soon recovered their accustomed feelings, 
and as soon as they learned that there was no danger, were ready 
to laugh with us at the display which they had made of their 
bravery." 

Wm. Maclay writes to President Reed from Sunbury, April 2, 
1780. "I will not trouble you with the distress of this county. 
They will no doubt be painted to the council in lively colors, and 
indeed the picture cannot be ovei'charged, nor should I at this 
time write to you, but foi- a strong belief and persuasion that a 
body of Indians are lodged about the head of Fishing and INIuncy 
creeks. They were with us to the very beginning of the deep 
snow last ja'ar, they are with us now before that snow is quite 
gone. This country might be examined. This is what we wish. 
Many of our hmiters who went late last fall into that country 
(which is a fine one for hunting) were so alarmed with constant 
reports of guns, which they could not believe to be white men's 
that they returned suddenly back. We are not strong enough to 
spare men to examine this country and dislodge them." Mr. 
Maclay's conclusion seems to have been correct. But the inhal)i- 
tants in and about Fort Wheeler do not appear to have had any 
apprehensions of danger, and early in the spring began to return 
to their farms. The only narrative we have of that raid upon our 
settlements is the one given by Lieut. Van Campen, which is here 
added : "My father's house having been burned in the Indian de- 
predations of 1778, he requested me to go with him and a younger 
brother to our farm, about four miles distant, to make prepara- 
tions for building another, and raising some grain. But little a]»- 
prehension was entertained of molestations from the Indians this 
season, they had been so completely routed the year before. We 
left the fort about the last of March, accompanied by my uncle 
and his son, al)out twelve years old, and one Peter Pence. We 
had been on our farm about four or five days, when on the morn- 
ing of the 30th. of March, we were surprised by a party of ten 
Indians. My father was lunged through with a war-spear, his 
throat was cut and he was scali)ed, while my brother was toma- 
hawked, scalped and thrown into the fire before my eyes. While 
I was struggling with a warrior, the fellow who had killed my 
father drew his spear from his body and made a violent thrust at 



26 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

me. I shrunk from the s]>ear, and the savage who had hold of 
me turned it with his hand, so that it only penetrated my vest and 
shirt. They were then satisfied with taking me prisoner, as they 
had the same morning taken ray uncle's little son and Pence, 
though they killed my uncle. The same party, before they reach- 
ed us, had touched on the lower settlements of Wyoming, and 
killed a Mr. Upson, and took a boy prisoner by the name of Ro- 
gers. We were now marched off up Fishingcreek, and in the af- 
ternoon we came to Huntington, where the Indians found four 
white men at a sugar camp, Avho fortunately discovered the In- 
dians and lied to a house. Having encamped and made their fire, 
we, the prisoners, were tied and well secured, five Indians lying 
on one side of us and five on the other ; in the morning they pur- 
sued their course, and leaving the waters of Fishingcreek, 
touched the head waters of Hunlock's Creek, where they foiind 
one Abraham Pike, his wife and child. Pike was made prisoner, 
but his wife and child they painted and told Joggo Squaw, "go 
home." They continued their course that day and encamped the 
same night in the same manner as the day previous. It came into 
my inind that soinetimes individuals performed wonderful actions 
and surmounted the greatest dangers. I then decided that these 
fellows must die, and thought of the plan to dispatch them. The 
next day I had an opi)Ortunity of communicating my plan to my 
fellow-prisoners. They treated it as a visionary scheme for three 
men to attempt to dispatch ten Indians. I spread before them 
advantages that three men would have over ten when asleep ; and 
that we would be the first prisoners that would be taken into 
their towns and villages after our army had destroyed their corn, 
that we should be tied to the stakes and suffer a cruel death. We 
had now an inch of ground to fight on, and if we failed it would 
only be death, and we might as well die one way as another. 
That day passed away, and having encamped for the night we lay 
as before. In the morning we came to the river and saw their 
canoes up Little Tunkhannock Creek, so called ; they crossed the 
river and set their canoes adrift. I renewed my suggestions to 
dispatch them that night and urged that they must decide the 
question. Disarm them and each take a tomahawk and come to 
close work at once. There are three of us ; plant our blows with 
judgment, and three times three will make nine, and the tenth 



II 



ni;STORY OF COLVMBIA COUNTY. 21 

one we can kill at our leisure. They agreed to disarm them, and 
after that take possession of the guns and fire at the one side of 
the four, and the other two take tomahawks on the other side and 
kill them. I observed that \Aould be a very uncertain way, the 
first shot fired would give the alarm, they would discover it to be 
the prisoners, and might defeat us. I had to yield to their plan. 
Peter Pence was chosen to fire the guns, Pike and myself to tom- 
ahawk ; we cut and carried plenty of wood to give them a good 
fire. The prisoners were tied and laid in their places. After I 
was laid down one of the Indians had occasion to use his knife ; 
he dropped it at my feet, and I turned my foot over it and concealed 
it ; they all lay down and fell asleep. About midnight I got u}> 
and found them in sound sleej). T slij)ped to Pence, who rose j 
cut him loose and handed him the knife ; he did the same for me 
ami I in turn took the knife and cut Pike loose, and in a minute's 
time we disarmed them. Pence took his station at the guns. 
Pike and myself with our tomahawks took our stations ; I was to 
tomahawk three on the right wing and Pike two on the left. 
That moment Pike's two awoke and were getting up. Here Pike 
proved a coward, and laid down. It was a critical moment, and 
I saw there was no time to be lost ; their heads turned up fair ; I 
dispatched them in a moment, and turned to my lot as per agree- 
ment, and as I was about to kill the last on my side. Pence shot 
and did good execution. There was only one at the off wing 
that his ball did not reach ; his name was Mohaw^ke, a stout, bold, 
daring fellow. In the alarm he jumped off about three rods from 
the fire ; he saw it was the prisoners that made the attack, giving 
the war-whoo}>. He darted to take possession of the guns ; I was 
quick to i)revent him — the contest was then between him and 
myself. As I raised my tomaliawk he turiu'd quick to junq) from 
me ; I followed him, struck at him, but missing his head my tom- 
ahawk stuck in his shoulder, or rather the back of his neck ; he 
pitched forward and fell — at the same time my foot sliiijied. and 
I fell full length by his side ; we clinched, his arm was naked ; 
he caught me around my neck, at the same time I caught him 
with my left arm around the body, and gave him a close hug, at 
the same time feeling for his knife, but could not reach it. 

In our scuflle my tomahawk dropped out. My head was under 
the wounded shoulder, and almost suffocated me with his blood. 



28 III^TOEY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

I made a violent spring, and Vn'oke from his hold ; we both rose 
at the same time, and he ran ; it took me some time to clear the 
blood from my eyes ; my tomahawk was covered up, and I could 
not find it in time to overtake him ; he was the only one of the 
party that esca[)ed. Pike was })owerless. I always have had a 
deference for christian devotion. Pike was trying to pray, and 
Pence swearing at him, charging him Avith cowardice, and say- 
ing it was no time to pray — he ought to fight ; we were niasters 
of the ground, and in possession of all their guns, blankets, 
match coats, &c. I then turned my attention to scalping 
them, and recov<iing the scalps of my father, brother, and others. 
I strung them all on my belt for safe keeping, We kept our 
ground till morning, and built a raft, it being near the bank of the 
river where they liad encamp- d, about fifteen miles below Tioga 
Point; vve got all our plunder on it, and set sail for Wyoming, the 
ne;ire.->t settleni'Mi'. Our raft gave way, when we made for land, 
and we lost C'lnsiderable jjioperty, though we saved our guns and 
amnuuiition, and took to land; we reached Wyalusing late in the 
aft-Tiu^on. C uii ' to the narrows, di:<covered a smoke below, a 
raft lying at the shore, by which we were certain that a party of 
Indians had passed us in the course of the day, atul halted for the 
nighl. There was no alternative for us but to rout them, or go 
over tlie mountain ; the snow on the north side of the hill was 
dee}) ; we knew from the api)earance of the raft that the party 
must be small ; we had two rifles each ; my only fear was of 
Pike's cowardice. To know the worst of it we agreed that I 
should ascertain their number and give the signal for the attack ; 
I crept down the side of the hills so near as to see their fires and 
packs, but saw no Indians. I concluded they had gone hunting 
for meat, and that this was a good opportunity for us to make off 
with their raft to the opposite side of the river. I gave the sig- 
nal ; they came and threw their packs on the raft, which was 
made of small, dry pine timl)er; with poles and paddles we drove 
her bi-iskly aci'oss the river, and had got nearly out of reach of 
shot, when two of them came in ; we soon got under cover of an 
island, and went several miles ; we had waded deep creeks through 
the day ; the night was cold ; we lauded on an island and found 
a sink hole, in which we made our fire ; after warming we were 
alarmed by a cracking in the crust ; Pike supi)Osed the Indians 



JlItiTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 29 

had got on the island, and was for calling for quarters ; to keep 
him quiet we threatened him witli his life; the stepping grew 
plainer, and seemed coming directly to the fire ; I kept a watch, 
and soon a noble raccoon came under the light. I shot the rac- 
coon, when Pike jumped up and called out, "Quarters, gentlemen ; 
(piartei-s, gentlemen." I took my game by the leg and threw it 
down to the fire. "Here, you cowardly rascal," I cried, "skin that 
and give us a roast for supper." The next day we reached Wyo- 
ming, and there was much joy to see us ; we rested one day, and 
it being not safe to go to Northumberland by land, we procured a 
canoe, and with Pence and my cousin, we descended the river by 
night ; we came to Fort Jenkins before day, when I found Col. 
Kelly and about one hundred men encam])ed out of the foit ; he 
came across from the west branch by the heads of Chillisquaque 
to Fishingcreek, the end of the Knob Mountain, so called at that 
day, where my father and brother were killed ; he had buried my 
father and uncle, my brother was burnt, a part of him only Mas to 
be found. Col. Kelly informed me that my mother and her chil- 
dren were in the fort, and it was thought that I was killed like- 
wise. Colonel Kelly went into the fort to prepare her mind to 
see me ; I took off my belt of scalps and handed them to an officer 
to keep. Human nature was not sufficient to stand" the interview. 
She had just lost a husband and son, and one had returned to 
take her by the hand, and one, too, that she su[)posed was killed. 

FoKT Jkxkins was built on the farm of Jacob Hill, about six 
miles above Bloomsburg, and about twenty rods from the river. 
The fort was probably a dwelling house originally built by the 
man after whom the fort was named, for Mr. Hill says that a low 
j)lace where he built his house was said to be the cellar of a house 
l)uilt by Jenkins. It is first mentioned as a fort in a letter of 
August 0th 1778, addressed to Lieut. Col. Zebulon Butler by Col. 
Haitley : he says — "I have established a post and a work is built 
at one Jenkins' about six miles below the Niscopeck Falls. There 
is now a garrison there which is to be strengthened to-raoiTOW; 
when I am reinforced my wish is to extend our post to Wioming — 
should you not think yourself able to maintain yourself at Wio- 
ming, you are to march your troops to Jenkins' Fort, at the place 
I have mentioned." In a letter from Col. Hartley to the Council 



;^0 IfhSTOR Y OF COL UMBIA CO UNT Y. 

of War, ihiU'ii Simbury, August lOlh. 1778, he says: — "All the 
people of the West Branch above Wallace's (who lives near Mun- 
cv) had tied and evacuated their settlements — so on the North- 
east Branch, all above Nescopeck Falls were gone I was re- 
solved to hold posts at both these extremes, and have an interme- 
diate one on the head waters of Chellesquaciue— tlure had been a 
small work began near one Jenkinse-i about five miles from Nesco- 
pi'ck Falls, near Briaicrtek, this I have garrisoned.'' In Novem 
ber, 1778, information was brouglit to Col. Hartley that the 
Indians were in force about Wyoming, and that another b:ind was 
moving tovvards the forks of the Cliillisqiiaque and had taken 
some ])risoners. He says : — "I am drawing some little force 
togetlur and to-morrow will endeavor to attack those Indians on 
the Chillisquaque if they keep in a body and make a movement 
towards Fishingcreek, whidi will probably be of use to the p( ople 
of Wyoming." The ent-my does not seem to have approached the 
settlements on the Chillisquaciue and the Fishingcreek, owing 
doubtless to the Colonel's promptness ; and on the 14th of Novem- 
ber he writes to the Council from "Fort Jenkins, near Nescopeck :" 
"•The etiemy are in force between here and Wyoming. Tliey seem 
very intent on plunder, by their desolations near this place ; they 
expected the Frontiers to give way, but the good countenance of 
this garrison has saved all belovv." In April, 1770, INfr. INFaclay 
writes that "Massacres and deprelations have been committed at 
Wioming, Foit Jenkins, Fishingcreek [Fort AVheeler], Freeland's 
Mill, Fort Muncy and Loyal Sock, almost at one and the same 
time." And Lieut. Hunter writts on April '27111 that on the Sun- 
day preceding, the Indians attacked the inhabitants near Fort 
Jenkins and had taken two or three families prisoners, but about 
thirty men from the fort turned out and rescued them. The 
Indians, however, drove them under cover of the fort with a loss 
of three killed and four badly wounded. They burned the houses, 
killed the cattle and drove off a number of horses. In May 1779 
there was a family of four persons killed and scalped on the North 
Branch opi)Osife to Fort Jenkins. Nothing of their name or his- 
tory has come to my knowledge. In July following. Col. Hartley 
moved his regitnent towards Wyoming and left Fort Muncy and 
Fort Jenkins vacant. But in November Lieut. Hunter proposes 
to send 25 men to Fort Jenkins for "the sui)port of the distressed 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 31 

iiihal/itants." Col. Lund. Weltner writes to the Board of War, 
December 13, 1779, in reference to the posture of several fortH on 
his taking command : — "I found Fort Muncy on the West and 
Fort Jenkins on the East Branch, with the magazine at Sunbury, 
to have been the only standing posts that were occupied." In 
March, 1780, another raid was made, the Indians carrying away 
seven or eight prisoners from about two miles above the fori, 
and in writing of it Lieut, Hunter sayB : — "Now we have but 
about 30 men at Fort Jenkins which was not able to spare men 
enough out of the garrison to pursue ihe enemy that carried off 
the prisoners " Who they were I have not been able to ascertain. 
The few men at the fort were unable to maintain it. It was <l;uly 
becoming moie insecure. The Indians weix' gathering round and 
the terriHt'd inhiil)itanls were fleeing for tlieir lives. They setin t(^ 
have stretigtheuL-d the place shoitly afler, for, on the 9th of Apiil, 
1780, wiiting from Northumberland, Col. Weltner says: — "I have 
manned three material out posts, viz. Fort Jenkins, Fort Mont- 
gomery and Bosley's Mills." 

In September, 1780, a descent was made by about 300 Indians 
and Tories, and an attack made on P'ort Rice, on the upi>er Chil- 
lisquaque, which was repulsed ; but the Indians burned and de- 
stroytd ever} tiling in their power along the whole frontier, and 
Lieut. Hunter hearing of the advance on P^oit Rice, ordered the 
evacuation of Fort Jenkins, which, with all the buildings about it, 
was burned by tlie detachment of the enemy which moved up the 
North liranch. It seems never to have been rebuilt. Mr. Jacob 
Hill furnishes the following information in relation to P^ort 
Jenkins: — '"Its location was about twenty rods from the river, and 
about half the distance from the North Branch canal. It stood 
upon the very spot upon which my house now stands, "^rhere are 
no remains left above ground, but I think there might be some 
piects of the logs buiicd in the ground. There is a very low spot 
between my house and barn which is said to have been the well 
inside the fort. There is also another such a spot near my house, 
and about four rods from the former, which is said to be the cel- 
lar of a house built by Jenkins, and in digging the cellar for my 
house my hands found a quantity of stone which I took to be the 
foundation of some building, among which were some brick of 
rather singulai dimensions about four or five feet under ground. 



32 HI.STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

I well recollect when the poets of the fort stuck out of the ground, 
bat they can no more be seen. The posts were oak. The fields 
in the vicinity are scattered with arrows such as Indians use. 
This is all I can tell you about it. There has been so much build- 
ing upon and around this spot that all marks of the fort are 
almost invisible." 

This is all the information concerning the forts in Columbia 
county which I am able to present here, but this is enough to 
stimulate inquiry and produce additional history of them, if any 
exists, not already in print. In his "Annals of Luzerne county," 
the Hon. Stewart Pearce mentions a "Fort Freedly, on the North 
Branch, below Uloomsburg," and in another place speaks of it as 
"Fort Freedley, near Bloomsburg, where Capt. Boone and others 
were slain." It is most evident that Mr. Pearce is mistaken. 
There was no Fort Freedley neai" Bloomsburg, and the fort where 
Boone was killed was Fort Freeland, on Warrior s liun. Mr. 
Pearce also says that Capt. Walker erected Fort Jenkins, and 
charges that Van Campen claims that honor. Certainly no such 
claim is made in the ''Life of Van Campen," and I cannot account 
for the inadvertence. Mr. Pearce asserts that Fort Muncy was 
built by Capt. Walker. It was so built in 1778, under Col. Hart- 
ley, but it was also as certainly abandoned and substantially de- 
stroyed, and remained so, in December, 1779. Maj. Van Campen 
says tliat in March, 1782, at the head of Capt. Robinson's com- 
pany he was ordered "to march to a place called Muncy, and there 
rebuild a fort which had been destroyed by the Indians in the 
year 1779." I see no reason to question Major Van. Campen's 
veracity in this matter. He was certainly with Capt. Robinson in 
June 1781, and in September 1781, and in April 1782 Col. Hunter 
writes to Vice President Potter that Captain Robinson is then at 
Muncy and is rei)airing the Fort. Besides, Van Campen's Nar- 
rative was written and published at a time when, if false, it could 
and would have been contradicted by many a living witness. I 
am furnished with the following letter by a gentleman who shows 
himself competent to speak on the sul)ject: "You are no doubt 
aware that certain sapient historians have endeavored to make 
Abraham Pike the Hero of the killing of the Indian captors in- 
stead of the hated and despised Pennamite, Van Campen. Abra- 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 33 

ham Pike was a rather worthless fellow, doing but little good for 
himself and still less to others, wandering around from house to 
house retailing his Munchausen tales, thereby securing his whisky, 
bread, and a warm corner by the lire, on the strength of his won- 
derful exploits as related by himself. I have heard an incident re- 
lated of him for which at this distant <hiy I cannot vouch. He had 
procured the services of some one of the many "historians" of the 
Wyoming Valley to write hL» "memoirs"; the ready writer pro- 
ceeded until he came to a ciwe of sheep stealing in which Pike 
had been engaged; the writer as an honest man insisted upon in- 
serting the transaction, while Pike swore roundly that it should 
not be put down, which cut tlie "memoirs" of this wonderful man 
sliort, and <leprived the worhl at large of a full knowledge of his 
heroic deeds. My father was well acciuainted with the boy Rod- 
jrrs, who Van Campen relates was captured from the Wyoming 
(•ttlements and was present at the killing of the Indians. He told 
the same story that Van Campen did, and furthermore said he 
did not contradict Pike unless specially appealed to, as the poor 
old fellow's whisky and living depended in a great measure upon 
his self glorification. Pike died as he lived, a pauper. The ab- 
surdity of Pike's claim to killing the Indians in ordinary times 
\v<juld have been hooted at, but at that time the passions of Y^an- 
kee and Pennamite ran so high that almost any tale reflecting to 
the discredit of the Pennamite was received without question. 
.Moses Van Campen was a man of considerable aliility, great ener- 
.;;y and undouV)ted courage, as is seen and proved by his being 
chosen to command in such dangerous times, and his continuance in 
positions requiring courage and ability. His friends and associates 
were mostly men of daring courage, among them old Colonel 
Salmon and others of our county, who wouhl never have counte- 
nanced a man with the slightest tinge of cowardice in a }josition 
of command". 

It may be as well to add here, u|»()ii the general subject of these 
forts, the following extract from a letter of Col. Weltner to the 
Board of War, dated Sunl>ury, Deceml>er IStli, 1779. He says: 

"On my being ordered down from Wyoming the first considera- 
ti(jn which engaged my attention with regard to posting the 
troops under my command was to find what position Col. Hartley 
and the other gentlemen who had preceded me in this command 



34 



lll.sroin' OF CO TAT MB I A COUNTY. 



Ii;i(l lakoii. I found Fort Mimcy on the West and Fort Joiikiiis 
on (lie Fast Hrancli witli tlu' mao^a/.inc at Sunbury to havo been 
tlu' only slandinu; posts tliat wcri' occiiiiiod. This position (wliicli 
I havo nrvcr sinco heard censured) I endeavored to revive. Col. 
Hunter whom I eonstdtod was of (he same opinion; Ihe only dif- 
iieulty was to fix on some place (Mpially well adapted to cover the 
frontier as Fort Muney was; Fort Muney having been evacuated 
;iii(l destroyed — MeClnng's wsis agreed on, and a, det;ichnient of 
the troo])S accordingly took ])ost there tlie r)th of hist niontli. 
The troops, l\owever, found this ])lacc so void of s]ielt(>r an<l so 
barren of timber that tJiey were obliged to abandon it, the in- 
formation given to council of the def(>nces erected at this place 
bi'ing totally false and groundless. ''I'his detaclunent accordingly 
moved to a, ])lace called Montgomei'y's, nearer to Bosley's Mill and 
eipially well situated for the defentn' of the frontier as McClung's. 
At this jtlace. the troojts having erected barracks and other neces- 
sary d(>fences, and their vicinity to liosley's Mill being not more 
than about two miles distant, makes another ])ost thert' (ptite un- 
lU'cessary at ]»resent." 




niSTOILY OF (JO LC Aim A CO (J NT) 



cHAi'Ti:!; i\ 



ri HIKltK wen- vurioiiH aU<'ii))»tH, rrioro or lens HiicceHsful and 
I riion- or Iohh honoHt, to <livcHt the titl<r of th(! indiutiH to 
tlic soil of th<! State of I*eniisylvania. 'I'lic tiist |»iir(;haH(; was 
ill July, KJHl, an«l the last, under tJie |»ro)>iietarieH, at Fort, 
Staiiwix, on the; site of the jiresent town of Koiik;, on the Kri<! 
canal, in the State of Xew York, in 1708. 'i'he final )>iirchaHe 
of lands within the; charter hounds was made l;y and in th(; 
name of the (-omiiion wealth, at Fort M<;Intosh, now l>(;aver, 
in <^)etohc'r, 17H1. Th<M-e W(!re rej>eated and )»ersist<Mit allegations 
of fraud and for;>ery made hy tin- Indinii-. nnd -omf- of ihcMi were 
a)»i)areiitly well founded. 

A 'general diseussion relating \.i> all tlie niattt^r.s in di,s]jnte was 
had at the council at F^aston in July and Aii«^ist, IToO, ..when and 
where the Governor, Hon. VVilliam Denny, and four memhers of 
liis council and ahoiit forty citi/-<Mis of I*hilad(;l|)hia met 'J'eedyuH- 
ciiiij^, the Delaware chief, king of the I>eiia))i and VV'anaini, two 
Delaware tribes, and of tli^- .Monseys and MohickoiiH. At an ad- 
journed council at the same |)lace in November, 1750, the same 
Hubj(!Ct was l»rought u)», and when the Governor askcid tin; chief- 
tain to Htate his grievances, the I^eiawarc said : "This ground 
tliat is under me, (stamping with his foot,) is mine and ha,s been 
taken from me by fraud and forgery," and he )»roc(;eded to ex- 
plain and insist upon his view and construe'tion of the treaties and 
deeds of (conveyance. At a subsequ<;nt council at Easton in 
July, 17o7, between the same ])rincij»al parties, the same chargeH 
were made and pressed home. Again at Fvaston,in October, I7oS, 
a deed was executed r(;leasing to the Indians a large amount of 
the territory (;mbraced in that of July, 1754 ; but the whole diffi- 
culty wfiM not settled, and it W!is U)> again in 1701. 

.\t tlif council in July. 1757. at P^aston, Teedyiiscung discus- 



36 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

sing the question of unsold lands, said, among other things ; "As 
we intend to settle at Wyonien, we want to have certain bounda- 
ries tixed between you and us, and a certain tract of land fixed, 
which it shall not be lawful for us or our children ever to sell, nor 
for you or any of your children ever to buy. We would have the 
boundaries fixed all around agreeable to the draught we give you, 
(here he drew a draught with chalk on the table,) that we may 
not be pressed on any side, but have a certain country fixed for 
our own use, and the use of our children forever." 

To this the Governor replied : "As to the lands between tSha- 
mokin and Wyomen, the proprietaries have never bought them of 
the Indians, and therefore never claimed them under any Indian 
purchase; that he was pleased with the choice they had made of 
that place, and would use all the means in his i)Ower to have 
these lands settled upon \\\w\ agreeable to his request," &c. 

The draft made by the Delaware chief, as nearly as it can be 
traced from the copy before me, begins on the west bank of the 
Susquehanna opposite the mouth of Shamokin creek below Sun- 
bury, thence to the mouth of Lycoming creek, thence along the 
east bank of it, by what were known as Burnett's hills, south 
of Towanda creek, and in an easterly circular direction to near 
Honesdale, and from that point in a southwesterly direction to 
the beginning. The territory thus demanded and agreed to be 
set off to him for the tribes he represented, comprised about 
2,000,000 of acres, and included, in whole or in part, the counties 
of Union, Lycoming, Bradford, Sullivan, Wyoming, Wayne, Lu- 
zerne, Columbia, Montour and Northumberland. Houses were 
built for them at Wyoming, and missionaries sent to them. 
But the great chieftain did not long enjoy his rest. He was 
burned to death in his own house at Wyoming in 1763, but 
not without suspicion of arson and nnu'der ; and within five 
years thereafter, was held the treaty at Fort Stanwix, already 
mentioned, whereby not only the aforesaid Wyoming Reserva- 
tion, but also a large body of other lands were purchased. 
This treaty included the territory, in whole or in part, of the 
counties of Northumberland, Columbia, Luzerne, Wayne, Sus- 
(^uehanna, Bradford, Lycoming, Clearfield, Indiana, Armstrong, 
Cambria, Somerset, Fayette, Westmoreland, Allegheny, Wash- 
ington, Greene, Clinton, Montour, Sullivan and Wyoming. 



JII.STOIiY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 37 

Even before this date, 1768, the country between Hliamokia 
and Wyoming nmst have been pre'tty well knowji. It is not 
my purpose to enter upon any examination or narration of tlie 
Pennsylvania and the Connecticut claims to the lands within 
the charter limits of oiii- State. If Connecticut had succeeded 
in her claim, most of the present county of Columbia would 
have been included within her boundaries ; the line passing 
west would have crossed at the mouth of Fishingcreek, which 
is as near as possible on the 41st parallel of latitude, which 
was claimed to be the southern boundary of Connecticut. But 
it is referred to here mairdy because it introduces to us for the 
first time the name of a prominent settler in the county. 

In January, 1769, Charles Stewart, John Jennings and Amos 
Ogden took possession of the lands claimed by Connecticut, in the 
name and on behalf of Pennsylvania, and on the 8th of February, 
1769, a body of Connecticut men appeared on the ground. Dis- 
putes and l)loodshed succeeded, eacli party being I'eiiiforced from 
time to time; and among the most determined opponents of the 
Pennsylvania government were some Lancaster county men, who 
probably had some personal grievance. Be that as it may. Captain 
C^harles Stewart continued to hold possession, and in pm-suance of 
his duties travelled fretiuently from Shamokin to Wyoming. On 
■•Friday, May 12th, 1769," he wiites to "The Honorable John 
Penn, Escpiire,'' a letter from which I make the following extract : 

"Sir: This afternoon about three o'clock, one hundred and 
forty-six New England men, and others, chiefly on horse-back, 
passed by our houses and are now encamped on the east side of 
the river. Among them is Benjamin Shoemaker and John Mc- 
Dowell, with several of their neighbors. I si)oke to McDowell, 
who informed me that at least as many more are on their way, 
and will be here to-morrow. And I have other intelligence that 
tliey will in a few days be five hundred strong. If this be true 
we can only act defensively until reinforced. At present we are 
but twenty-four men. 

"On my way up the river from Shamokin, on Wediies(hiy eve- 
ning last, I was hailed by a man at the mouth of Fishing creek, 
named Jaines McCIure, who told me he and foui' others, then at 
a tire hard by, was an advance i»arty of one hundred going to 
johi the New England men, and that they would chiefly be from 



3H HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

L.aucaster coiinty; that he wduhl he at Wyoming as soon as us, 
hut lie is not yet come." 

It does not appear whether Mr. James MeChire and the one 
liundred men marched on to Wyoming or not. In the progress 
of this history we shall tind him next at the same mouth of 
Fishingcreek as a settler, taking up a tract of land under the 
Pennsylvania authorities and holding his title from the proi)rio- 
taries. 



^1 p 



UIISTORY Oh COLUMBIA COUNTY. 30 



CHAPTER V. 



THE county of Nortliiiiii])ei'laii(l, from tlie territory of which 
C'olmiihiii county was taken, originally extended northward 
to the borders of New York. It was organized March 27, 1772, 
and took in all the valley of the West Branch, and with small 
exception the whole northeastern portion of the state. It con- 
tained 28,922 square miles, a territory almost as large as Con- 
necticut, Delaware, Massachusetts and New Jersey combined. 

At the first ('ourt held in that County, April 9, 1772, I find 
the following mimite of the formal opening: 

"At a court of private sessions of the peace held at Fort Augusta 
for the county of Northumberland on the ninth day of April 
in tlie twelfth year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord George 
the Third, by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France and 
Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, and in the year of our 
Lord (jod one thousand seven hundred and seventy-two, before 
Williani Plunkett, Esq.," <fec., <fec. 

\\u\ among other matters of business transacted, "on motion 
made, the said county of Northd., or as nmch of the extent of the 
same as is now purchased from the indians, is divided into the 
following townships, to be hereafter called and known by the 
u;inies of PeniTs twp., x\ugusta twp — Turbutt twp — Buffalo twp 
— Bald Eagle twj) — Muncy twj) — and Wyoming twp." 

Columbia and several otlier counties were comprised within the 
three townships following, to- wit : 

"Augusta — beginning at the mouth of Mahantango, on the 
west side of Susquehannah, thence with the county line crossing 
Susquehannah to the mouth of Mahantango, on the east side,thence 
with the same county line up Mahantango to the sjtread Eagle in 
the forks of said Mahantango, thence into the said county line, 
east northeast to tlie old line fonneily run for a division Vjetween 



40 TIISTOEY OF VOZ ZAMBIA COUWrY. 

Berks Mild Nortliainjtton Coniitios, llu'iice by the siuiic old lino 
Northwest to the Kast bvaiieh of Susquehanna, thence down the 
sanu' to Fort Anixusta, thence crossing 8us»)nehannah and down 
tln' same to the i»hu'e of lieginninu'." Tims inclu<rmo- all or nearly 
all that portion of the county lying east of the river. 

"Turbutt — beginning on the east side of Sus(|uehanna at 
Ft)rt Augusta thence up the easterly side of the n(M-tlu'ast brancli 
to till' old liiu' formerly rini for a division between in'rks and 
Northampton counties, thence by the same line northwest to the 
to]) of IMuncy ITill, tlience along the toj) of tlie same westerly to 
the west brant'h of SusipuOiannali an<l crossing the sanu' to tlie 
west side and down the same to the junction of tlie brajiches and 
crossing Sus(|uehannah to the place of beginning so as to include 
the Forks and Island." 

.And so including Avith other lands the whole, or nearly so, of 
what is now the County of IMontour. 

"Wj'oming — Beginning at the heads of Lycoming, thence 
southeast to INfuncy Hill, thence along the top of the same west- 
erly to the old division line between Berks and Northampton, 
theiu-e southeast along the same line to the present County line, 
thence by the lines of the County to the bounds of the present 
purchase near Chenango, thence westerly by the bounds of the 
present i)urchase to the beg-g at ye heads of Lycoming aforesaid." 

Comprising the greater portion of Columbia County, and at 
least four of the northeastern coimties besides ; all \\ hich latter 
were, however, included in Luzerne, which was ciit oflF fnun "North- 
umberland, September 25, 1786. 

In the year 1772 Mr. James Mc CI u re settled niton the west hank 
of the north branch of the Susquehanna river, about one niile 
above the mouth of Fishingcreek, in what is now Columbia 
county, lie obtained a i)atent for his farm from the heirs of 
William Penn under the nanu^ of ''McClure's Choice." The Mc- 
Clure tract was originally in the application of Francis Stewart, 
dated April 8, 17(59, and is described as follows: "On the west 
side of the north east branch of Susquehanna near the mouth of 
Fishingcreek, adjoining land applied for by William Barton." 
The survey was made June 3, 1760 and contains 298f acres and is 
called "Beauchamp." The McClure Patent is dated November 
6, 1772. A large part of West Bloomsburg is built upon the old 



JI [STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 41 

McCIure survey. On the 8tli of f^ebruary, 1770, among tlie <;<Himiit- 
tee of safety we find named as the memherH for Wiomiiig town- 
ship, Mr. James McClure, Mr. Thomas Clayton, Mr. VvU'X Mel- 
ick, whose families are still here. Col. James McClure, who 
died lipon the old homestead on October 4, 1850, was the young- 
est son of the original proprietor, and was tlie first white child 
born in this section of Pennsylvania. His mother was a Miss 
Esj)y, and his eldest sister mairied Major Moses Van Campen, a 
famous Indian fighter in this neighborhood, wliose e.Yjdoits bor- 
der sometimes on the marvelous. 

Witliiu tlie same year of 1772, Evan Oucn locutcd hi(ris<'lf on 
a fann at the mouth of P^ishingcreek, and abovf; Mr. James Mc- 
Clure came in their order TViomas Clayton, John Doan, Jolin 
Webb, George Espy, the proprietor of P]spytown, and theGingles 
family. There was also, previously to the Revolution, a settle- 
ment at the mouth of Briar creek. The majority of these settlers 
V}elonged to the Society of Friends. McClure's house was made 
use of as a fort from the commencement of the war, as was also 
the building at Briarcreek. In 1781 McClure's was surrounded 
by an enlarged stockade, occupying the very spot of the ]>reseiit 
homestead upon that fann. 

(Columbia county was taken from Northumberland and Kej>ar- 
ately organized by act of Assembly of March 22nd, 1813, with 
the following boundaries, to wit; "Beginning at the nine mile 
tree on the bank of the nortlieast branch of the Susquehanna, and 
from thence l>y the line of Point township to the line of Cliillis- 
quaque township, then by the line of Chillisquaque and Point 
townsliips to the west branch of the river Susquehanna, thence up 
the same to the line of Lycoming county, thence by the line of 
Lycoming county to the line of Luzerne county, thence Vjy the 
sanie to the line of Schuylkill county, thence along the same to 
the south-west corner of Catawissa township, thence by the line of 
Catawissa and Shamokin townsliijis to the river 8usquehann;i, and 
thence down said river to the jdace of beginning." V. L. ]8]'-5. 
].. 1 -jO. 

There can be no doul)t tliat tlie townshi])S of Chillisquaque and 
TurV)Ot were originally incoi-j^orated into Columbia county in 
order to secure the location of the county buildings at Danville; 
for the commissioners ai)pointed by the Governor to select a site 



42 HI8T0RY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

for tlie county town were rt'quirc'd to lix it "uh near the center 
as the situation thereof will admit," and Danville having been 
named in the report of the said connnissioners, and the object 
being thus achieved, an act was passed, and approved the 21st 
day of February, A. D. 1815, by which it was provided "That 
from and after the first day of May next, the townships of Turbot 
and Chillisquaque, in tlie county of Columbia, be, and the same 
are hereby annexed to and made i>art of Northumberland county."" 
P. L. 1815 p. 38. 

On the same day an act "To run and mark a line dividing the 
counties of Columbia and Luzerne"' became a law. P. L. 1815 p. 43. 

The seeming trick by which the county seat of the new county 
had been fixed at Danville, and the prompt re-annexation of the 
two townships of Chillisquaque and Turbot to that from which 
they were taken, provoked a spirit of indignation and opposition 
in the ujjper part of the county. An agitation for the removal of 
the seat of justice from Danville to Bloomsburg, as a more central 
location and moi*e in accordance with the letter and spirit of the 
act erecting Columbia county, innnediately conunenced, and con- 
tinued until success crowned the endeavor, by an act apju-ovedthe 
24th day of February, 1845, just thirty 3^ears after, authorizing a 
vote upon the question of removal. The detailed result will be 
found under that chapter in this volume. 

Ill the meantime, however, so active and determined was tlie 
new movement liec<nne that it became necessary lo conciliate the 
"removal" party. Accordingly, on the 22nd day of January, A. 
D. 181 G, an act was approved, providing "That from and after 
the first day of May next, that pai t of the Chillisquaque and Tur- 
bot townships, in the county of Northumberland, lying within the 
following described bounds, viz : beginning at the corner of Point 
and Chillisquaque townships in the line of Columbia county, 
thence by the lines of said townships along the summit of Mon- 
tour's mountain, to where what is called Strawbridge's road crosses 
said mountain, thence by said road to where the road from Wil- 
son's mills to Danville intersects said road, thence to the bridge 
over Chillisquaque creek at John Muiray's, thence by what is 
called Harrison's road past Chillisquaque meeting house to the 
corner of Turbot and Deny townships in the line of Lycoming 
county, thence by the line of Columbia county to the place of 



HISTORY OF (JOLUMIilA (JOUNTY. 43 

beginning, be, and tbe same are liereby annexed to and made 
part of Columbia county." P. L. 1816, p. 6. 

The pait8 of Cliillisquaque and Turbot which were thus re-an- 
nexed to Cohimbia became the townships of Liberty and Lime- 
stone, now in Montour county. This action of tlie Legislature 
took, for a time, much of the vim out of the removal party, but 
the snake was only scotched, not killed, and as the northern town- 
sliips increased in population and wealth, and citizens found them- 
selves obliged to travel nearly the whole length of the county to 
reach the court house, the question again loomed up. 

It rt'ceived a new impetus when the Lngislature, in 1818, by an 
act ai)pi-oved March the 3rd, j)rovided "That all thai pan of 
Columl)ia and Luzerne counties lying within the following lines, 
viz. : 

Beginning at a corner in the line dividing the county of Col- 
umbia from the county of Schuylkill, thence extending through 
the township of Catawissa north ten dea^rees east four miles and 
a half to a pine tree on the little mountain, thence extending 
through the townships of Catawissa and Mifflin north forty five 
degrees east five miles to a stone on Buck's mountain and in a 
line dividing the county of Columbia from the county of Luzerne, 
thence through the township of Sugarloaf in the county of Lu- 
zerne, south seventy degrees east eight miles to the line between 
the county of Schuylkill and the county of Luzerne, thence along 
the said line and the line between the county of Columbia and the 
counry of Schuylkill to the place of beginning," should be annexed 
to the county of Schuylkill, and be called "Union" township." P. 
L. 1818, p. 130. 

Thus shorn of her fair proportions upon the one side and the 
other, once more, in the year 1850, we were dismembered, and the 
county of Montour was erected from the territory of Columbia, by 
an act approved May 3rd, by the following boundaries : "All that 
part of Columbia county included within the liniits of the town- 
ships of Franklin, Mahoning, Valley, Liberty, Limestone, Derry, 
Anthony, and the borough of Danville, together with all that 
portion of the townships of Montour, Hemlock and Madison lying 
westward of the following line : beginning at Leiby's saw mill on 
the bank of the Susquehanna, thence by the road leading to the 
Danville and Bloomsburg road, at or near Samuel Lazarus' house, 



44 J/I^TOBY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

thence from the Danville and Bloomsburg road to the back valley 
road at the end of the lane leading from said road to Obed Ever- 
ett's honse, thence by said lane to Obed Everett's house, thence 
northward to the school house near David Smith's, in Hemlock 
township, thence by the road leading from said school house to 
the state road at llobbins' mill to the end of the lane leading from 
the said road to John Kinney's house, thence by a straight line to 
John Townsend's, near the German meeting house, thence to 
Henry Johnston's near Millville, thence by a straight line to a post 
in the Lycoming county line near the road leading to Ciawfcrd's 
saw mill, together with that part of Roaringcieek township lying 
south and w(St of a line beginning at the south-eastern corner of 
Franklin township, thence eastward by the southern boundary line 
of Catawissa township to a point directly north of John Yeager's 
bouse, thence southward by a direct line, including John Yeager's 
house, to the Schuylkill county lir'S at the north-east corner of 
Barry township." P. L. 1850, p. 658. 

On the first of November following the act was to go into oper- 
ation. The excitement over the matter was intense, heightened by 
the recollection of old contests over the question ot the removal of 
the seat of justice from Danville to Bloomsburg. Every interest 
succumbed to the dominant question of "Repeal," and the ptople 
went into the election contest on that issue. Finally by an act ap- 
proved the loth day of January, 1853, the division line was chang- 
ed, and now remnins as follows : "The township of Roaringcreek 
in Montom- county, and such parts of the townships of Franklin, 
Madison and West Hemlock in the same county as lie eastu ard of 
the adjusted line between Columbia and Montour counties herein- 
after prescribed and established, shall be, and the same are hereby 
re-anne.xed to the county, and shall hereafter compose a part of 
the territory of the said county of Columbia as fully and effectually 
as if the same had never been included within the limits of Mon- 
tour county. That the line between the said counties of Columbia 
and Montour shall be changed and re-located as follows, to-wit : 
beginning at the Northumberland county line, at or near the house 
of Samuel Reader, thence a direct course to the center of Roaring- 
creek in Franklin township, twenty rods above a point in said 
creek opposite the house of John Vought, thence from the middle 
of the stream of said creek to the Susquehanna river, thence up 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 45 

the centre of the same to a point opposite where the present county 
line between Columbia and Montour strikes the north bank of the 
river, thence to the said north bank, thence by the present division 
line between said counties to the school house near the residence 
of David Smith, thence to a point near the residence of Daniel 
Smith, thence to the bridge over Deerlick run on the line between 
Derry and Madison townships, thence by the line between said 
township of Madison and the townships of Derry and Anthony to 
the line of Lycoming county." By the same act, what was then 
Madison township in Columbia county was re-named Pine, and the 
parts of Madison which had been set ofif to Mount Pleasant and 
Hemlock were re-annexed to the old territory of Madison by this 
act reverting to Columbia county, and remain Madison township. 
P. L. 1853, p. 2. 

As at i)resent constituted, Columbia county contains an area of 
a little over four hundred square miles, and a population of nearly 
thirty-three thousand. 



-I- g \ K:zsc^ i '^ •»- 



46 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



CHAPTER VI. 



STI?,E^=i.lbv£S ^^IsTID l^^OTJISrT.^kll^ 



TIIKIIE is, perhaps, no County in the State which is so well 
watered as Columbia. This is doubtless owing to the hills 
which div'ersify its surface, and which, shedding their Avaters in 
all directions, leave no part of the County arid or unfertile. It is 
impossible to designate, even by name, the multitude of runs and 
brooks wduch, through the dry summer season, feed from their 
mountain springs the larger streams which pour their waters into 
the beautiful Susquehanna, which traverses the County for a dis- 
tance of nearly twenty miles, entering it at the line of the Bor- 
ough of Berwick, and leaving it at the Montour County li^ie. 
Bounding upon it on the north-west side are Berwick, Briarcreek, 
Centre, Scott, Bloom, Montour; and on the south-east Mifflin, 
Main, Catawissa and Franklin. The river is crossed at Berwick 
by a bridge, at Mifflinville by a rope ferry, at Stonytown, in 
Centre township, by another rope ferry, with a third at Espy, in 
Scott township, with a fourth opposite Bloomsburg, by a bridge 
at Catawissa, and with a rope ferry near the mouth of IJoaring 
creek. 

Catawissa Ckkek rises in Schuylkill county and runs through 
the entire length of the townships of Beaver, Main and Catawissa 
and empties into the North Branch Susquehanna at the point 
where the townships of Catawissa and Franklin strike the river. 
Its largest feeder is Scotch run, which, rising in the townshi}) of 
Beaver, drains the Scotch Valley, and after passing the whole 
lengtli of the township, enters the Catawissa in Main township. 

RoARiN<i Crkek rises in the township of Koaringcreek, thence 
through Locust into Catawissa, thence back into Locust, thence 
through Franklin, striking the line between Franklin and May- 
berry in Montoui- County, and becoming the boundary line to 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 47 

where it eiu{)ties into the Susqueliauiia ; about three niiles below 
the Catavvissa. The south branch of Roaring creek rises in Con- 
yiighani townsliip. running its entire length, and at its confines 
striking Nortlnnnberland County, becomes the boundary line be- 
tween Locust township in Columbia County and Northumberland, 
and thence turning north into Franklin, empties into Roaring 
creek about six miles above its mouth. The Indian name of the 
stream is "Popemetung." 

Hkju.ock Cukkk rises in Madison township, runs through Hem- 
lock and becomes the boundary line between Montour and Hem- 
lock for a short distance, and empties into Big Fishingcreek 
about one mile aV)ove its mouth, and about one mile from the 
town of J31oomsburg. 

Scotch Run rises just beyond the Columbia County line in Lu- 
zerne county, at the foot of Nescopec mountain, and runs along 
Its base the whole length of Beaver township, and empties into 
Catawissa creek, near Mainville in Main township. The Sunbury, 
Hazletoii ik Wilkes-Barre railroad lies on the bank of Scotch run 
from its mouth to its source. The stream is about fifteen miles in 
length. Long ago, but no longer known, as a fine trout producer. 

Beaver Rin rises in Beaver townshij) on the Luzerne County 
line, and after a course westwardly for a distance of ten miles or 
more falls into Catawissa creek not far from the Beaver Valley 
post office. 

LrrrLE Fishinc.creek enters the county at the Lycoming county 
line, and in its course becomes the boundary line between the 
townships of Pine and Jackson, then Pine and Greenwood, then 
(rreenwood and Madison, then Madison and Mount Pleasant, then 
Mount Pleasant and Hemlock, and entering Big P^ishingcreek 
about four miles from its mouth, at a point where Bloom, Mount 
Pleasant and Hemlock join, and receiving in its windings various 
small streams, as Black run, Sjiruce run. Bear run, and others. 

Bk; Fishingchkek, west branch, enters the county from Ly- 
coming at the north corner of Jackson township,and the east branch 
tlirough a gap in the mountains from Sullivan county into the 
township of Sugarloaf on the lands of Craig, Blanchard & Co.; 



48 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

theuce south through Sugarloaf to about the centre on the west 
side, where the two branches meet, theuce nearly to the south 
end of Sugarloaf where it receives Cole's creek, thence into Ben- 
ton, near the south-west side of which it receives West creek, 
thence through and into Fishingcreek township, nearly to the 
south point, where it receives Huntingdon creek — a large affluent 
from Luzerne county — theuce by a westerly course into Orange 
where it receives Green creek, thence south-west to the boundary 
line between Orange and Mount Pleasant, thence to the Susque- 
lianna river as the boundary line between Orange and Mount 
Pleasant, Scott and Mount Pleasant, Bloom and Hemlock, and 
Bloom and Montour; reaching the river about two miles below 
Bloomsburg, at Rupert, on the Catawissa and Lackawanna & 
Bloomsburg railroads. 

Briarckekk, Big and Little, have their heads in the county. The 
larger stream rises in Centre, flows eastwardly through its whole 
length, into and through Briarcreek township, and empties into 
the Susquehanna about three miles below the borough of Berwick. 
The smaller rising in Briarcreek township and flowing through 
it nearly south, emptying into the main stream about two miles 
from its mouth. The Indian name of the stream is "Kawanisho- 
ning." 

HuNTiNunoN Creeic rises in Long Pond, in Sullivan county, and 
is fed by springs and runs in Fairmount and Ross townships in 
Luzerne county. It enters Columbia county near the south-east 
corner of Fishingcreek township, and falls into the Fishingcreek 
a few miles above Orangeville. 

Cole's Creek rises in Sugarloaf townsliip, in Columbia county, 
and runs south, entering Fishingcreek at Alinas Cole's mill, 
Cole's creek post-office. 

Green Creek rises in Jackson township, and runs south, meeting 
the Fishingcreek near Orangeville. It was one of the Columbia 
county coal oil locations. 

Ten Mile Run rises in Mifllin Township and after meandering 
variously through its rich soil and absorbing several little brooks 
on its winding way, falls into the Susquehanna, a mile below the 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 49 

village of Miffliiiville. Grist iiiillR and saAV mills are found on its 
route. 

Many beautiful and sparkling little streams brighten the mead- 
ows and pasture lands, giving to the citizen health, to the soil 
feitility, and to the air salubrity. Some of those whose names are 
known are given. 

Painter Run in Sugarloaf township is also one of the tributaries 
of big Fishingcreek. 

L.vte's Run rises in Pine and tiowing south-east falls into Fish- 
ingcreek not far from Luther German's in School District No. 3. 

Lick Run rises in Pine, takes a south-east course and enters 
Fishingcreek at Sereno post office. 

Shingle Run, rises in Pine and gathers up several smaller 
brooks, and meets Fishingcreek in School District No. 1. 

Spencer's Run rises in Benton and falls into Fishingcreek. 

Ravkn Creek, which is (juite a stream, rises in Benton township, 
formed by two considerable branches, and running south through 
its entire length into Fishingcreek townshi}), falls into the Fish- 
ingcreek at Stillwater. 

Pine Creek rises in Luzerne county and running southwest falls 
into Huntingdon creek in Columbia county, in Fishingcreek town- 
ship, at Jonestown. 

Bear Run rises in Mount Pleasant and em})ties into Little Fish- 
ingcreek at Mordansville post office. 

Stony Brook rises in Orange township and falls into Fishing- 
creek a mile above Lightstreet. 

Spring Run rises in Madison, at the upper end and falls into 
Little Fishingcreek at the corners of School Districts Nos. 5 and 
8. 

Mugser's Run rises in Locust township and running westwardly 
falls into the south branch of Roaringcreek near the junction of 
Franklin township and Northumberland county. 

Mii.i, Creek rises in Roaringcreek township and falls into a 
branch of Roaringcreek near Cherington's. 



oO HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Cai'.in Ki n rises in Centre township und empties into the Sus- 
quehanna on the farm of Levi Aikman. 

KiNNEv't* l\i N, a little stream emptying; into the Sus<|uehann:i 
at the foot of INFarket street, and by which the locality of Blooins- 
buriT was once known to the raft men and others. 

Mui> CuKEK, which is in fact, properly, tlu> East Ihaiich of the 
Chillisquaque, rises in Madison and joins the Chill isipiacjue at 
\yashingtonville in IMontour county, and passing through the 
townshij) of Liberty empties into the West lirancli of the Susfpie- 
hanna, in Chillis(|ua(|ue townsliip, near the foot of INLontour Ridge. 

Limestone Run rises in the township of that name in Montour 
county, and runs westwardly through Turbut township, into the 
West Branch at jNIilton. 

1>KVKU RiN rises in Limestone and runs eastwardly into Chill- 
isquaque. 

Touv Run rises in Malioning township and falls into the Sus- 
quehanna at the Gas Works of the State Lunatic Asylum, above 
Danville. 

Beaver Run rises in Liberty township aiul runs into Noi thumber- 
Innd County and emi)ties itself into the Chillisquaque. 

The C.vr.vwissA mountains give character to all that })artof the 
county lying east of the river. Between Bloomsburg and Cata- 
Avissa, the river, which lias been running a south-west course, sud- 
denly turns south and breaks through the mountain range instead 
of passing down the valley. Some terrible convulsiou must have 
caused the chasm through which the winding Sus(juehanna j)Ours 
its tloods, and the scenery along "The Rocks" is beautiful and 
picturesque. The hill gradually breaks down as it stretelies into 
Montour county, and is finally lost in the gentle dei)ression. But 
on the east side of the river, casting off a sj)ur here and there, it 
breaks the whole face of the county into great irregidarities. Be- 
tween Catawissa and Centralia two distinct ranges of mountains 
bar the way, and upon the farther side of the second we strike 
the coal measures of tlie Schuylkill region, and enter upon a coun- 
try differing materially from all other parts of the county. 

LTpon the opposite or west side of the county the vast ranges 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 51 

(jf tlie Muiicy hills strike in, iiiid Kceni to enclose us witliin their 
])rotectiTig convolutions ; and passing on to the north end we en- 
counter anotlier hrancli of the great Alleglieny range eiiv<'lo)iiiig 
us on that side. 

NoK mountain rises abruptly in the to\vns)iij» of Orange, 
and extends iiortli-eastwardly into Lu/erne county, where it also 
<leclines to the level of tlie surrounding country. Along its }>ase 
rushes Huntingdon creek, wliich rises in Long Pond in Sullivan 
county, and, ]»assing through a part of Luzerne, ein|)ties into 
Fishingcreek just at the edge of the township of that name, 
whence together they continue to, and pass round its western eiul, 
leave its wooded sides and seek the green valleys tliat lie on tlu; 
Susquehanna. 

Xescoi'eck mountain extends from Black creek in Luzerne (coun- 
ty westward into Columbia county, and breaks down at Mainville. 
It is beautiful and regular in its fomiation, and is now being pros-* 
pected for coal. Scotch Valley lies south of it, and beyond the 
narrow slip rises McCalla mountain, in wliich there is a large de> 
]»osit of coal. It Vireaks down at about Mifflin Cross-Roads. Be- 
yond McCalla mountain comes Beaver Valley, and beyond that 
Buck mountain, which slides down into the valley some distance 
above Shuman's. A map of the county, giving plainly the names 
of streams, hills and mountains is gi'catly needed. 

Montour's ri<lge extends from the West Brancli above North- 
umberland eastward, by Danville, to a point north-east of Blooms- 
burg, where it breaks down and sinks away to the level of the sur- 
rounding country. It is a beautiful ridge and rich in minerals; 
and derives its name from a celebrated Indian family of that name 
whose history and exploits will be related as fully as they have 
been rescued from oblivion, in a subsequent chajjter. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 



CHAPTER VII. 



IMrU<>Vli:\lKNTS AND l'U( »I)IGTI()NS. 



rril IK piihlic i-(>:i(ls of the county are iiuinerous, and new ones 
J^ are constantly being opened, making actress to all parts of the 
county ]»ossil)le by the sliortest routes. Tliey are generally in 
good condition, well supplied with index boards, and the bridges 
over the various streams safe and ])lentiful. 

The North Branch Canal i)asses through the county. Since 
the sale of the canals, that ]»ortion of them running from North- 
umberland to Wilkes-Barre, 64 miles in length, has come into the 
ownership of the "Pennsylvania Canal Company." 

The capital stock of the company is five millions of dollars, 
aud the whole length of canal owned by it is ;538 miles. The 
officers are all Philadelphians, except Thomas T. Wierman, the 
chief engineer, who resides in Harrisburg. In this county Hugh 
D. Quick, of llupert, and Hudson Owen, of Berwi(^k, are the ac- 
tive, vigilant and competent local superintendents. 

The Catawissa Railroad runs from Tamanend to Williamsijort, 
94jniles; having de})Ots in Columbia county as follows : Rupert, 
Catawissa, Mainville, Beaver Valley, (4irard Manor, and others. 
It is now under lease to the I'hiladelphia & Reading Railroad 
Company. 

Tlie Danville, Hazleton &, Wilkes-Barre Railroad, now under 
lease to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company and known since its 
sale and re-organization, as the 8uid)ury, Hazleton cfc Wilkes- 
Barre Railway, runs from Sunbury to Tomhickon ; and in Col- 
umbia county on the east side of the river, having a depot at Cat- 
awissa, Mainville, Miftiin X Roads and Glen City. It is 40 miles 
in length, and is a new and im})ortant outlet for coal and produce 
lieretofore mostly inaccessible. 

The Lackaw^anna & Bloomsburg Railroad, from Scranton to 
Northumberland, on the west side of the river, is 80 nailes in 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. ',?, 

lt'iiL;tli, uikI lias depots in Coliaiibia county at Berwick, Willow 
S|)riiiL!,s, Lime IJidge, Ks])y, Hloomsbur^', llupcrt and Catawissa 
IJriduc. It is now owned by the Delaware, Lackawanna it West- 
ern Railroad Coni|)any. 

The North and We-;t I)i-anch IJaili-oad, a most important one 
in this region, was anthori/.ed by act of Assembly approved JVIay 
l.S, 1H71, I'mjiowering the company "to construct a railroad from 
the Itoroiigh of Wilkes-Barrc in tlie county of Luzerne, along the 
soutli side of the North Hi-anch of the Sus(juehanna rivei-, to a 
]»oint opposite the town of Jiloomsburg, in the comity of Colum- 
bia, and thence by a bridge over said river and by the valley of 
Little Fishingcreek to the city of Williamsport, by the name, 
style and ti:le of the Nouni and Wi:sr IJrancii K Aii.r.oAD Com- 
PANV, with ])Ower to construct a branch from near the town of 
IJloomsburg u]) the valley of Big Fisiiingcreek to connect with 
any existing or projectol railroad in Sullivan county, witli the 
right to connect with or cross at grade any railroad now made or 
heieafter to l)e made within the counties of Luzerne, Columbia, 
Montour, Sullivan or Lycoming, and with tlie riglit to build 
branches not exceeding ten miles each in length." The road has 
l)een constructed from Wilkes-Barre to a point on the river, op- 
j)Osite Bloomsburg, and thence down tlie river to Catawissa, con- 
necting with the Sunbury, Hazleton and Wilkes-Baire at that 
])lace. The route from Bloomsburg to Williamsi»ort has been 
surveyed and some further work done, and it is in contemi)lation 
to begin the construction of tlie road at an early day. 

Ilunlock's Creek is another ])i-ojected road, "from near the 
mouth of Ilunlock's creek in the county of Luzerne, through the 
towiishij) of Huntingdon to the borougli of Muncy in Lycoming 
county, by the name, style and title of the Ilunlock's Creek and 
Muncy Railroad Company, witli the right to connect with the 
Philadelphia & Erie, the Lackawanna &, Bloomsburg, or any 
other railroad now made or hereafter to be made within the coun- 
ties of Luzerne and Lycoming, with the right to build branches 
not exceeding ten miles in length." 

Several routes have been examined and surveyed, all of which 
go for a shorter or longer distance through the county of Colum- 
bia. It seems to us impossible to build the road witliout passing 
througli Benton or Sugar'.o.if or both. Our ])eoi)le are theiefore 



54 HISTORY OF COLVMBI A COUNTY. 

greatly interested in the construction of the road, which with the 
North and West Hrancli road will give to us a positive and per- 
manent advantage in the coal, iron and lumber trade of this re- 
gion of country. 

It is hardly necessary to add that nearly all the business places 
in Bloomsburg are connected by telephone, and many of them 
also to the residence of the respective business houses. The line 
has been extended to Danville, Catawissa, Ku])ert, Millville and 
Orangeville, from the central office at Bloomsburg. 

The Tide Water Pipe Line Company are constructing an oil 
line through the county, and are accompanying it by a telegraph 
line, which connects Buckhorn, Jerseytown and other places, di- 
rectly with Bloomsburg. 

The limestone trade of the county is very large. The railroads 
have transported annually one hundred thousand tons, and a very 
large tonnage has been shipped on the canal, but the separate items 
of freight are not made up, so that the number of tons cannot be 
ascertained. The amount used in the manufacture of iron is given 
in the statistics of that trade ; and there are no data for estimat- 
ing the immense number of bushels of lime annually burned and 
delivered to farmers at the kilns. 

It is imjiosible to tell what amount of coal may exist in Colum- 
bia county. Even in the region of Conyngham and Beaver it is 
only partially developed; and there are claimed to be abundant 
and satisfactory evidences of the existence of coal in the 
northern townships of the county ; in Nob mountain and in the 
mountains of Sugarloaf. In this latter township it is claimed that 
there are large and rich dejjosits of iron ore, and if coal is also de- 
veloped, with the lumber thereabouts, there must shortly be a large 
access of wealth and population, increased and stimulated by the 
buildiug of the railroads through there which have been mention- 
ed under the proper heads. But the production of coal is so un- 
certain that it is hardly worth the while to make any statement 
about it. It is sufficient to say that as much as 400,000 tons has 
been mined in one year within the county. And the same may be 
said of the manufacture of pig iron ; but which in any thing like 
a fair commercial year averages about 20,000 tons. For each ton 
of iron manufactured there is recpiired 2.05 tons of coal, 3.25 tons 
of ore, and 1.59 tons of limestone. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



CIIAPTEll VIII. 



TO'^Tw^^SrSIEII^'S cSc BOI^OXJOHS. 



WHEN in 1813 the county of Columbia was separately organ- 
ized, it consisted of the twelve townships following, to-wit : 
Bloom, Briarcreek, Chillis(]uaque, Catawissa, Derry, Fishingcreek, 
Greenwood. Hemlock, Mahoning, MitHin, Sugarloaf and Tnrbiit. 

Turbut township was declared at April sessions, 1772, by the 
Court, one of the townships into which Northumberland county 
was divided. 

Mahoning township was erected at February sessions 1775, out 
of part of Turbut. 

Catawissa township was erected at August sessions 1785 out of 
Augusta. 

Chillis(pia<pie township was erected at May sessions 178G out of 
parts of Turbut and Mahoning. 

Derry township was erected at May sessions 1786, out of Tur- 
but. 

P^ishingcreek township was erected at August sessions 1789 out 
of part of Wyoming. 

Briaicrwk township was erected at August sessions 1797, out 
of Fishingcreek township. 

Bloom township was erected at August sessions 1798 out of 
Briarcreek. 

Greenwood township was erected at August sessions 1799, out 
of part of Fifthingcreek townshijj. 

Of Hemlock, Mifflin, and Sugarloaf the records lail to give me 
any information. 



o6 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Tlie jtortioiis of Chillisqnaqiie and Tnrbut iv-aniiexed to Col- 
iniibia county by the act of Januaiy 22, 1816, were erected into 
the townsliips of Liberty and Limestone, both no\v in Montour 
eounty. 

Madison township was erected out of part of Derry, now in 
Montour county, by petition to tlie court at tlie A\)y'\\ sessions. A- 
D. 1817. 

Mount Pleasant was formed out of parts of Greenwood and 
Fisliingcreek and, we believe. Bloom, at the January sessions, A. 
D. 1818. 

Berwick was created a borough by act of Assembly, on the 29th 
day of January, A. D. 1818. 

Ikoaringcreek Avas cut off from Catawissa, and became a town- 
shi]» at the January sessions, A. D. 1832. 

Montour townshij) was erected out of territory taken from 
Hemlock at November sessions, A. D. 18.37. 

Jackson became a township at the November sessions, A. D. 
1838, being formed out of parts of Greenwood and Sugarloaf. 

Valley, now in Montour county, was stricken off from Mahon- 
ing and Derry, also both now in ^Montour county, at the August 
sessions of 1839. It was proposed by the petitioners to call the 
township "Baldy," but it was finally organized by the name of 
Valley. 

Orange was for a long time a separate election district, but not 
a township. But at the April court, 1839, after some opposition, 
parts of Bloom, Mount Pleasant and Fishingcreek were carved 
out and the name Orange given to the territory. 

P^ranklin township, including what is now known as Mayberry, 
in Montour county, was stricken off from Catawissa at the April 
court, A. D. 1843. 

Main was erected at tlie January court, A. D. 1844, out of por- 
tions of the townships of Catawissa and Mitllin. 

Centre was formed at the same court, January, 1844, out of 
parts of Bloom and Briarcreek. 

Beaver Avas for a considerable time called the "Paxton Dis- 
trict," in respect, Ave believe, to Col. Joseph Paxton; but in the 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. .'7 

year 1845, at Noveniljer sessions, it was erected into a townsliip 
by the name of Beaver. It belonged fortnerly to Mifflin. 

Anthony, now in Montour county, was struck oft" from the ui)]»er 
end of Deny at the November sessions, 1847, and named in hon- 
or of Joseph B. Anthony, the then President Judge. 

Benton was cut off from Sugarloaf at the August session, A. 
D. 1850. 

Pine was brouglit into existence by an act of Assembly of 15 
January, 1853, the fruit of the division process. 

Locust came by its present name by an act of Assembly of 
April 18, 1853. It had been received from Montour county in the 
straightening of the division line, where it had been known as the 
township of "Scott." It had formerly been a part of Koaring- 
creek, and upon being received back into Columbia was named 
Locust. 

Scott township was formed out of a })art of Bloom at the Sep- 
tember session A. D. 1853. 

Conyngham, named in honor of the then President Judge, was 
formed out of part of Locust townshij) at the February sessions, 
A. I). 1856. 

Centralia Borough, in said township of Conyngham, was con- 
firmed after a warm contest, at the February court in A. U. 1866. 

"The Town of Bloomsburg" was organized by an act of Assem- 
bly of March 4, 1870. It embraces all that had been left of the 
territory of Bloom township at the date of the act. The organi- 
zation is quasi borough. jVfore than one efi^ort had been previ- 
ously made to secure a borough charter, but the bad shape of the 
remaining portion of the townshij) had defeated tlie applications. 
The act of organization Avas a s})ecial one, embracing some of the 
sections and provisions of the general borough laws. In the elec- 
tion of its nnmiciiial officers the j>rinciple of the free vote as ad- 
vocated by Senator Buckalew was ai)i)lie(l. Tlie working of it 
was practically tested at our first election on the twelfth day of 
April, A. D. 1870 ; which was also the first time that the system 
had been ai>i)lied in the United States, and at that election Mr. 
liuckalew cast the first vote in illustration of his system. 



58 III.STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

KKOAriTULATION. 

Turbut, original, May 8ession 1772 

Mahoning, original, February session 177.5 

Catawissa, original, August session 1785 

Chillisquaque, original, May session 178G 

Derry, original. May session 1736 

Fishingcreek, original, August session 1789 

Briarcreek, original, August session 1797 

Bloom, original, August session 1798 

Greenwood, original, August session 1799 

Hemlock, original, no date of erection 

Mifflin, original, no date of erection 

Sugarloaf, original, no date of erection 

Liberty, by Act of Assembly 1810 

Limestone, by Act of Assembly 1816 

Madison 1817 

Mount Pleasant 1818 

Berwick Borough 1818 

Koaringcreek 1832 

Montour 1837 

Jackson 1 838 

Orange 1839 

Franklin 1843 

Main 1844 

Centre 1844 

l>eaver 1 845 

Benton 1850 

Pine 1853 

Locust, theretofore "Scott" 1 853 

Scott, out of Bloom 1853 

Conyngham 1856 

Centralia Borough 1 866 

The Town of Bloomsburs 1870 



nit^TORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 59 



CHAPTER IX 



P'O^^TJXj^S^TIOISr 



IN 1820 the population as then existing was 17,621, an<l in 1850 
after the erection of Montour county the popuhition remaining 
was 17,700; and at the same jteriod Montour county had within its 
borders 13,493 persons. 

Since 1850 Columbia county has almost doubled in j)Opulation, a 
portion of which increase is, howevei', due to the readjustment of 
the lines in 1853. The county having been, up to within a very 
short time almost entirely agricultural, the growth in po])ulation 
has been less ra})id than in those localities whei'ein manufacturing 
is largely pursued. The influence of si)ecial industrial pursuits 
may be shown by the following figures. In 1850 the population 
of Berwick was 486, in 1880 it was 2095. — In 1850 Catawissa was 
1143, in 1880 it was 2003— In 1850 Bloom and Scott, then to- 
gether, had 3122, in 1880 they make 5049— In 1850 Danville 
Borough was 3302, in 1880 it was 7899. So too, Beaver town- 
ship, which had in 1850 a population of 672, had in 1880 increas- 
ed to 1221. Take it all in all, however, the increase in j)opulation 
has been healthy and satisfactory. It has not been stimulated by 
any undue excitement, nor by any unsubstantial and transitory in- 
dustry. It is therefore jjermanent, and no greater than can be 
proijerly absorbed and usefully employed. Such settlers give 
strength and stability to manufactures, and afford a constant and 
remunerative market for the produce of the farmer, and the goods, 
wares and merchandise of the shopman. 

We give the census l)y townships for every decade since the 
trection of the county. The curious discrepancies that ap- 
p< ar will be properly referred by the leader to the formation of 
new townshijis and to ihe erection of Monlour county and the 



60 



III.STOBY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 



correction and rearrangement of the division lines. The bhinks 
opposite the townships for some of the years indicate their non- 
existence at that date, except in the case of Koaringcreek. which 
in 18.50 was in Montour county. 

The time of the erection of the different townships snd tlio ter- 
ritory out of which ihey were formed u ill be found under the 
head of "Township-' and Boroughs,'" and llu- compaiison of p> ))- 
ul'tition can as well b^' made by the readier as by the coni])iler. 

Iri 1S30 the taxables in thp couni}, including Mo;, tour, were 
2486. They will be found brlow for 1882, for Columbia county 
alone, as well as seme estimate of acreage and values; of course the 
ter is constantly fluctuating and is consequently only a basis for 
future comparisons. 



T OWNSIIirS. 



Taxa- 

bles 



Acies of 
unseated 
lands. 



Acres of 
•^ea'd lands 



Value of 
unseated 



Value of 
seated 



Beaver 


257 


8513 


12965 


$9453 


$102829 


Benton 


292 


118 


11699 


570 


141856 


Berwick 


660 




448 




132272 


Bloomsburg. . 


986 




2091 




629142 


Briaicreek. .. . 


284 


4383 


11134 


5930 


248390 


Catawissa. . . . 


646 


1692 


5691 


2884 


253963 


Centralia 


385 




226 




120915 


Centre 


296 


287 


1 1 643 


nil 


282994 


Conyngham . . 


512 


6309 


5733 


76874 


418755 


Fishingcieek.. 


366 


2940 


15622 


5172 


181764 


Franklin 


117 


162 


7243 


1011 


99665 


Greenwood. . . 


431 


438 


16621 


1910 


203295 


Hemlock 


227 


642 


9150 


2215 


186785 


Jackson 


157 


1237 


9399 


2410 


47699 


Locust 


456 


2008 


22343 


3350 


243372 


Main 


153 


3347 


6320 


4360 


114881 


Madison 


271 


762 


18585 


2845 


173018 


MiiHm 


272 


1553 


9975 


2750 


172150 


Montour 


154 


225 


6155 


2846 


160449 


Mt. Pleasant.. 


171 


94 


9584 


635 


126761 


Orange 


253 


532 


7543 


1820 


146463 


Pine 


218 


1071 


13503 


1665 


65425 


Koaringcreek . 


129 


3584 


9518 


5052 


75580 


Scott 


412 


'2 


4032 


80 


23i»236 


Sugarloaf .... 


215 


2381 


12185 


4506 


59388 


Total 


8,326 


139,449 


239,408 


$139,449 


4,607,047 



HItSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



Gl 



The census figures for the year 1850 are a little confused in 
both counties, because of the division that year, and some uncer- 
t.'iiiity about the lines. But for 1860, 1H70 and 1880 they are 
substantially, perhaps exactly, correct. 

CENSUS. — 

1820 1830 1840 1850 18ti0 1870 1880 



TOWNSHIPS. 

Beaver 

Benton 

Berwick 

Bloomsburg 

Biiarcreek 

Catawissa , 

Centralia , 

Centre 

Conyiighani , 

Derry 

Fishingcreek , 

Franklin 

Greenwood 

Hemlock 

Jackson 

Liberty 

Liniesione 

Locust 

Mahoning 

Main 

Madison 

Mifflin 

]\[ontour 

Mount Pleasant. . 

Orange 

Pine 

Roaringcreek 

Scott 

Valley 

Sugarloaf 



Total 



162f) 
1719 
2520 



1662 

502 



1078 
1464 

1146 
426 

1478 

1330 
1492 

673 



505 



2081 
1706 
3130 



1088 
568 



1110 
1681 

1111 
540 

179 

1554 

179 

71 



678 



452 
1774 
1451 

2060 



1753 
902 



1217 
957 
265 

1329 
646 

1927 

1700 
2143 

809 
609 
843 



672 



486 
3122 
1091 
1143 



1019 



901 

893 
* 

2668 
1734 
1176 



1260 

1087 

374 



1842 



630 
934 



581 
714 

1024 
409 
708 

1077 



519 



1316 



1300 
1320 



1110 1200 

I 533 

1470 

1037 

539 



1897 



529 

1140 

1021 

485 

776 

930 

555 

509 

1502 



752 



17621 20149 24243 17700 25065 28766 32439 



969 
1050 

923 
3340 
1080 
1627 
1340 
1320 
1900 



1370 

550 

1585 

1170 

565 



1550 



601 

1090 

1043 

624 

750 

910 

760 

485 

1465 



701 



1221 

1062 
2095 
3702 
1172 
2003 
1509 
1256 
2183 



1447 

543 

1710 

1080 

675 



2014 



626 

1077 

1038 

662 

760 

901 

911 

533 

1347 



869 



'With Briarcreek. 



62 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



MONTOrR COUNTY. 



Though not separately organized until 1850, we give the census 
of Montour county, before and since its erection, complete. In 
the chapter on "Townships and l^oroughs" there will be found 
some other interesting matter. 



Townships. 


1820 


1830 


1840 


1850 


1860 


1870 


1880 


Derry 

Liberty 

Lunestone 

Mahoning 

Valley 

Roaringcv'k 


1662 

1146 

426 

1478 


1688 

1111 

540 

1796 


1753 
1329 

646 
1927 

633 


853 

1232 

763 

867 

760 

2000 

1255 

3302 

956 

1000 

193 

312 


933 
1173 
850 
744 
901 


888 
1234 

711 
1033 
1062 


950 
1166 

733 
1198 

890 








Madison 















Danville 


6385 
965 


8129 
960 


7899 


Anthony 
Franklin 








953 










W. Hemlock 








433 
396 
273 


398 
414 
215 


379 


Cooper 
Mayberry 








380 








229 












Total 


4,712 


5,135 


6,288 


13,493 


13,053 


15,044 


14,777 



Note. — In straightening out the division lines in 1853, Roar- 
ingcreek and Franklin were brought back into Columbia county, 
exce})t part of Franklin which became Mayberry in Montour 
county. Madison was brought back, except a small corner added 
to West Hemlock. 




HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 63 



I'OrULATION OF TENNSYJA ANIA IIY (OVXTIES, AND CITIZENS OVER 
TWENTY-ONE. 



1882 

PorUT.A.TION 



Counties. 5 IS 

Adams 32455 31984 

Alleghenv 3558G9 347968 

Annstrong 47641 47363 

Beaver 39605 39163 

Bedford 34929 34346 

Berks 122597 122146 

lilair 52740 52257 

Bradford 58541 58003 

Bucks 68656 67107 

liutler 52536 52408 

Cambria 46811 46602 

Cameron 5159 5151 

Carbon 31923 31882 

Centre 37922 37574 

Chester 83481 76402 

Clarion 40328 40228 

Clearfield 43408 43287 

Clinton 26278 25992 

Columbia 32439 32264 

Crawford 68607 681 1 2 

Cumberland 45977 43867 

Dauphin 76148 72364 

Delaware 56101 51487 

Elk 12800 12779 

Erie 74688 74345 

Fayette 58842 56952 

Forest 4385 4373 

Franklin 49855 47304 

Fulton 10149 10020 

Greene 28273 27770 

Huntingdon 33954 33674 

Indiana 40527 40299 

Jeffei-son 27935 27898 

Juniata 18227 17966 





Males of 21 


AND 


N. 




OVER. 




'o 
471 


7315 


5b 

'I 
o 

312 


u 
o 

o 
O 
125 


7901 


46418 


41051 


2510 


278 


9328 


1382 


68 


442 


7834 


1903 


112 


583 


7447 


445 


133 


451 


27364 


2721 


121 


483 


10625 


1938 


150 


538 


13877 


1964 


146 


1549 


16360 


2009 


429 


128 


10126 


2310 


37 


209 


7581 


3457 


67 


8 


1145 


329 


4 


41 


4805 


2767 


16 


348 


8297 


603 


98 


7079 


17467 


2956 


1789 


100 


8091 


1234 


26 


121 


8348 


2864 


36 


286 


5453 


1130 


685 


145 


6968 


829 


40 


499 


14891 


3^030 


137 


2170 


10375 


385 


515 


3784 


15624 


2196 


1068 


4614 


9343 


4003 


1288 


21 


2094 


1582 


7 


343 


13523 


6147 


109 


1890 


12198 


2133 


477 


12 


950 


228 


2 


2551 


10677 


500 


599 


129 


2144 


108 


31 


503 


6590 


96 


114 


280 


7251 


616 


83 


228 


8668 


614 


59 


37 


5550 


727 


14 


261 


6904 


133 


62 



64 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



Population. 



Males of 21 and 

OVER. 



Counties. 



o 



Lackawanna 89269 

Lancaster 139447 

Lawrence 33312 

Lebanon 38476 

Lehigh 65969 

Luzerne 133065 

Lycoming 56486 

McKean 42565 

Mercer 56161 

Mifflin 19577 

Monroe 20175 

Montgomery 96494 

Montour 15468 

Northampton 70312 

Northumb'd 53123 

Perry 27522 

Philadelphia 847170 

Pike 9663 

Potter 13797 

Schuylkill 12974 

Snyder 1 7797 

Somerset 33110 

Sullivan 8073 

Susquehanna 40354 

Tioga 45814 

Union 16905 

Venango 43670 

Warren 27981 

Washington 55418 

Wayne 33513 

Westmoreland... 78036 

Wyoming 15598 

York S7841 



88971 

136596 
33076 
38391 
65851 

132310 
56508 
42211 
55735 
19362 
20020 
94731 
15361 
69987 
52929 
27358 

815362 

9579 

13770 

129616 
17778 
32994 
8070 
40135 
45699 
16772 
43120 
27784 
52774 
33482 
77349 
15577 
86481 



O 
298 
2851 
236 

85 
118 
755 
978 
S54 
426 
215 
155 
1763 
107 
325 
194 
164 
31808 

84 

27 
358 

19 
116 
3 
219 
115 
133 
550 
197 
2644 

31 
687 

21 
1360 



> -u 

1| 

9946 

30411 
6776 
9005 

13913 

16468 
4838 

11801 

10799 
4298 
4579 

20632 
3060 

14732 

10636 

6150 

133470 

1755 

3442 

18118 
4155 
6908 
1663 
9224 

10177 
4036 
8480 
5759 

11998 
6081 

15661 
3843 

19087 



o 

11862 

3762 

1532 

687 

2719 

16170 

2397 

3057 

3000 

270 

449 

484 

874 

3172 

2266 

237 

88987 

688 

494 

12162 

44 

844 

479 

1776 

2387 

105 

1882 

2215 

1625 

2599 

3333 

312 

1581 



o 

'o 

O 

102 

772 

62 

28 

37 

216 

274 

143 

113 

61 

43 

551 

21 

98 

63 

43 

8967 

27 

8 

93 

6 

76 

3 

70 

41 

32 

146 

56 

651 

10 

180 

6 

359 



recapitulation. 



Population. 

White 4,197,016 

Colored 85,875 

Total 4,282,891 



Males over 21. 

Native white 

Foreign 

Colored , 



797,532 

272,860 

23,892 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 65 



CHAPTER X. 



I^Eliv£0 ^^^=^IL. 



IM:\rK7>IATELY after the location of the seat of justice at 
Danville, the agitation for a removal thereof to Bloomsburg 
commenced, and it was carried on without intermission and with 
more or less intrigue, excitement, diversion and asj^erity, for a 
period of thirty years. It is hardly wor^i while to write up 
the history of that long and bitter contest. Its track is strewed 
with the wrecks of unfortunate local politicians who had mistaken 
the temper of the people, or were themselves the mere tools of 
more designing intriguers. Thus the astute politicians of Dan- 
ville played off the Borough of Berwick against Bloomsburg ; at 
one time by proposing a new county to be composed of parts of 
Columbia and Luzerne, with the Capitol at Berwick, at another 
by threatening to go solid for removal, but making it to be to 
I^erwick instead of to Bloomsburg. Party politics were lost 
sight of in the election of county officers, and year after year re- 
moval ami anti-removal candidates tested the strength of the re- 
spective localities. 

But the steady friends of removal had no cause for filibuster- 
ing. Their object was plain and pronounced, and led by such 
men as Daniel Snyder, William McKelvy, Charles H. Doebler 
and Thomas A. Funston, their partisans stood up to the work, 
and every year showed an increasing vote for the re-location of 
tl\e seat of Justice. The legislative lobby prevented the necessary 
action, and the weary years dragged on and on. As a somewhat 
curious document, I copy a statement by citizens of the county in 
favor of the measure, which very fully sets out the course of the 
struggle, and furnishes some matter for thought. 



66 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

"rkmoval of the skat of justice of COIXMBIA COL'NTY. 

To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of 

the Commomoealth of Pennsylvania. 

Tlie undersigned, agents in behalf of the petitioners for re- 
moval of the seat of justice in Columbia county, beg leave to lay 
before you the following statement of the principle facts in the 
case, and the grounds on which they rely, to procure the equita- 
ble interference of your honourable bodies. 

By an Act of Assembly approved the 22d day of March 1813, 
the county of Columbia was erected out of a part of Old North- 
umberland. Its bounds by that act, were extended to the West 
branch of the Susquehanna, and included two large townships, 
(Chillisquaque and Turbut,) which were, soon after the county 
town was fixed at Danville, by an act of Assembly, struck off 
from Columbia, and re-annexed to Northumberland county. 

By the 9th sectiorf of the Act first above mentioned, it is pro- 
vided' "That the Governor shall appoint three discreet and disin- 
terested persons, not resident in the counties of Northumberland^ 
Union, or Columbia, whose duty it shall be, after being sworn or 
affirmed before some Judge or Justice of the Peace, to fix upon a 
proper and convenient site for a Court house, prison, and county 
offices, within the aforesaid county of Columbia, as near tJte cen- 
tre as the situation thereof vnll admit, and the said persons or a 
majority of them, having viewed the relative advantages of the 
several situations contemplated by the people, shall on or before 
the first day of July next, by a written report," &c. See act of 
Assembly session 1812-13, page 146. 

But two of the Commissioners appointed by the Governor at- 
tended ; and they did not comply with the requisitions of the act 
of Assembly, to place the seat of Justice "as near the centre as the 
situation thereof would admit," although the two townships above 
Trtentioned were at that time, a part of the county. It was known 
to some, and believed by all, that improper and unfair means 
had been used to procure the location at Danville — the most ob- 
vious of which was, the taking in the said townships, against the 
will of nine-tenths of the inhabitants, and retaining them until 
after the location was made. A large majority of the people im- 
mediately expressed their dissatisfaction with the decision of the 
Commissioners, and commenced operations to procure a proper 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 67 

location of their seat of justice, as will be seen by the following 
appeals to the Legislature. 

January 11, 1814, Mr RrrKRT presented nineteen petitions of 
similar tenor, from inhabitants of Columbia county, praying, for 
rejisons therein expressed, for the removal of the seat of justice of 
said county from the town of Danville to the town of Bloomsburg; 
and said petitions were read and referred to Messrs. Ru})ert, Milli- 
ken, Bollinger, Forster and Dingman — See Journal H. R. session 
1813-14, page 126. 

February 2, 1814, Mr. Rupert from the committee to whom 
were referred on the 11th ult. sundry petitions praying ifec, Re- 
port, That they have attended to the same, and on examination 
find that 1046 of the citizens of Columbia county have signed pe- 
titions i)raying the Legislature to pass a law removing the seat of 
justice from the town of Danville to the town of Bloomsburg. 
The petitioners state that the people of the county of Columbia 
have not l)een relieved from the numerous grievances Avhich they 
labored under, inasmuch as the seat of justice fixed by the com- 
missioners, at Danville, is on the very verge of the county, and 
only twelve miles from the old county town, [Sunbury] and that 
the town of Bloomsburg on Big Fishing Creek, a pure and navi- 
gable stream of water, and only one mile from the river Susce- 
hanna, Avill be more convenient and much more central. From a 
view of the map and the knowledge some of your committee have 
of Columbia county, they are of opinion that the seat of justice 
being fixed at Danville, does not comport with the meaning and 
spirit of the law, which declares in the ninth section, that the 
seat of justice shall be fixed as near the centre as the situation 
thereof will admit. Believing as they do, that the tOAvn of 
Bloomsburg is more central, and considering that it is in a fertile 
country and convenient to permanent streams of water suitable 
for water works, [so beneficial to country towns] they are of 
opinion that the j)rayer of the petitioners ought to be granted. 
They rejiorted the following resolution. 

Resolced, That a coimnittee be appointed to bring in a bill 
agreeable to the prayer of the petitioners. La,id on the table. 
See Journal H. R. session 1813-14, pages 270, 271. 

December 14, 1814. On motion of Messrs. Owen and Shaffer, 
ordered that an item of unfinished business, i-elative to the re- 



68 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

moval of the seat of justice of the county of Columbia from Dan- 
ville to Bloomsburg, be referred to the members from the counties 
of Northumberland, Union and Columbia. See Journal H. R. 
session 1814-15, page 54. 

March 1, 1815. Mr. Owen presented twenty petitions of simi- 
lar tenor from sundry inhabitants of Columbia county, praying 
the removal of the seat of justice of said county from Danville 
and said petitions were read and recommended to the early atten- 
tion of the next Legislature. See Journal H. R. page 498. 

While the foregoing proceedings were pending, the Citizens of 
Chillisquaque and Turbut townships were not inactive — with but 
one voice they had applied to be reannexed to Northumberland 
county ; and the Legislature by an act approved the day of 
detached them from the county of Colum- 
bia, and annexed them to Northumberland, thereby rendering 
Danville still more out of the centre, both of territory and popu- 
lation. 

The people under this new aspect of affairs, recoimnenced their 
api)lication to the Legislature for redress, and the following pro- 
ceedings were had. 

December 8, 1815, January 4, 1816, January 16, 1816. Peti- 
tions presented for removal &c. and referred to a committee, re- 
port unfavorable. See Journal of H. R. session 1815-16, pages 
15, 105, 210, 206. 

[On Thursday the 15th of February 1816 a meeting of delegates 
from a number of townships in the county, elected pursuant to a 
call of the standing committee, was held in Bloomsburg"for the pur- 
pose of devising measures to obtain a removal of the seat of justice 
for said county from Danville to a more central situation." The 
meeting was organized by appointing Col. Leonard Rupeit, Presi- 
dent, and Samuel Webb Jr. Secretary. The townships were rep- 
resented as follows: 

Bloom — Levi Aikman, Samuel Webb Jr. 
Briarcreek — John Stewart, George Kelchner. 
Catawissa — Major Joseph Paxton, William Brewer. 
Derry — Jacob Swisher, Marshal Girton. 
Fishingcreek — Daniel Bealer, William Robbins. 
Greenwood — Abner Mendenhall, Henry Miller. 
Sugarloaf — Philip Fritz, William Wilson. 



HISTOEY OF (JOLUMBIA COUNTY. 69 

The meeting unanimously resolved to petition the legislature 
to pass a law granting the citizens a right to vote "for the seat of 
Justice in said county," and Paxton, Mendenhall, and Webb Jr. 
were appointed a committee for thejjurpose of procuring the nec- 
essary legislation.] 

February '11, 1816. Mr. M'Clure presented a petition praying 
that a law may be passed to suspend the erection of public build- 
ings for the county of Columbia for one year, and that the citi- 
zens of said county may be authorized at a special or at the next 
general election, by their votes to fix on a place for the seat of 
justice for said county. Read and referred. See Journal H. R, 
session 1815-16, page 439. 

Report that they have had the same under consideration and 
are of opinion that Danville is not a suitable place for the seat of 
justice, being in a remol:o corner of the county of Cohimbia, and 
that there is another site quite as eligible, much nearer the centre 
and i)robably much more acceptable to the citizens generally. 
The connnittee are aware that the choice of a county town by the 
mode })ro))osed, is somew hat novel, but at the same time the 
choice of the majority is tlu' jn-inciple on which nil our laws are 
made and our government depends; a })rinciple which may be 
always lodged with safety in the hands of the people, who are the 
best judges of their interests. The committee therefore submit 
the following resolution, Resolved, That a committee be a})point- 
ed to bring in a bill agreeable to the prayer of the petitioners. 
See Journal if IT. R. session 1815-16, page 504. 

The above reasonable proposition was rejected by the House. 
See Journal of H. R. session 1815-16, pages 528, 529. 

February 1, 1821. On motion of Messrs. Kinny and Reese, 
ordered that the [)etitions presented on the 3()th ult. relative to 
the removal of the seat of justice of Columbia county, be refer- 
red to Messrs. Kinney, M'Clure, Baird, W. Smyth ' and Musser. 
See Journal of H. R. session 1*^20-21, page 482. 

March 6, 1821 : Mr. Kinney from the committee to whom were 
referred sundry petitions on the subject, on leave given, reported 
a bill No. 311, entitled An act to authorize the removal of the 
seat of justice in the county of Columbia and for other purposes. 
See Journal of H. R. session 1820-21, l)age 784. 

December 7, 1821 : On motion of Messrs. Clark and Scudder, 



70 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

ordered tliat aii item of uiifinislied business relative to the removal 
&c. be referred to the members from the counties of Cohimbia, 
Luzerne, Northumberland and Northampton. See Journal H. R. 
session 1821-22, page 51. The members from the counties of 
Berks, Schuylkill and Lycoming, were added to the connnittee. 
See Journal ]>. 71. 

Kei)ort unfavorable. See Journal of the House of Representa- 
tives, session 1821-22, page 80. 

From that time until the fall of 1833, there appears to have 
been no application to the Legislature ; but it was nevertheless a 
subject of constant anxiety within the county, and has always 
had a controlling influence in the election of members of Assem- 
bly and county otticers. No man can be elected to any oftice in 
the county, who is not avowedly in favour of the removal. As 
the public buildings had in part been erected the excitement 
would perhajts have been contined within the bounds of the 
county for some time longer, had not the Grand Jury at Novem- 
ber session 1833, reported to the Court, that the public records 
were in great danger of being destroyed by fire, for want of suit- 
aV)le buildings for their acconnuodation, and reconnnending the 
immediate erection of Are proof oftices. This re})ort aroused the 
peoj»le, who had long liefore determined that no further expendi- 
ture of their money should be made in buildings at Danville — pe- 
titions for removal were immediately circulated and signed with 
an alacrity, seldom before witnessed, by full two thirds of the 
taxables of the county. These petitions were ])resented in both 
branches of the Legislature and bills reported providing for the 
removal of the seat of justice. The bill in the Senate was only 
reached in order and acted on, and lost by a vote of eleven to fif- 
teen. 

Last year another appeal was made for relief, and bills again 
reported, but too late in the session to have any further action 
on them. 

It recpiires but a cursory view of the county map to discover, 
that Danville is very far from the centre of territory ; and that it 
is equally distant from the centre of population, is manifest from 
what follows. 

The townships most convenient to Danville are the following 



HLSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



71 



;iiul coiituiii the nuiuber of t:ixal)le8, paying tax as follow 

Taxables. 
Derry towiislii]* contains 850 

Mahoning (including Danville) 351 

Limestone 121 

Liberty 268 

Hemlock contains 327 taxables, one thinl 
of whom are nearer to Danville than to 
Bloomslmrg, hut none of them more than 
six miles from the latter j)lace 109 



s. 
Tax. 

$7«6.42 

1213.G2 

532.94 

498.78 



273.62 



Accommodated at Danville 


1199 


pay 


ing 


$3,300.38 


The townships most convenient 


to 


lilooms 


burg are 


Taxables 






paying tax. 


Mount Pleasant 


147 






% 311.21 


Bloom (including Bloomsburg) 


152 






1139.73 


Briar Creek 


340 






1033.23 


Catawissa 


345 






1075.32 


Greenwood 


256 






502.94 


Fishing Creek 


129 






218.78 


Madison • 


302 






514.45 


Mifflin 


370 






690.58 


Roaring Creek 


322 






608.99 


Sugar Loaf 


154 






228.78 


Hemlock two thirds 


218 






547.24 



Accommodated at Bloomsburg 3035 $6,871.25 

There is another view in which the relative position of Danville 
and l^loomsburg may be seen ; and it shows conclusively as we 
think, the propriety of removing the seat of Justice. P]ighteen 
hundred and forty-eight taxables residing in Bloom, Briarcreek, 
Mount Pleasant, (xreenwood. Fishing creek. Sugar loaf, and Mif- 
flin townships, all ))ass thnjugh Bloomsburg on tluiir way to Dan- 
ville. Few of them have less than fourteen miles, and many of 
them from twenty to thirty-five miles, travel to Danville. A lai'ge 
majority of 657 taxables residing in Catawissa and Roaring creek 
townshijjs, (say five sixths) are at least four miles nearer to 
BloomsV)urg than to Danville, and the remainder are not more 
than two miles further from Bloonisburg than from Danville — 



72 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

even one third of the 350 taxables in Derry, which we have 
set down to the credit of Danville are nearer to Bloomsburg 
than to Danville, and the remainder are not more than two miles 
fnrtlier from Bloomsburg than from Danville — the average 
of the other two thirds of Derry are not more than four miles fur- 
ther from Bloomsburg than from Danville. From Mahoning town- 
ship in which Danville is situated, containing 351 taxables the 
average travel to Bloomsburg will not be ten miles. Liberty and 
Limestone townships form the western bounds of the county and 
lie north and south of each other. Limestone contains 121 tax- 
ables — Liberty contains 268 taxables — these 389 will none of them 
have to travel more than eight miles further to reach Blooms- 
burg, than to reach Danville, and many of them not so far. 

We would further remai'k, that Danville is as far from the cen- 
tre of business as from the centre of pojjulation in the county. It 
draws a large portion of its business and supplies from a neigh- 
bouring county, by which it is almost surrounded and thus acts 
as a continual drain on the circulating medium of the county. 
Scarcely a single dollar of the money expended by suitors and 
others attending court, can ever find its way back into the inter- 
ior of the county — there is no trade between them, and no recip- 
rocity of interest between the interior of the county and its me- 
ti"Opolis. On the other hand, Bloomsburg is not only very near 
the centre of territory and population, but it is also the centre of 
business. It is the natural outlet and commands the trade of 
Hemlock, Madison, a portion of Derry, Greenwood, Sugar Loaf, 
Fishing Creek, Mount Pleasant, Bloom, and a portion of Briar 
Creek townships. It is also in the line of communication for a 
large portion of the county, with the markets of Pottsville, Mauch 
Chunk, and places below those points. 

With a knowledge of all these facts and circumstances, it is 
with the deepest sense of injuries sustained, and the unnecessary 
inconvenience they have laboured under for many years past that 
a large majority of the Citizens of Columbia county, once more 
make their ai)peal to the Legislature for relief — they ask no boon ; 
but as freemen they appeal to that natural sense of justice, inher- 
ent in the breast of every honest and unprejudiced man, and de- 
mand a restoration of valuable rights and privileges, unjustly ta- 
ken, and unjustly withheld from them." 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



r3 



At last however, on tlie 24th day of February 1845, the legislature 
})assed an act authorizing a vote on the question of the location of 
the seat of Justice, and un<ler its provisions, in the October follow- 
ing, the j)eo})le of the county settled the question by a direct vote. 
The result was as follows : 

REMOVAL 1 845. 



Townships 



Bloom , 

Briarcreek 

Catawissa 

Centre. ... 

1 It'rry 

P^ishingcreek. . . 

Franklin 

Greenwood. . . . , 

Hemlock , 

Jackson ... 

Liberty 

Linu'stone 

Madison 

Mahoning 

Maine 

Mifflin 

Montour 

Mount Pleasant . 

Orange 

Paxton District 
Roavingcreek . . 

Sugarloaf 

Valley 



Majority for Removal , 



5 

c 

c 

-r. 

cfq 




392 


3 


77 


107 


179 


9 


169 




77 


166 


180 


1 


64 


42 


189 


2 


178 


15 


52 




3 


181 


30 


84 


188 


53 


5 


689 


108 




121 


24 


82 


35 


128 




175 


7 


80 


1 


211 


15 


217 




8 


145 


2913 


1579 


1334 





The public buildings were completed, and the Records were re- 
moved from Danville in Novend)er 1847, and the first court was 
held in Bloomsburg in January 1848. 



74 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



EHiECTIOlSr i^ETXJI^iTS 



IT has been thought sufficient to go back to 1860 with the tab- 
ular election returns. That was a period when parties seemed 
to be breaking up, and politicians were seeking new combinations. 
From that time the important elections are all given, and for our 
citizens are complete and valuable. No politician can be thor- 
oughly posted, nor able to talk intelligently upon the drift of af- 
fairs, without having at hand the results of political contests. 
Under the head of "Removal" will be found the official vote on 
that question, under the head of "Poor Houses" the official vote 
on that question, and at the end of this chapter the official vote 
on the License question in 1873. These are data upon which to 
base calculations, comparisons and results. 



PRESIDENT — 1 860. 



DISTRICTS. 

Beaver 

Benton 

Berwick 

Bloom East ) 

Bloom West j 

Briarcreek 

Catawissa 

Centre 

Conyngham N. 

Conyngham S. 

Fishingcreek 

Franklin 

Greenwood 

Hemlock 

Jackson 

Locust 

Madison 

Main 

Mifflin 



} 



BRECKENRIDGE. 

113 

142 

49 

155 

118 

24 

116 

35 

206 

53 
139 
104 

71 
170 
139 

70 
172 



DOUGLAS. 



52 



16 



LINCOLN. 

29 
41 

80 

273 

58 
135 
111 

91 

54 

58 
155 

72 

16 
135 

57 

19 

48 



12 



HI^TOJiY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



75 



BRECKKNRIIXH-:. DOUGLAS, LINCOLN . 15KLL. 

Montour 35 47 

Mt. Pleasant 75 65 

Orange 97 6 76 

Pine 52 28 

Roaringcreek 38 40 

Scott 80 169 

Siigarloaf 114 16 



2367 



86 



1873 



14 



PRESIDENT 1864. 



DISTRICTS. 



IJeaver 

Benton 

Berwick 

Bloom East ) 
Bloom West ) 

l^riarcreek 

Catawissa 

Centre 

Conyngham N) 
Conyngham S j" 
Fishingcreek . . . . 

Franklin 

Greenwood 

Hemlock 

Jackson. 

Locust , 

Madison 

Main 

Mifflin 

Montour 

Mt. Pleasan t 

Orange 

Pine 

Roaringcreek . . 

Scott ... 

Sugarloaf 



Army. 



m'ci. 



ELL.\N. 


LINCOLN. 


178 


7 


115 


37 


76 


85 


208 


249 


146 


67 


124 


153 


177 


101 


173 


123 


184 


39 


62 


53 


147 


145 


157 


47 


70 


9 


220 


115 


196 


36 


107 


4 


184 


36 


69 


38 


99 


58 


103 


65 


77 


19 


51 


27 


143 . 


160 


119 


21 


3185 


1739 


182 


175 



3367 



1914 



76 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 





1868 


1869 




President. 


Governor. 




o 


>- 


> 
o 

5 


05 


Beaver 


194 


21 


190 


12 


Benton 


186 


58 


185 


54 


Berwick 


68 


131 


68 


133 


Bloom E. 


329 


317 


309 


291 


Bloom W. 










Briarcreek 


167 


70 


154 


64 


Catawissa 


138 


219 


135 


195 


Centralia Bor. 


138 


96 


132 


89 


Centre 


194 


100 


184 


81 


Conyngham N. 
Conyngham S. 249 


59 


172 


13 


Fishingcreek 


269 


61 


245 


53 


Franklin 


49 


63 


54 


54 


Greenwood 


181 


165 


166 


165 


Hemlock 


168 


63 


154 


54 


Jackson 


113 


7 


115 


8 


Locust 


260 


141 


232 


102 


Madison 


208 


55 


109 


10 


Main 


122 


10 


186 


49 


Mifflin 


195 


43 


196 


40 


Montour 


79 


58 


74 


48 


Mt. Pleasant 


110 


63 


93 


51 


Orange 


149 


68 


137 


47 


Pine^ 


112 


39 


95 


37 


Roaringcreek 


55 


40 


54 


34 


Scott 


146 


178 


143 


147 


Sugarloaf 


143 


18 


132 


11 




4022 


2143 


3714 


1845 



18 


70 


C0N(3 


RESS. 


r 

w 
o 
o 


d 


153 


14 


164 


49 


45 


147 


175 


151 


104 


159 


140 


44 


183 


160 


127 


88 


147 


67 


129 


3 


74 


1 


226 


44 


46 


42 


173 


154 


164 


56 


106 


10 


206 


95 


159 


34 


103 


9 


180 


46 


80 


40 


84 


43 


110 


46 


88 


33 


51 


34 


125 


131 


122 


10 



3464 1710 



nitSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 77 



1872 
Townships. 



Beaver 

Benton 

Berwick 

Bloom E 

Bloom W 

Biiarcreek 

Catawissa 

Centre 

Centralia 

Conyngham N. 
Conyi^gham S. , 
Fishingcreek . . . 

Franklin 

Gri'enwood .... 

Hemlock 

Jackson 

Locust 

Main 

Madison 

Mifflin 

Montour 

Mount Pleasant. 

Orange 

Pine 

Roaringcreek . . . 

Scott 

Sugarloaf 



Governor. 


President. 


c 
o 

5S 


p 


Greeley. 


i 


182 


10 


131 


11 


194 


49 


158 


56 


81 


242 


72 


246 


222 


161 


148 


167 


127 


163 


101 


211 


152 


66 


125 


65 


120 


263 


95 


163 


163 


76 


134 


69 


118 


73 


77 


87 


145 


11 


110 


9 


64 


36 


55 


29 


269 


46 


211 


49 


50 


54 


36 


44 


185 


157 


161 


140 


140 


66 


120 


64 


104 


12 


7 


12 


236 


119 


154 


111 


108 


18 


95 


11 


166 


54 


137 


45 


198 


46 


175 


48 


94 


43 


70 


50 


97 


58 


75 


56 


146 


61 


126 


86 


106 


23 


85 


20 


50 


36 


36 


34 


159 


6 


114 


131 


150 


18 


124 


13 



3826 2110 3001 2009 



78 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



THE LOCAL OPTION VOTE. 



Tlie following are 


the official vote 


s 01 the ( 


litierent tov 


rnships 


and boroughs on the 


questions of License or 


no License, 


March 


21, 1873. 






Maj 


orities. 


DISTRICTS. 


For 


Against 


For Against 


Beaver, 


116 


4 


112 




Benton, 


113 


81 


32 




Berwick, 


65 


212 




147 


Bloom East, 


206 


106 


100 




Bloom West 


119 


126 




7 


Briarcreek, 


83 


68 


15 




Catawissa, 


159 


122 


37 




Centre, 


74 


83 




9 


Centralia, 


74 


35 


39 




Conyngham N., 


50 


— 


50 




Conyngham S., 


109 


— 


109 




Fishingcreek, 


127 


76 


51 




Franklin, 


52 


31 


21 




Greenwood, 


130 


155 




25 


Hemlock, 


51 


107 




56 


Jackson, 


81 


16 


65 




Locust, 


206 


42 


164 




Madison, 


97 


65 


32 




Main, 


95 


8 


87 




Mifflin, 


150 


44 


106 




Montour, 


72 


22 


50 




Mt. Pleasant, 


59 


43 


16 




Orange, 


86 


79 


7 




Pine, 


46 


54 




8 


Roaringcreek, 


56 


10 


i6 




Scott, 


55 


169 




114 


Sugarloaf, 


93 


27 


66 
1205 






366 








366 





Majority for License. 



839 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 79 



1876. President. 

DISTRICTS. S^ ^ 

® fC 

Beaver 264 29 

Berwick 118 213 

Benton 221 41 

Bloom E 244 195 

Bloom W 140 191 

Briarcreek 155 52 

Catawissa 194 229 

Centralia 122 67 

Centre 191 65 

Conyngham N 128 8 

Conyngham S 139 6 

Fishingcreek 294 61 

Franklin 59 57 

Greenwood 203 166 

Hemlock 169 52 

Jackson 122 11 

Locust 272 125 

Madison 181 57 

Main 133 14 

MitHin 200 40 

Montour 99 53 

Mt. Pleasant 102 61 

Orange 136 69 

Pine 131 80 

Roaringcreek 63 42 

Scott 151 122 

Sugarloaf 171 13 

Total 4394 2069 



80 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



PRESIDENT 1 880 



a O :^ 

DISTRICTS. O * ^ 

Beaver 229 29 

Benton 211 54 5 

Berwick Boro 190 284 8 

Bloom E , 295 202 4 

Bloom W 150 173 9 

Briarcreek . . 157 57 15 

Catawissa 230 256 

Centralia Boro 159 94 8 

Centre 207 56 10 

Conyngham, N 163 28 6 

Couyngham, S 101 27 31 

Fishingcreek 288 71 5 

Franklin 56 53 

Greenwood .... 194 157 15 

Hemlock 160 62 2 

Jackson 129 13 

Locust 289 129 

Madison 199 47 1 

Main 131 7 1 

Mifflin 207 49 

Montour 80 47 9 

Mount Pleasant 105 52 

Orange 112 

Pine 131 

Roaringcreek 82 

Scott East 98 

Scott West 67 

Sugarloaf 178 

4598 2236 
Prohibition ticket 28. 



70 


41 


35 


6 


31 


3 


88 


10 


53 


1 


12 


2 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



81 



P5 
W 

> 
O 

Eh 



1^ 
O 
Q 

O 

H 
O 


I— « 

o 



Pierce P. . 



Tomllnson G. 
McMichael 1. . 



H fChase P 
§ Cake G.. 



I ElUott D . 

I Broslus R 

L 



Junkln I 



w J 

Si 

H Clark 

« 

Oh 



I Rawle R 

« L 

cc" rcrossman P.... 



Dewoody G 
Merrick I . . . 



Africa D 



o Greer R . 

m I 

o 

O ^' Duff I .... 

O I 

Black D .. 



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.»OU5C^OS'^f-'ffI00T-< 



C< . «0 CO CO ^ « 1-" 



• ©« CO ■ oo :ic ;-H 



'''SSS'*?2iS"'"'''"'S'"'-o^^'*<ocooit-u..-n-oaioo50 to 



55 tr :: ^ 2 3 S ?* "i " = ""^ 'S '-' ® ■<* *• "* =0 — ' 3t- 00 — Oa CO r-. t- ' lO 



04 -00 -^ C« ?C *-< 



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^ -* ;COlO ;t-eO'N 



coos -rH •'J'CO 0(N 



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coto— 'eJifte»o>too-«i-c-<T 

T- Tjl O CO ^ (M I ~ '~ - 
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rHT-TjlOCO ^(Ml-lCr-ftNO-^GO-T^i-tOSCO 



COOO-fO'^OOJOOOr^OCOCOl— 



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CO ^:) -rH . T* 01 . o©» 



"-I— ' . ;<S : CO CO X N -^ 11 



<s :coi-io» ..-(t-i^ : I r^ 



CO "* rfr Tjt o ^ w5 CO Tt" CO I— ©J as ^ to CO GO 00 CO CO CO 00 1— o Tjf o c*r t- lo 
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rH j-< r*< to CO ^ CO t- ur T-< ^J to CO CJ -^ i-« Oi CO -^ -* CO »0 (N ■— •"* t- T-l 



rwilllams P 


•O •OT'*(SCO 

;eo ; r : ; ■ ; 


.CO e* 


• CO CO 


.-*-( 


•tOOJ ■ • 


CO 


1 Howard G 


1 ■eii-*coo>>ai-ii-o>cot-i.'5 
. • to t-< r- Cfl 


• COrH 


I'"' \ 


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I'* ;s" 


00 



Olr— :(M - •oi'N N ; 



: ;G^ ::o :Oi \^r-\^ : i -^ 






S I Davles R I ^"tjti'K^^wi^^J^oJSmt-'.'-.iioso^'^iS^cooS'^-^t 



»— b-— ■OCOg-<l3005'CCnOCO— •t-0«ODtOO — l-OCO(NOCOt- I 



Pettlt 


P... 




1 ■ r- : 1- -* SI CO ; ; . , 




. ct^ CO 


r- _ ^ r- O 04 


5 


Arinst 


rong 


G.... 


1 -COCOlNO-^rHt-CMiaoOL-S 
;«0 r-r-l .-Irt r- 


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; , ffl TT CO (M C4 .— rH 

: : •« o< 
: : : 





! Stewart I. 



« — - -^ CO « O tP 0« 



•W .COrHOS .rHi-HrH 



Pattlson D 



H2;^SJS'5"'S"'~'*'»S''5Or)iTl-#t0C0CJh-C0 — t-35!OOtO CO 



* rH (M rH rH 



Beaver R | -s^2S^i^'^^^^5;q;==s??--=--=^sss5;;.-t;^ 



I^^M. 



■ ^x 



ofl-i l2^^|<^-~t^'c5§^g• 
oocsrt^SSS'.=i2j<g.^ 



§-Sq a a £^ i* £ 2 spaS 52 ss s 

5a><u-H,iii,cs<u<uoo.2tHt.<uSo* 



SB 



C3 — 



' bC.S 
1 .5 ?^ a 



SS: 



^1 
s:^c3 

- o o S 
Htwysto 



82 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



p^ TFrederlck 


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• to rH . 


« X 


« -(N (M 


• '^ ; • 


: : ton 


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o SmltH P 

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•«■»!-( 


©jiom 




- 



(H Derr D 

« 



cc-firsi— ooocftO■^'^*Jr5^-• 



co?0'— — «oc*0'^os©a?o 



QOCNOJ'^CDCO-'-COl—COOStOlCitOTliC^^^CQaib- COOt-OllCO«) I o 



^(MC«<Nl-(r-«0=,— I.-. 



cq ^- ^ — [>i ^ ^ ^ 



Rice R 



; Oi ^ I- to '^ — to c 



•3^Cqs<JwOeO — «OCY3: 



O -+ CO CQ t- 



C^OTtOO-^TfXUSi-HCniOTlfCXJ-^T-HOSCO TpTtcClCi-trHTjil— .-H lo 



fMcKamey G. 



:t5 rH . :v- : 



w < Eves P 

§^ 

as I Hannon D 

o 
o 



• oj aoeo .05 Or 



I »-" T— C* »-t t-H T-l (M ^ rH »-« (>l f- T-l rH 



I C •* -^ (M O 



fMcGarele G ! 



miOOOiCOi-itNOOO 



•05r-i «^ 



K ' Mourey T) 

H 

CO KosfPDbauder R. 



t'"lOO;eOtOOmTt«t-«OtOOi— 0a<0C0*n«©»ftOO«0'*O''t^OWtD 
aiO^-itOOOOQOT#OOOt-»C"^« -dltMw^tOT-iOOt-OOOOSOSOOtO 

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Supplee R 



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Ttr-iCTwiOi— CCUi'#ir^tliT-i05'* ■^Cr?-*»CC^T--3«iCT-- 



o /-Webster G.. 



>O9J00'*r-l>100.-l .-* -COCN ,T-I ■ .T-l Om«r-HM.-l|m 



c3 J 

0) I Hart D ISjoeiSSSKmSooosBKlc'SioSTiiuJOTcss 



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■ T-i<M5JlN — — (Nt-i 



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O /-storm D 



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.-"<M'<#«0'>0-rt-:;aO»Oi-'MW^OO-^f-HCsc 



^'TjICOlONT-lTt'b-t-H 



PRESIDENT JUDGE, 
Wm Elwell 



i-HCqT*T*0-^OtM'3«CJOb-0»OG^»a T COCOOO*^^— t— '-'CO* 
-I3?t— ^C^fNOOOO-tlCOCO-^Oi-^tCiOT-'C'll— OiOOOCC 



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^W2 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



83 



GOVERNOR, 1882. 



Official returns from the State show a total vote of 709,217, an 
increase of 135,467, over the vote for State Treasurer one year ago. 
Senator Stewart's total vote is 48,602, ai^ainst 49,984 for Mr. Wolfe 
in 1881. The following table gives the total vote for the three 
candidates for governor, com])ared Avith the vote of 1881 for the 
same party candidates. 

1882. 1881. 



COT'NTIES. > 

< 

W_ 

Adams 2606 

Allegheny 18298 

Armstrong 3468 

Beaver 2650 

Bedford 3021 

Berks 8142 

Blair . 4487 

Bradford 5199 

Bucks 6504 

Butler 3941 

Cambria 3279 

Cameron 481 

Carbon 2423 

Centre Pattison 

Chester 7713 

Clarion 1969 

Clearfield 2297 

Clinton 1730 

Columbia 1736 

Crawford 3711 

Cumberland 3645 

Dauphin 6941 

Delaware 4586 

Elk 399 

Erie 5218 

Fayette 3908 

Forest Pattison 

Franklin 3653 

Fulton 611 

Greene 1635 

Huntingdon 2420 



C/2 



O 



o 



318i 

16191 

3351 

2950 

3406 

15922 

3970 

4217 

7770 

3464 

4247 

484 

3061 



148 

4841 

185 

720 

203 

259 

266 

1262 

603 

512 

188 

86 

177 



s plurality, 879 
6290 1125 



3473 
4063 
2661 
4139 
5071 
4618 
5671 
3828 
1289 
5727 
5108 



112 
127 
218 
102 
1520 
373 
726 
931 
150 
575 
96 



's plurality,, 90 
4456 1213 
1036 86 
3546 29 
2562 750 



2348 
15679 
2893 
2949 
3163 
4650 
3275 
4387 
6240 
3517 
3117 

519 
2152 
2344 
5636 
1739 
1814 
1819 
1247 
4507 
2922 
5793 
3221 

620 
4656 
3458 

371 
4090 

768 
1530 
2629 



2871 
9860 
2»66 
2654 
3370 
9920 
2435 
2969 
6996 
3327 
3565 

479 
2719 
3491 
4298 
2734 
2994 
2525 
2878 
3718 
4023 
3800 
2372 
1212 
4130 
3752 

255 
4011 
1133 
2976 
2034 



37 

5948 
317 
340 
120 
139 
297 
1510 
556 
771 
144 

14 
103 
185 
941 
132 

55 
273 
127 
590 
150 
951 
1574 

20 
292 

88 

3 

147 

8 

7 

396 



84 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



K O « 

W 03 ■< 

COINTIES. >; S t; 

•^ \. '"^ 

*< < u 

W PLi d2 

Indiana 3896 1^93 liu" 

Jefferson 2598 2581 125 

Jnniata 1372 1638 53 

Lackawanna .... 5476 6655 752 

Lancaster 13989 9866 2525 

Lawrence 2417 1755 584 

Lebanon 4303 2778 215 

Lehitih 5847 7948 98 

Luzerne 7317 1 1830 1642 

Lycoming 3386 5114 280 

McKean 1791 2137 529 

Mercer 4268 4521 385 

Mifflin 1375 1776 182 

Monroe 635 2934 66 

Montgom y . . . 9287 10588 622 

Montour 1037 1664 75 

Northaniptom . . . 4068 8741 645 

Kortluimberland 3876 5054 582 

Perry 2634 2674 90 

Philadelphia 70940 67287 8085 

Pike 256 1088 88 

Potter.... 834 838 418 

Schuylkill 7362 10550 1077 

Snyder 1873 1446 184 

Somerset 3350 2271 699 

Sullivan 445 874 30 

Susquehanna 2864 3198 689 

Tioga 2270 2257 221 1 

Union 1303 1394 682 

Venango 2386 2697 401 

Warren 1891 1835 439 

Washington 5192 5238 220 

Wayne 1462 2943 781 

Westuioreland . . 5644 7242 242 

Wyoming 1421 1905 165 

York 6148 10439 261 

Totals 310460 350155 48602 



< 
pq 


P4 

n 
o 

1^ 


1 

o 


3109 


1163 


161 


2203 


2212 


86 


1446 


1707 


29 


4220 


3116 


945 


9899 


5770 


1405 


2062 


1221 


932 


3191 


1622 


65 


4468 


5756 


67 


5870 


7695 


1447 


2751 


3629 


447 


2477 


2192 


897 


3971 


3607 


535 


1469 


1689 


197 


649 


2338 


34 


8707 


8949 


944 


891 


1340 


136 


2714 


5198 


411 


2948 


4410 


2084 


2420 


2435 


107 


55866 


42357 


14722 


296 


863 


8 


1236 


594 


48 


4963 


8089 


2141 


1367 


1278 


860 


3528 


2053 


103 


417 


677 


48 


3421 


2542 


127 


2737 


1297 


695 


638 


1134 


1720 


2302 


2058 


653 


1927 


1360 


281 


5362 


4703 


112 


1720 


2254 


748 


4398 


5222 


211 


1559 


1779 


30 


4307 


7068 


222 



265295 258471 49984 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 85 



CHAPTER XI. 



BLOO^vdlSBTJ IRO. 



IX 1776, Wyoming township extended from the mouth of P"'ish- 
ingcreek to the state line on the north, and Mr. James Mc- 
CUure, who in 1772 had settled on the flats above the mouth of 
the creek, was one of the committee of safety for the township. 
Gradually the name Wyoming was more definitely fixed to the 
upper end of the valley, as the state line was pushed northward 
and the Connecticut claimants either relinquished or sold, or 
were confirmed in their claims tlii'ough submission to the Pennsyl- 
vania authorities. But the great beauties of the Susquehainia 
valley are not the exclusive property of what is now called Wyo- 
ming, but are distributed along the river ; and to day there is no 
landscape anywhere superior to several views of the valley from 
the mouth of Fishingcreek to Berwick, which can be obtained in 
the vicinity of Bloonisburg. 

From the roof of the Bloon.sburg State Normal School build- 
ing you have conuuand of scenery unsurpassed by any in the 
state. Your eye, for twelve miles along the winding Susquehanna, 
rests upon the fertile valleys north of the river, and on the south it 
is relieved by the river hill and the majestic Catawissa moun- 
tain. Off to the north the Nob mountain looms up in its pictur- 
esqueness, and the valley of the Fishingcreek seems shut up 
among the mountains ; while immediately at your feet spread out 
the fifteen hundred acres of land upon which the tov^n of Blooms- 
burg is built, bounded on the north and west by the Fishingcreek 
and south by the ever beautiful Susquehanna, making in the 
sparkling sunlight, a band of silver encircling the green valley 
ujHin which your eye is resting with unmeasured delight. 
Through the midst of the valley with shriek and whoop rush the 



86 



HISTOEY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



trans of cars over tlie Lackawanna & Bloomsburg railroad, cross- 
ino- the creek near its moutli and sweeping down the bank of the 
winding river, awakening the echoes of the rock of the "Lover's 
Leap." Scarcely has your eye lost the passing train, before along 
the mountain side across the river, and in full view, like a demon 
roaring for his prey, scattering smoke and fire over the watei-s, 

leaps the echoing train over 
the North & West Branch 
railway, and escapes in a cloud 
of smoke round the point of 
the mountain opposite the 
jnouth of Fishingcreek. While 
at the same moment, off to 
your right, the shrill whistle of 
the train upon the Catawissa 
road, calls your ear, and cross- 
ing the Lackawanna & Blooms- 
burg at right angles, moves 
majestically over the Susque- 
hanna river bridge, and over 
the North & West Branch 
railway at the east end, and 
wakes the echoes of the Catawissa hills. 

From "The Grove" north of the Normal school much of the 
same view can be obtained, modified in some respects, but with 
added features, which in the eyes of some persons enchance its 
beauties. 

On "The Rocks" north of the town, the same general features 
are conmianded; and in addition thereto a long stretch of the 
Fishingcreek, rolling its pur-' waters and beating vainly against 
the base of the cliff, with the L'ondale Furnaces in the distance, 
throwing up their lurid lights, impress other sight seers as being 
altogether the most delightful and romantic. 

So, the brow of the hill on the Lightstreet road, half a mile 
north east of the town affords a view hardly, if at all, surpassed by 
any of the others. It loses some points of great beauty, but it 
adds to the others a view of the valley of Scott, Centre and Briar- 




j. J. Huowi-:ii s Iu:lLDI^o. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 87 

creek townships, whose fertile fields and green hills give delight 
to the eye and to the heart. 

But it is not only in the matter of local scenery that Blooms- 
burg is worthy of the observation of the tourist. It has one fea- 
ture which is absolutely unique. Its drives are perfectly charm- 
ing, and no matter by whicii of some six or eight road^ yai de- 
part, you can at the end of a delightful drive of from three to ten 
miles or more, re-enter it by another. You need not for many 
times go over any portion of a road once travelled, and you will 
find each and all of them safe and good and picturesque. Thus 
your drives are almost ever new, and you can make different com- 
binations daily. Indeed it could not well be otherwise with the 
Susquehanna river on one side, the big Fishingcreek, the little 
Fishingcreek and the Hemlock creek all in the immediate neigh- 
borhood, diversifying the face of the country, and hiding in their 
turnings and connexions many beautiful nooks and shady dells 
and barren rocks. 

The vicinity was settled at an early day by several families, and 
Major Moses Van Campen says that in 1778 he, with a com- 
pany of about twenty men, built a fort on Fishingcreek about 
three miles from its mouth. He also says that "in the spring of 
1781, we built a fort on the widow McClui-e's plantation, called 
McClure's fort, where our provisions were stored." 

The town of Bloomsburg was laid out in 1802 by LudwigEyer. 
The name was pronounced as if spelled Oyer, and the place was 
known as Oyersburg. Many of the descendants of the Proprie- 
tor Btill reside here and are of our most thrifty and respected cit- 
izens. Mr. Eyer rested in the Lutheran burying ground which he 
gave to the congregation, for many years, but his remains were 
recently removed to Catawissa. He was a generous hearted and 
liberal minded man, of a stock of whom Pennsylvania is proud. 

Bloom township was one of the original twelve with which the 
county was organized in 1813. From it have been taken a part 
of Mount Pleasant, a i)art of Orange, a part of Centre, and the 
whole of Scott. What was left of the township of Bloom was or- 
ganized by an Act of Assembly of March 4, 1 870 as "The Town 
of BlooTusburg." No town in the state has a more healthy loca- 
tion. It is built on a high bluff on the Fishingcreek, about one 



88 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



and a half miles from the river in a straight line north, and about 
two miles fi'om the mouth of the creek going southwest. The 
ground descends towards the river and the mouth of the creek so 
as to afford the most complete system of drainage for all parts of 
the town. 

A chapter might be written concerning the improvements and 
changes of the last thirty years. In 1850 the bridge over the 
brook below the old Forks Hotel on Second street was less than 
twenty feet wide, and there were no sidewalks at the point of 
crossing the brook. At the southwest corner of Second and Iron 
streets it required a flight of five or six steps to get into the door, 
now level with the pavement. The road from the foot of Second 
street wound round the bank of the creek instead of going 
straight to the bridge as at the present. Market street below Third 

instead of being a splendid 
thoroughfare a hundi-ed feet 
wide, was a narrow, crooked, 
illkept road. The road to 
Espy crossed the canal twice 
l)y liigh and dangerous bridges 
within a distance of three 
iiundred yards, instead of nan- 
ning along the berme bank, 
a safe, level and delightful 
way. To speak of the private 
dwellings which have taken 
the place of old tumble-down 
structures, would be to make reference to most of the houses in the 
town, as Bloomsburg has been substantially rebuilt within twenty- 
five years. No such thing will, therefore, be attempted. 

To the public buildings and business places some attention is 
pro])er. The Normal School building is mentioned under the 
proper title in this volume, together with other educational matter 

The Court House, built in 1846, is perhaps hardly up to the 
present requirements of the business for which it was intended, 
the bulk of the records, and the legal business having very con- 
siderably increased since the County seat was removed to Blooms- 
burg. The old jail has been altogether abandoned, and a new 




MOVKR BROS. BUILDING. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



89 



prison has lately been erected, in Avhich as much comfort can be 
had, as is consistent with the place and the occasion of the visit. 





COr-U-MBIA COUNTY PRISOX. 

The Lackawant.a & Bloorasburg railroad passes through the 
town, with a depot on Market & Sixth. The North Branch 
Canal lies three hundred yards south of the Railroad. The North 
Branch of the Susquehanna is half a mile south of the Canal, and 
on tlu" opposite bank of the river runs the North and West Branch 
railway. At Rupert, by the Philadelphia & Reading railroad, 
you take the omnibus to Bloomsburg. 

Oi tlie newspapers mention will be made under the proper title; 
but it may be here said that there are at present, published weekly, 
The Columbian, democratic; The Bepublican, republican; The 
Sentinel, democratic; and the Journal, prohibitionist. 

The streets are numbered from the Fishing creek towards the 
river and trend east and west, nearly; and the cross streets run- 
ning neariy north and south are ?ianiecl They vary in width from 
thirty three feet to one hundred. Most of them are over forty 
feet wide, and are well paved and well lighted. The Hotels, the 
Court House, the Normal School, and the main business of the 
town are upon Second street, a wide, paved and cindered 
thoroughfare. 



90 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

In addition to the many handsome residences, the buildings 
which give a substantial and imposing character to the town are 
the Exchange Hotel, opened in 1874 — the Central Hotel — the 
Columbian block — the block of buildings occupied by D. Lowen- 
berg and J. Cadman — the one by Holmes & Schuyler — the corner 
by A. J. Evans — the building of D. A. Creasy — the corner of 
Clark &, Son — Miss Feterman's building — McKinney's building 
Rawling's building — Barton's building — Moyer Bros' building — 
and the old McKelvy corner, refitted by Knorr & Wintersteen: 
On the north side we have Robbins, Gilmore, Sharpless, Moyer 
Bros' drug store, Brower's building, Hartnian's, Sterner's, 
Furman's, and Kleim's ; all of which, with what is known as the 
Exchange block, are three or four story buildings, and of consid- 
erable dimensions. 

The Opera House on Centre street below Second, capable of 
seating about one thousand ])ersons, has been fitted up to attract 
and accommodate a variety of excellent entertainments. It is con- 
venient and accessible, and well suited for lectures and public 
meetings. 

Of the industries carried on in the town we can only make 
cursory mention, to wit: The extensive Car Shops of (t. M. & 
J. K. Lockard — the Iron Foundry and Machine Shops of Harman 
& Hassert — the Foundry of B. F. Sharpless — the Iron fence man- 
ufactory of Michael Hess — the Carriage shops of M. C. Sloan & 
Brother — the planing mill of Charles Krug — the new, large and 
substantial Woolen Mills of S. A. & E. C. Caswell ; and lastly the 
Anthracite furnaces of the Bloomsburg Iron Company, and of 
William Neal & Sons. 

Nor, in the enumeration of the advantages and attractions, ed- 
ucational, business and social, should we omit to mention the 
Sanitarium, an institution established about three years ago, for 
the special treatment of nervous affections. It is a large and 
handsome structure, fitted with all the modern improvements of 
heat, light, water and ventilation. It is convenient of access by 
rail, has pleasant and extensive grounds, and is in hands fully 
competent to the treatment of the diseases for which it was 
specially intended, as well as for general hygienic purposes. 

The churches are as follows : St. Paul's Episcopal, corner of 
Second and Iron street — Presbyterian, on Market street below 



IILSTOliY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



91 



TO P 3 ^ »j 

•* c^ <» X '5 iJ 

re — •-• .« r^ 




92 



JIISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 



Seoond — Lutherai), Market street above Second — Reformed, 
corner of Third and Iron streets — Baptist, Third street, above 
Iron — Roman Catholic, Third street below Iron— Methodist, 
Third street below Market — Evangelical, Fourth street above 
Iron — Welsh Baptist, First street, east of Iron — Welsh Wesleyan, 
Iron street, north of First street — African Methodist, First street, 
below Market. 

There are two money institutions: The First National Bank, 
and the Bloomsburg Banking Com]iany. The capital stock of 
each is fifty thousand dollars. 

The Bloomsburg Iron Com])auy was incorporated as the 
Bloomsburg Railroad Iron com})any, by Act of Assembly of June 
22, 1839, P. L., 384. The furnaces were erected in 1844, and 
may be said to have been and remain in continuous 0[)eration, 
and mainly in the ownership of the original proprietors or their 
descendants. 




The furnaces of Neal & Sons were erected by Messrs. McKelvy, 
Neal& Co. in 1853 and were put in blast, April 14, 1854. They 
have never stopped except for improvements or repairs, and are 
in successful operation. 

The Rosemont Cemetery Company was incorporated by Act 
of Assembly of A])ril 2, 1853, P. L., 285. Several acres of land 
were purcliased by the managers at various times, the area now 
comprising nearly ten acres ; and the grounds have been tastefully 
laid out. Most of the lots have been sold, and many beautiful 
and some elegant and costly momunents are being erected therein. 



III.'STOJiY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 93 

By the late o])eniiig of Centre street, the grading of First street 
and the Cemetery grounds bordering on it, has been rendered 
necessary and is progressing. This with other contempLated im- 
})roveinents will shortly i)ut the grounds in excellent condition. 

The Bloonisburg Gas company was incorporated May 28, 1874, 
by the couit, with a capital of thirty thousand dollars. Gas was 
suj>plied to private takers and business places, October 28, 1874 . 
and the streets were light^'d for the first time. May 1, 1875. 

The Park ! aye, the Park. Of that something ought to be 
said, if it be only to call attention to the fact, that although the 
grounds have been purchased, the Town Council has never thought 
it worth while to lay out the grounds, or })lant a tree, or even 
make the fence. If proper and i)ronipt attention had been given 
to it it would now be a beautiful and attractive spot, provided 
with sparkling fountains, lighted by gas, sweet Avith the perfume 
of flowers, shaded by thrifty forest trees, underneath which chil- 
dren, and nurse carriages, free from dust, dirt and danger could 
spend the long summer days in unmitigated delight. This should 
be done, and at least two other plots of ground adjoining the town 
north and east, upon which native forest trees are now growing 
should be purchased by the Town and fitted for the public prom- 
enade. It should be done now while they are cheap and not left 
until they are either not procurable, or if in market, at a price 
three times what it would be at {)resent. Let us have plenty of 
these public jjlaces. 

The Bloomsburg Water Company was organized August 14, 
1877, with a cai)ital of !§30,00L). The water is filtered into a well 
from the Fishingcreek, and is forced, by two independent direct- 
acting i)uniping engines into the reservoir, wh.iee it is distributed 
by gravitation to the town. In case of an accident or other neces- 
sity, there is direct connection with the pumps. The works Avere 
conij)k'te(l about September 1880. 

The site of tlie Town of Bloomsburg was owned by John Adam 
Oyer, and the town was laid out in 1802 by Ludwig Oyer, his 
agent, an<l Avas known for some years as Oyersburg. The origi- 
nal town ])lot Avas from West to Iron streets, and from First to 
Third. The old tannery was built by Daniel Snyder in 1806, and 
the Mai-r store buildings were begun to be erected in the same 
year, by Abram Grotz. In that building Mr. John K. Grotz Avas 



94 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



born in 1810, and is believed to be the oldest resident, by birth, 
in Bloonisburg. When he was a boy the lots bounding on Mar- 
ket street on the north of Second, and the site of the street, were 
covered with alders aul liigh huckelberry bushes, and within their 
cover, at the site of Dr. Rutter's liouse, was a deer lick, and thence 
on many occasions, droves of deer were driven and a choice oue 
stopped by the hunter. 

Mr. John Barton kei>t the first store and was tlie first i)OSt- 
master. Mr. Mills kept the tirst hotel where Moyer Bros' drug 
store is now located, and the second one was where Mr. 1. W. 
Hartniau now lives. Dr. Park Avas the lirst physician, and Dr. 

Bacon the second. 
Mr. McKelvy 
came about 1820. 
The original Ex- 
change Hotel was 
a log and frame 
struct ure,and was 
l)uilt by Caspar 
Chrismanin 1810. 
What is now the 
Central H o t e I 
was built by Phil- 
ip Mehrling in 
1818. He Avas ac- 
cidentally killed 
during the erection. The old Forks Hotel was erected about 
1825, and it was remove<l in 1875. 

Other matters relating to the town will be found under the ed- 
ucation head, and also uader the bibliographical. Many descend- 
ants of the original sett krs in and about Bloomsburg are still 
among the active and thriving business men of the place. The 
Grotzes, the Ruperts, the Bartons, the Eyers, the Moyers, the 
McKelvys, the Chrismans, the Pursels, the Chamberlins, the 
Sloans, the Frys, the Barkleys, the Longs, the Ro bisons, — while 
the Snyders, the Phillipses, the McClures and the Weavers^are 
represented in the female branch. 

Having for nuiny years been the most considerable town in the 
county, and since 1845 the county seat, and being for more than 




NEW EXCllANUE HOT I I 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 95 

twenty years the place of residence of the President Judge of the 
judicial district, it has naturally attracted to itself men of culture 
and wealth, men who desired educational advantages for their 
children, and men who were seeking pleasant residences easily ac- 
cessible. In all these particulars it is probably second to no 
town in the state, and it is also distinguished for the number and 
ability of its newspapers, and for its high social and literary 
character. 




96 HISTOBY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



CHAPTER XII. 



B EI^"';7;^ loi^. 



BERWICK is claimed to have been founded in 1780, or at 
least settled upon by Evan Owen, but it was not known as 
Bei'wick until 1783. It is built on a bluff of about 100 feet 
height on the right bank of the Susquehanna, on the eastern 
boundary of the county, and on the very edge of Luzerne. The 
brothers Robert and John Brown, came early, and Samuel Jack- 
son, who was related by marriage to Evan Owen was among the 
early settlers. It is said that John Jones opened the first store 
in 1800, and John Brown the first hotel in 1804. The travel 
across the river was considerable, the route to Reading 
being by Berwick and Nescopeck. In 1812 a bridge 
company was organized, and Theodore Burr built the 
bridge at the cost of $50,000 or thereabouts. It was 
completed in 1814, and is 1260 feet long. It was damaged by a 
freshet in 1835 and rebuilt in 1837, by Eliphelet Edson at a cost 
of about $27,500. It is the terminus of a turnpike famous in its 
day, which passed through Bradford county to Newtown in the 
state of New York. It is here also that the Nescopeck turnpike 
leading to Mauch Chunk terminates. 

Berwick was created a borough by Act of Assembly of Janu- 
ary 29, 1818. 

In connection with this sketch of Berwick, the steamboat dis- 
aster may be a fitting incident. Since 1771 the Susquehanna 
river, has been, by act of Assembly, a public highway. But steam- 
boat navigation has been and always will be impossible, owing to 
its rapid current and shallow water, and also because it is, as its 
name indicates, the "crooked river," or more correctly, "The river 
of the winding shore." Notwithstanding the difficulties mention- 
ed, several attempts have been made to plow its waters. In the 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 97 

year 1820 Captain Elger, in the "Codorus," proceeded as far as 
Binghaniton, and returned to York Haven, pronouncing against 
the practicability of the navigation of the river. 

The next attempt was by a steamboat built at Baltimore, and 
named the "Susquehanna," commanded by Captain Collins. She 
drew twenty-two inches ^of water, and of course ^proceeded with 
great difficulty. But all along the river the boat Avas cheered by 
multitudes of people who turned out to see, or enjoy a ride upon 
her decks. At Danville, Catawissa and Bloomsburg accessions 
of excursionists were received, and all went merry as a marriage 
bell. 

They reached Xescopeck Falls, opposite Berwick, on the after- 
noon of May 3rd, 1826. The banks were crowded with spectators 
and with a full head of steam "The Susquehanna ' made for the 
falls. About the middle of the ascent she struck a rock and im- 
mediately her boiler burst with an explosion which sent a thrill of 
terror to all who heard it. The passengers and crew were dead 
or dying upon deck, or floating nmngled or scalded upon the foam- 
ing waters. Instantly the spectators rushed to the rescue, and 
shortly hotels and private houses were thrown ojien to the suffer- 
ers. Drs. Ileadly, Wilson and Jackson gave their professional 
assistance to the wounded and dying. 

Among those who were on board and more or less injured, were 
Col. Jose})h Paxton and Christian Brobst of Catawissa, Messrs. 
Woodside, William Colt and Sheriff Underwood of Danville, and 
Messrs. Foster, William G. Hurley and Isaiah Barton of Blooms- 
burg. Col. Paxton says: "I stood on the forward deck Avith a 
long ash j)ole in my hand, and was in the act of placing it in the 
water, hoping to steady her, when the explosion took place. Two 
young men standing near me were blown high into the air, and I 
was hurled several yards from the boat into the water. I thought 
a cannon had been tired and shot my head off. When in the water 
I thought I must certainly drown, but, making a desperate effort, 
succeeded in reaching the shore. I was badly scalded, and lost 
my hair and a portion of my scalp." 

Four persons were killed or died of their injuries, and this un- 
toward event rendered Berwick and Nescopeck Falls famous for 
many a day. 

It was at Berwick, also, on the 4th of July, 1828, that ground 



98 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

was broken for the construction of the North Branch Canal. The 
plow was held by Nathan Beach, and the oxen- were driven by 
Alexander Jameson, the owner. Another gala day for Berwick, 
and hapi)ily without any of the sad results of two years before ; 
the construction and navigation of the "raging canawl" being less 
dano-erous than the chartless channel of the winding Susquehanna. 

The Berwick Academy was incorporated by an Act of Assem- 
bly of June 25, 1839, P. L. 481, and a suj^plement passed April 
28, 1810, P. L. 480. It has had some able and accomplished in- 
structors, and there are on its rolls the names of several men who 
have become distinguished. The town is large enough to support 
an institution of the kind, over and above the advanced instruc- 
tion now given in the common schools, and the Berwick Acade- 
my ought to flourish more and more as the years go by. 

In 1850 a telegraph line was constructed through Berwick; in 
1858 the Lackawanna & Bloomsburg railroad was opened; in 
1861 Jackson & Woodin began the manufacture of car wheels, 
and the construction of cars soon followed, and within ten years 
the rolling mill was erected. Then business, trade and popula- 
tion poured into Berwick. Jackson's block was erected and many 
handsome residences were built. A bank w us chartered in 1864 
and has been conducted with great judgment and success. 

The Methodists have a large and beautiful church building on 
Second and Market streets ; the Presbyterians one on Second and 
Vine streets ; the Baptists one on Front street, between Mulber- 
ry and Vine streets. ; the Evangelical, on second street below 
Chestnut. 

The population of the borough is not less than 2500. 

"The first frame house built here still stands opposite Odd Fel- 
lows Hall ; the first brick structure was Seybert's Hotel, now 
known as the St. Charles ; the second brick was the old Metho- 
dist church, corner Third and Mulberry streets, erected in 1817, 
which is now occupied as a dwelling ; first children born in Ber- 
wick, John and Annie Brown, children of Robert Brown [Annie 
was the wife of Jesse Bowman, deceased, and was the first person 
married in Berwick ;] the first church built was the Quaker, a log 
building, where the Quaker church now stands ; the first lawyer 
was named Bancroft ; first judge, John Cooper; doctors, Moore- 
land and Beisswick ; postmaster, William Brien ; school master, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 99 

Isaac Holloway ; preachers, Carson and Painter ; coopers, John 
and Peter Solt ; carpenter, John Brown ; blacksmith, Aquilla 
Starr ; tailor, Benjamin Doan ; chair maker and painter, Abel 
Dalby ; mason, Jonathan Cooper, sr. ; dyer. Bush ; potter, Wm. 
Brien ; tanner, Henry Traugh, sr. , dentist, Yallershamp ; tinner, 
Herman Inmann ; gunsmiths, Hleppy & Co.; wheelwright, James 
Evans ; silversmith, Marshall ; milliner, Roxana Cortwright ; 
butcher, Stackhouse ; weaver, Polly Mullen ; cabinetmaker, Sam- 
uel Herin; saddle and harness maker, Col John Snyder; lime 
burner, John Jones, the limestone then being obtained at the bot- 
tom of the river. 

Among the names that will be remembered in comiection with 
the history of Berwick are those of Paul Thompson, Richard 
Smith, Mr. Daveni)ort, Samuel Herin, S. F. Ileadley, Josiah F. 
Beach, William Kitchin, Dr. A. B. Wilson, Dr. Jackson, Dr. 
Ileadley, Dr. Langdon, Thomas Coles, Bostian Seyberl, A. Miller, 
sr., Robert Smith, Charles Snyder, Joseph Stackhouse, Lawrence 
Ruch, Judge Mack, Andrew Shiner, Jonathan Cooper, flugh 
Thompson, Thomas Richardson, William Herin, J. W. Deitriek, 
John McAnall, Michael Frantz, Frederick Nicely, Jesse Bowman 
and Mrs. Eckert, nearly all of whom died at an extremely old 
age." — Kurtz pampldet. 

For forty-seven years, Mr. Hudson Owen has noted the lowest 
mark to which the w^ater in the river at Berwick has fallen ; and 
in the beginning of November, A. D., 1882, found it at a lower 
point than at any time since his observations began. 

One of the features of Berwick is the public library and read- 
ing room. The hall is capable of seating about 400 persons. The 
reading room is supplied with the leading American and some of 
the best English literature ; and the library proper comprises 
about 3000 volumes. A lecture course has been well sustained 
for the last three years, and to the great credit of the people, con- 
stantly well attended. The best lecturers have always been se- 
cured, and tlie people have been educated up to a high point of 
literary and oratorical ai)}>reciation. The library rei)ort shows a 
monthly circulation of oOO volumes. Tlie association shows sj)ec- 
ial attention to young i)eople, either resident or visiting tlie i)lace^ 
and to the boys of the town, who are gathered every Monday 
evening. Tiiis important enterprise is greatly indebted to the 



100 HISTOEY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

generosity of the Jackson & Woodin Manufacturing Company, 
and to the energy of Mr. A. G. Kiniberly, the librarian. 

Clarence G. Jackson, son of Mordecai W. Jackson, was born 
March 5, 1842 and died in Berwick May 3, 1880. He graduated 
at Dickinson Seminary, Williamsport. He entered the army Au- 
gust 2, 1862, company H. 84th Regiment, for three years. Ob- 
tained the 1st lieutenancy January 18, 1863, and Captaincy 
on July 1st 1863; was wounded and captured at Chancel- 
lorsville, Va., May 3, 1863, and upon his release, was 
transferred to Co. H. 57th Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers, January 13, 1865, and was discharged by general or- 
der March 10, 1865. His military record was an excellent one. 
He was a man of much general information, a forcible and fluent 
speaker, of tine business qualifications, and great energy of char- 
acter. 

Capt. Ciiart.es B. Brockway was born at Berwick, Penna., April 
1, 1840. Read law in the office of E. H. Little Esq. and was ad- 
mitted to the Bar September 5, 1865. He entered the army April 
17, 1861, and was commissioned First Lieut, in Battery F. First 
Penna. Light Artillery, October 17, 1861, and served for over tln-ee 
years. The fighting record of the Battery is one with his, aiid 
his military record is first rate. He was mustered out November 
1864. He represented Columbia county in the Legislature in 1871, 
1872 and 1873, and was the Democratic candidate for Congress 
in 1870, and came within 124 votes of an election, in a district usu- 
ally republican by about 1000 majority. Capt. Brockway resides 
in Bloomsburg. 



^ g, ,|-— ^ —-»^=I=^-,-| r— i^ ^ g ^ 



HISTOEY OF COLUMBIA (JOUNTY. 101 



CHAPTER XIII. 

CATAAVISSA is a large and Hourisluiig village on the left bank 
of the Susquehanna, at the mouth of Catawissa creek, about 
four miles south of Bloonisburg. It is situated in the midst of 
j)ieturesque scenery, and is surrounded by a rich and fertile 
country. The town contains over two thousand inhabitants. 

The earliest reference to tlie place by the name of Catawissa is 
tlie date and place of a letter written by James Le Tort, an Indian 
trader, to the Governor of the province. It is given thus, "Cata- 
wasse. May ye 12, 1728." 

Yo\- many reasons I think the name is a dialect of the Dela- 
wares; but whetlier of the Mousey or Wolf tribe, the Unalachit- 
goes or Turkey tribe, or the Wanamese or Turtle tribe, I do not 
know, but by the terminal syllable I should judge the last. 

Redmond Conyngham, Esq., who has devoted much research to 
the aboriginal history of the State, says, "The Piscatawese or 
Gangawese, or Conoys, (Kenehawas) had a wigwam on the Cata- 
wese, at Catawese, now Catawissa." 

Hon. Stewart Pearce says that 'the Shav>-anese, a tribe of the 
Eries, driven from the great lakes south about 1608, to Georgia 
and Florida, becoming involved tliere with the Spaniards and 
southern Indians, returned noith about 1090.' It is certain that 
tliey came into the Province in or about 1697. They settled along 
tlie Delaware and the Susquehanna, among the Delawares, and 
under the control of the Six Nations. Mr. Pearce goes on to say 
however, "The Shawanese liad a village at Fishingcreek near 
Bloonisburg, and at Catawissa, and a small settlement near Briar- 
creek." 

Neither the Gangawese nor the Shawanese belonged to the 
Delawares, yet it is not impossible they may have been settled as 
above stated, and "Catawese" may belong to one of them, seeing 



102 HISTOEY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

they have the sunie terniiiial as the Wanamese of the Dehiwares; 
and the word in any one of the above dialects may mean, as claim- 
ed, "Pure Avater." 

It may be curious to note here, that at a council held at Phila- 
delphia in July and August, 1739, between Thomas Penu and the 
Shawanese Indians, upon '"being asked if they are at war with 
any Indians to the southward, they said that they were at war 
with the Catawbas and Catawas Indians, in Carolina." 

In 1742-3 some troubles occui'ring between us and the Shawan- 
ese, Conrad Weiser was sent to Shamokin to have an interview 
with them and others. On the 4th of February they met at the 
house of Shikellimo, and he found among the assembly "Oluma- 
pies and Lapapeton of the Delawares." In 17.54 Mr. Weiser finds 
the same Delaware chief, spelling his name, however, Lapackpit- 
ton, at Oskohary, doubtless from the context meaning Catawissa 
or it may be, an Indian town not far from the mouth of Roaring- 
creek, which is also spoken of by some early writers; and as I 
find in Post's Journal of 1758 the name spelled Lappopetung, 
I am the more inclined to locate Oskohary at the mouth of Koar- 
ing creek which was in Indian, Popemetung. He was a man of 
some note, and for a time fastened his name upon the town of 
"Catawese," and in those ancient deeds the name is spelled Lau' 
paugh-petin. Well ! peace to his ashes, however it be. 

Certainly as early as 1728 there were white people in and about 
Catawissa ; but the first account we have of a settlement made 
under law and purchase was the granting by patent, of two hun- 
dred and eighty-two acres, [on which part of the town now stands], 
by the Honorable the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania to Edward 
Shippen Jr., and Joseph Shippen Jr., the 14th of February, 1770, 
who by their indenture on the first of May, 1773, granted the 
same unto Ellis Hughes in fee, who, with Hannnh, his wife, by 
their indenture of the 27th day of June, 1778, granted ninety-two 
acres and one quarter of an acre, [jiart of the above mentioned 
tract], unto William Hughes, who laid out the town in the year 
1787. 

Although an attempt was made to fasten the name of the 
founder upon it, the good sense of the people settled on the al- 
ready well known and sweet sounding original, and whether 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 103 

Wananiese, or ShawaiiC'se, or Gangawese, it will rem liii "Oita- 
wese" forever. 

Williajii Hughes was a Quaker from Berks county. Isaiah 
Plughes kej)t the first store. Among the earlier })ioueers were 

William Collins, James Watson, John Lloyd, Fenton, 

Benjamin Sharpless, and others of the Society of Friends. Of 
those mentioned there seem to be no records, except'of the Sharp- 
less family, of whom there remain the following interesting facts: 

The ancestor ])urchast'd from William Penn, in England, by in- 
denture dated A])ril oth, 1682, one thousand acres of land in the 
Province of Pennsylvania, for twenty })Ounds sterling, and an an- 
nual quit rent of one shilling for every hundred acres, on the first 
day of March, forever. Tlie land was located in Chester county, 
about two miles north from Chester, and in Providence township 
and Middleton township, now in Delaware county. John Sharp- 
less, the ])urchaser, died in 1685, aged about 61 years, and Jane, 
his wife, in 1722, aged about 84 years. Of their children, Thomas 
died on shipboard, Phebe and Jane in 1685, and Caleb in 1688 
leaving three sons, John, James and Joseph, from whom the entire 
Sharpless family are descended. John Sharpless, the elder brother, 
married Hannah Pennel, daughter of Robert Pennel, in 1692, 
and resided on the tract purchased off Ridley creek, near Ches- 
ter. They had nine children, Caleb, Jane, Hannah, John, 
Phebe, Rebecca, Margaret, Ann and Daniel. He died in 1747, 
at the age of 81 years, his wife having died in 1721. 

James Sharjiless, the second brother, married Mary Lewis, 
daughter of Ralph and Mary Lewis, from Glamorganshire, in 
Wales, and settled on the second tract above mentioned, in Prov- 
idence township. They had eight children, Lydia, Mary, James, 
Rachel, Sarah, Thomas, David and Esther. 

Joseph Sharpless, the younger brother, married Lydia Lewis, 
sister ;o his brother James' wife, and in pursu;nice of a family 
arrangement settled on the third tract, in Middleton township. 
They had ten children, Susanna, Joseph, Benjamin, Samuel, Lydia, 
Na'han, Jane, Abraham, Jacob and William. He died in 1757, 
and his wife in 1765. Of these children, Benjainin settled in 
Catawissa. His descendants are lunong the leading men of the 
town at present. 

John Mears, a famous Quaker preacher and physician, a man 



104 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

of great energy of character, afterwards became the Proprietor 
of the town by buying up the qnit rents. Of him I am able to 
give the following additional ])articulars. He was born in 
Georgia about 17i?7 and came to Philadelphia with his mother, 
then the wife of John Lyndall, about 1754. He followed the bus- 
iness of ship-joining and cabinet-making. In 1760 he married 
Susanna Townsend. Sometime afterwards he settled in Reading. 
In the war of the revolution lie was a caj)tain in the 4th Penn. 
Regt. and was wounded at Brandywine. A siiigle relic of Cap- 
tain Mears' military career remains in the j^ossession of his grand- 
son, John Mears, in Wallace street, Philadelphia. It is a large, 
single-bladed knife, a])parently designed for the commissariat 
rather than the battle-field. It is well and ingeniously construct- 
ed, and on the white broad handle is the following inscription: 
St. Luke La Corxe, 
To Captain John Mears, 
4rii Penxsyla'ania Regiment. 

After his recovery, we hear no more of him in a military capac- 
ity. He returned to Reading, but subsequently liis roving dis- 
position led him into newer districts of the State. He was the 
virtual founder and the patriarch of the town of Catawissa. Here 
he held the office of magistrate, and infused his energy into the 
inhabitants. Through the difficult country now traversed by the 
famous Catawissa Railroad, he laid out and built the first carriage 
road, connecting the valleys of the Susquehanna and the Schuyl- 
kill, a great and laudable achievement in those times. Besides 
holding the offices of magistrate and roadmaker, he was Quaker 
preacher and physician'; and though his methods were vigorous 
and rude, his manly presence, his patriotic services and sufferings, 
his integrity and enterprise Avon him universal respect, and em- 
balmed his memory in the connuunity. He died in the year 1819, 
at the good old age of 82. 

Of his five children, William, the oldest, was born in Philadelphia, 
March 9th, 1761; his wdfe was Elizabeth Haller, the daughter of a 
colonel in the Revolutionary army. Thus both branches of the 
family contributed patriotic blood aiui loyal impulses to the de- 
scendants. William himself held a colonel's commission in the 
war of 1812, but saw no active service. He succeeded his father 
as magistrate and like liim, Avas the object of deep and universal 



IILSTOIiY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 105 

respect. He died suddenly in Catawissa, June 11th, 1825, in his 
sixty-fifth year. 

In 1706 James Watson hiid out an addition to the town. 
Among the Germans, George Knaj)j)enl)erger came about 1790 
and took or established a ferry across the Susquehanna. Chris- 
tian Hn)l)st. whose descendants, active and extensive business 
men, are still tliere, came about 1793. John Hauc^ was one of 
the first, if not the first, to build a furnace in the region, on a 
tril>utary of Catawissa creek, in Catawissa township, in 1810. lie 
made tlie rough old ten j)late stove, maiiy of which with his im- 
])rint were scattered through the country. 

The early settlement of Catawissa and the fine and unfailing 
water ])Ower of the creek, made the ])lace at once a i)oint of im- 
]»ortance. As early as 1789 Jonathan Shoemaker built a grist 
mil! on the noith side of the creek, just above the ])resent site 
of that known as the McKelvy mill. And in 1799 Christian 
]ii-ol)st built one. a quarter of a mile above Shoemaker's. 

l^enJMinin Sliarjtless having started to Ohio to settle, visited his 
brother Jonathan on the way and found hitu getting rich, 
running a j)ape!' mill. ]Ie induced Benjamin to return to Cata- 
wissa and having done so, he sold his farm, lately the Zarr farm, 
now l)eitig laid out in lots by Judge Shuinan, and together with 
John Clark they bought tlie Slioemaktr mill and water ])Ower and 
put uj» a paper mill in 1811. Sharpless cfe Clark ran it till about 
1H34. when Clark died, and in the division of the property the 
Glark heirs took the grist mill and farm, and Sharpless the paper 
mill. The projj'Mty subsequently came into the ownership of 
William McKelvy and Joseph Paxton, and afterwards into that of 
Williiun iVIcKelvy. Since his death it has been sold to McCieady 
Bros, of Philadelphia, and is now under the management of E. B. 
Guie, a practical and compett-nt man, and is running very suc- 
cessfully. 

The shad fishery of the Catawissa was one of the most famous 
on the Sus<piehanna, both for tlie (piantity and the quality of the 
fish. 

Close by the town the Susquehanna breaks through the Cata- 
wissa mountain, making some wild and beautiful scenery. The 
rocks overhang the bed of the river, and the legend of the "Lo- 



106 IIi;ST01iY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

ver's Leaj)" is located at the most precipitous part of the rent 
mountain pile. 

Although the early promise of the locality has not been fultill- 
ed perhaps, yet it has advantages of location which must remain. 

The Catawissa Bridge company for the original erection of a 
bridge across the Susquehanna was orgarjized by Act of Assem- 
bly of March 16, 1810, and the bridge was comjileted in 1832 or 
1833, at a cost of about Ji526,500. The contractor was one Stone- 
berger. It has on more than one occasion been partially destroy- 
ed by freshets, and that destruction was completed in the great 
ice flood of March 17, 1875. The stone work for the re-erection 
was awarded to Grover & Brooks, June 12, 1875, and the wood 
work to Perry tfc Hobart, June 21, 1875. The bridge was opened 
for travel November 22, 1875. The floor of the new bridge is six 
feet higher than the old one, and the piers are thirty feet above 
low water mark. It is a Howe truss, single track bridge, eigh- 
teen feet in the clear, and cost about thirty-eight thousand dollars. 

"]\[r. Michael Brobst, died on Thursday night, September 14, 
1882, at the ripe old age of ninety years. He was born in Berks 
county, Pa., in the year 1793. 

In 1795 when he was about three years of age, his parents came 
to this section of the state and located at what is now known as 
Geary's mill, wliere they had purchased a tract of land, and u})On 
which they erected the first improved flouring-mill on the North 
Branch, and which is now operated by JMr. J. H. Geary. Mr. 
Brobst resided in Catawissa continuously, until the time of his 
, death, Avith the exception of three years w^hich he spent in Ber- 
wick and Nescopeck, and was always identified with the busi- 
ness interests of the place. 

In 1814 he was married in Bloomsburg by Rev. Mr. Eagle, to 
Miss Salome Good, of this place, with wliom he lived happily for 
sixty-seven years, and whose death he only survived by about two 
years. Their union was blessed by eight children, six of whom 
are living, four sons and two daughters. The deceased was 
possessed of an extraordinarily strong constitution which enabled 
him to enjoy life far beyond the period usually allotted to man. 
He held the position of Mountain Land Agent for the late C. S. 
Coxe, Esq., for forty years, and in which capacity he acted for 
the estate up to within a few days of his death. He was subject 



HI;ST()liY OF VOLUMBIA COUNTY. 107 

to no disease, and his last nionents were entirely free from pain. 
He sank (juietly into the sleep that knows no wakening, surround- 
ed by loviui;' hands that had hcen tireless in their endeavors to 
render his deelininu,- years pleasant and conitVn-table. In his de- 
mise the comnninity has lost a good citizen, and the family a kind 
and loving father. Peace to his ashes." — Item. 

The places of Divine worship are an Episcopal, a Methodist, 
a (ierman Keforined, and a Lutheran church, and a Fiiends' 
meetinghouse, the latter huilding being over one hundred years 
old. Among otiier business and social imi)rovements are two ex- 
cellent hotels, a Masonic hall, a bank, a paiier mill, and extensive 
car and repair shops, belonging to the Philadelphia & Keading 
railroad. The Catawissa brancli of the P. & K. railroad, tlie ex- 
tension of the N. tfe W. Branch r.ailroad and the Sunbury, Ilazle- 
ton & Wilkes-Barre railroad, pass through Catawissa, and the I). 
L. &, W. railroad west of the river, which is spanned by an ex- 
cellent bridge, into tlie town. The town has also a very lively 
newspaper and jobbing office. 

Isaac II. Sekshoi/pz was born in Catawissa, November 13,1837. 
He entered the army as 2d. Lieut, in the Iron Guards, Co. A. 6th 
Penna. Ptcserves, April 22, 1861. Hesigned Oct. 15, 1861, and 
was commissioned 2d. Lieut. Co. H. 99th. Regt. P. V. Feb. 5, 
1862; and 1st. Lieut. May 12, 1862. Resigned June 9, 1862, and 
was commissioned 1st Lieut. Co. E. 118th Regt. P. V., Janunry 
19, 1864. and Cai)t. in Co. K. in same Regt, Dec. 14, 1864, and 
was mustered out with Co. June 1, I860. He was in all the bat- 
tles in which his conn)iand participated, beginning with Antie- 
tam, amounting to twenty-one. He was wounded in the left arai 
at Shepherdstown and in the right hand at Peeble's Farm, and 
was present at Lee's surrender. We believe lie is a brevet Major, 
with a lirsl rate military record, which he fairly won by hard 
fighting. He is at present engnged in busiiess in Catawissa. 



^-^i^&i^^^. 






108 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



CHAPTER XIV 



TEIRSE'^TO^iT^lSr, 



JERSEYTOWN lies twelve miles west from Bloomsburg, in 
Madison towiishi}). It is an old settlement and village, con- 
tains about fifty dwellings, two stores, tw^o hotels, a tannery, vari- 
ous mechanics' sho})S, a church, and a school house. The tele- 
graj)!) of the Tide Watei- Pipe Line runs through it. Of this 
place and vicinity I am enabled to pre:?ent the following personal 
sketches : 

John Funston settled about one mile west of the present village 
at an early day. He kept the first store in Jerseytown and was a 
prominent man in the neighborhood. He held a commission as 
Justice of the Peace for many years. He died in the ninety-fourth 
year of his ngo. He reared a large and respectable family of 
seven sons and three daughters. One of thfa sons, Thomas Atcn 
Funston, represented the cou:;ty in the Legislature in the years 
1844 and 1845. He was born May 3, 1791, in Madison tovvnship, 
and died in Bloomsburg April 24,1874. During his service in 
the General Assembly he was a member oF several important com- 
mittees, and it was during his term that the bill for the removal 
of the seat of justice from Danville to Bloomsburg was passed. 
Conrad Kreanier now occupies the site of the old store of John 
Funston, and the farm where he originally settled was lately the 
property of Esquire John Smitli, now deceased, 

Evan Thomas was an early settle)-, but the date of Ids arrival 
has not been ascertained. He settled north of Jerseytown, and 
several of the houses on the light hand of the street from Millville, 
are on land v,hich belonged to him. His son, Evan Thomas, jiut 
up and drove on the first blacksmith shop in Jerseytown, and he 
also kept the first tavern. He was succeeded by Andrew Haze- 
lett. Evan Thomas left four sons and three daughters. The late 
Caleb Thomas nuirried his daiaghter Prudence, and after the 



HI, STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 109 

death of his fathor-'m-law, l)Ou<^lit the farm, ami lived there until 
his own decease. It has changed hands several times and is now 
in posses8if>n of Conrad Kreamer. 

ITr(;ii WArsoNsettled east of. Jerseytown about the year 1780. His 
land ran u|j to tiie town, and tlie street on the right hand side 
frcnn Kreamers store is laid and built on lots sold off of his land. 
He raised seven sons and one daughter. The daughter, Sarah, 
married .James Laird. 

PiiiNKAs IJakbku came into the township about the year 1788. 
lie settled on tlie Chil]is(iua«iue about one mile and a half south 
west of .lerseytown. His family eventually comprised seven sons, 
and six daughters. Tlie Itev. Daniel M. Barber was one of the 
sons. The family came originally from New Jersey, and have 
now all left the place. .Tolin A. Funston noAV owns the old farm. 

Wu.i.iAM Pkcmj came from Sussex county, New Jersey, about tlie 
year 178.). He was settled on the opposite side of Chillisquaque 
creek, adjoining lands afterwards taken by Phineas Barber, on 
the west. He raised two sons and two daughters, one of whom, 
Sarah, married Jacob Swisher, Esq. William Pegg the second, 
lived on the old farm and raised a large family, five sons and five 
or six daughters. The farm is about two miles south west of 
Jerseytown. I find the name of the family sometimes spelled 
Pague. 

^Mkmaki, Bim.iiimk came from Sussex county. New Jersey 
in 1776, and settled on Muddy Run, put up a log hut, 
cleared off six acres of ground, jiut it in with wheat in 
the fall of 1777, and just at the time the wheat was fit to cut the 
Wy<jming tragedy took jtlace and they fled l)ack to .lersey, driv- 
ing their cattle with thciii. They stayed three years and when they 
came back, found their place at Muddy Run occupied by others. 
They then came to wliat is called Spruce creek two miles west of 
Millville. He had a family of only two children, John and Mar- 
tha. ]Martha died unmarried, but John raised a family of three 
sons and six daughters. Of these, Michael and two sisters, all 
unmarried, live on the old place; John lives on Black run and has 
a family. 

Pktkii Bmroi.KK came from Jersey and settled on the west side of 
Spruce run, south of and adjoining Billhime, about the year J 779 
or 1780. He was a noted hunter in his day and discovered "the 



110 iriSTOEY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Lick" which bears his name. It is a short distance above where 
Warnersville now stands. He is related to have made the dis- 
covery by the paths the deer liad worn in the hill side in traveling 
to and from "the Lick". He would go off in the afternoon, climb 
up into a tree where he had fixed himself an easy seat, and wait- 
ing for the deer which came in droves to the lick, pick the finest? 
dress it and return before night fall. After some years he remov- 
ed to Hemlock township where he lived and died respected by all 
who knew him. He had two sons and three daughters. When 
about to leave Madison for Hemlock, he revealed the location of 
"the lick," and a great many deer were afterward killed there by 
different pei'sons. 

Geor(;k RrsYOx came from Jersey in 1796, and bought and 
settled upon the Brugler place on Spruce Run. He raised a large 
family, seven sons and three daughters. Several of his children 
are yet living. William, on the old homestead, aged 81, and 
Thonns near Dewart, in his 85th year. 

JosEi'ii HoDCE, also from New Jersey, settled on Spruce Run 
about 1780, lived there nine years and tlien sold out his planta- 
tion to Lewis Schuyler, and look up other lands adjoining. He 
lived upon the second purchase until 1808, and died of cancer. 
He raised two sons and four daughters. 

Jacob Swisher settled on Spruce Run about 1796 near the forks 
of the road leading from Millville to White Hall, adjoining lands 
of George Runyon. He started the first tannery in all tliat section 
of country. He was appointed a justice of the peace by Gov. 
Snyder, and held the office until the change in the constitution 
made the office elective. He declined on account of age to be a 
candidate for election. He raised one son and four daughters, all 
of Avhom are dead. His lands were divided, and Philip Eves lives 
on one part and Pemberton Runyon on the other. 

Daniel Weluver settled in what is now Madison township, 
on Whetstone run, now called Bear run, in the year 1776. He 
was driven off by the Indians in 1778, and came back in 1780. 
His ])urchase was east of Jerseytown, and took in the farms now 
occupied by Vincent Shultz and Silas Welliver. Silas lives on 
the homestead of his grandfather — Valentine Welliver lives on 
the same purchase. All the north end of the township belonged 
to him. He raised a large and respectable family of four sons 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. Ill 

and seven daugliters. lie came from Sussex county, New Jersey. 

Ki('iiAKi> Diourrr came from New Jersey in the year 178G and 
settled east of Jerseytown, joining lands of Daniel Welliver and 
lying east of him. His son Richard now occupies the homestead. 
lie raised a large family of six sons and six daughters, among the 
most respectable people in the county. Mr. Jacob Demott, one of 
the sons now an old man, relates that he remembers very well, 
seeing, when a boy, the ruins of se\eral Indian wigwams, which 
had been built upon a high hill south of Valentine Welliver's,. 
called Huckleberry hill. It was so elevated that the Indians 
could distinguish the smoke rising from nearly every chimney in 
the valley. 

Ai>A>i Wkij.ivkk, John Welliver and Christopher Welliver, cous- 
ins of the above named Daniel, also from Sussex county, New 
Jersey, settled in the township about 1780. A large part of Jer- 
seytown is built upon Adam's purchase, which stretched off to the 
north west. Adam left two sons and two daughters. John's 
farm lay to the southwest of Jerseytown. There was a family by 
the name of Whitmoyer living on it at the time of the Wyoming 
massacre in 1778. When other settlers left they concluded to 
stay, and in the next spring, at the season of making maple sugar 
two of the daughters went to the camp and while they were thus 
absent, the Indians came and killed all the rest of the family and 
scalped them. It is disi)uted whether there were three or five 
thus butchered. They were buried on the old I'oad from Jersey- 
town to Washingtonville on the left hand side of the road, about 
half a mile from town, near where Capt. William Allen now 
lives. John ha<l a family of four sons and one daiighter. Phineas, 
well renu'inbered in the neighborhood, was the youngest. The 
old farm is now occuj)ied by Samuel Johnson. Christopher's 
land lay south of Jerseytown. A large part of it has been sold 
off in lots, and are now owned or occupied by William Kisner, 
John Stout, Samuel Johnson and others. He raised four sons and 
three daughters. Russel, who is (^uite well remembered, was the 
youngest son. He kei)t a store in Rohrsburg for a long time and 
now resides in the west. 

James Ma sti-:bs settled on Spruce run about 1786. He came 
from one of the lower counties, and was a Quaker. He built the 
first saw mill in this section and the first cardint; machine this 



112 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

side of D:iuvilk'. Tlie carding mnclnnc was erected about 1813. 
He raised three sons and two daughters. His son David bought 
the Millville mill and owned it till it burnt down in 1849. It 
Avas rebuilt by George Masters and John IJetz. The old Masters' 
farm is east of and adjoining the old Demott farm. 

John Eves came to Milville about the year 1774. He is tlie 
oldest settler in that region of country. Just befon- the Wyo- 
ming massacre a friendly Indian came through that way and gave 
them information of the intended attack on the st'ttlements, and 
the Eves family left and remained away two or three years. 
Eves built the first grist mill above Washingtonville. Tluuuas 
Eves got the mill property as his share of his father's estate, and 
built a new one in 1812. The Eves land lay on both sides of 
Fishingcreek, but his residence was in Madison townshij). John 
Eves was an Ii'ish (piaker. He was married in Ireland and several 
of his family were born there. He raised eight sous and six 
daughters. They all married and raisi'd large families, except 
the youngest son, Mark, who died a bachelor. John Eves built 
the first Friends' meeting house in this section. The present 
brick one stands on the site of the old one. 

Lewis Soihyi.ku was born in Germany in 1748. He came to 
^his eountiy in 17ol aiul settled in Germantown, lu'ar I'hihulel- 
phia. On the death of his parents he was taken by friends to 
New Jersey. He came to the neighborhood of Jerseytowu in 
1794. In 1799 he bought the Spruce run farm and moved on it. 
He died in 1837 aged 89 years. He was a soldier in the revolu- 
tionary Avar. He married Ilezekiali Horned in November 1781, 
and they raised seven sons and three daughters. Tliree sons sur- 
vive, John in Canada, aged 89 years ; Lewis in INIadison township, 
aged 75 years, and another in Wisconsin aged 73 years. 

The foregoing Madison townsliip sketches were furnished by 
Lewis Sclmyler, five or six years ago ; and some facts as to per- 
sons living, and their ages must be corrected accordingly. 




HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



113 



ciiaptp:ii XV" 



It remains to speak of those sm iller villaf,'es in the county which 
are the headquarters for news and trade and social gatherir)gs ; 
where the ptst office is located, wh' re the churches are mainly- 
erected, and the business of tlie township transacted. 

RUI'EUT. 

Rupert is in Moniour township, two miles south of Bloomsburg, 
at the crossing ot the Cit^wi^sa, and L;i(;kawanria Su IJlootnsburg 

laih-oads, near the 
HKjuth of Fishing- 
<r( ek. It has several 
ntat dwelling hous- 
es, one tavern, a 
store, a blacksmith 
shop and a marble 
workei-. Its most 
important industry 
is the paint mill of 
Henry S. Keay, 
which with the rail- 
road depots make it 
a well known point. 
UKAv's I'AiNi WORKS. It Is casily accessiblc 

convenient to the A<pieduct grist mill of Paxton & Ilarman, and, 
the extensive powder keg mnnufactory of \V. M. Monroe. The 
above cut rej)reseuts lieay's Paint Mill and the warehouse of 
Paxton & llarmaij . 



'i /'■ 




IJTCKIIORN. 



Bi'CKiioRN is in Hemlock township four miles west of Blooms- 
burg. It has fifty or sixty dwellings, a large school house, a 



114 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Lutheran and a Methodist churcli, one liotel, a store, a wheel- 
wright, a blacksmith, a harness shop and other shops and business 
places. 

Buckhorn was for a long time the residence of the lion. John 
McReynolds. He was born in Northumberland county, near 
Watsontown, April 3, 1788, and died in Bloomsburg, jVIarch U, 
1880. He represented the county in the General Assembly in tlie 
sessions of 1814-1825-1826-1827-1828; and was defeated for the 
office in 1850. He was nominated for Congress in 1858 but 
defeated. He was elected Associate Judge in 1861 and 
served for one term and declined a reelection. Besides these 
positions he was supervisor of the North Branch canal undel- Gov- 
ernor Porter, for two years ; Collector of tolls at Beacli Haven 
for three years, and a member of the Electoral College in the 
election of President Franklin Pierce. 

EOHRSBURO. 

RoiiESBURG is in Greenwood, and about ten miles north of 
Bloomsburg. It has a couple of stores, a hotel, smith :ind wheel- 
wright shops ; two churches and abont twenty dwellings. There 
is a grist mill in the vicinity. The town was laid out by Freder- 
ick Rohr, about the year 1825. 

EYERCJROVK. 

Eykrgrove, in Greenwood, has a cliurch, grist mill, hotel, 
smith shoj), store and about fifteen dwellings. 

MILLVIIXE. 

MiTj.vii.LE, also in Greenwood township, lies about fifteen miles 
from Bloomsburg. The village and township are mainly settled by 
Friends. The village has some fifty dwellings, an extensive wagon 
maker shop, a grist mill, blacksmith shop, two stores, public 
school house. Greenwood Seminary, a Methodist church, a Hixite 
and Orthodox Friends meeting houses. It is a place of consider- 
able activity and is connected with Bloomsburg by telephone. 

lOLA. 

loLA, two miles above Millville on the Little Fishingcreek, with 
several dwellings has a grist mill, a saw mill, a large woolen fac- 
tory, and a Methodist church. 



II I .STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 115 

SKRKNO. 

Skrkno, two miles above lola on the creek, has a large tannery, 
saw mills, <fec. 

I.IGHTSTRKET. 

Lkjmtstukkt is the name by which a couple of villages, lying 
contiguous and now adjoining, are known. It is in .Scott town- 
ship, three miles north of Bloomsbwrg. It is new, well built, with 
several fine dwellings, has a good large school house, three 
church buildings, stores, smith, tin, stove and furnituie shops, and 
two grist mills. Trench's paper mill is also in the vicinity. It is 
a bright and active little place, and formerly did quite a business 
in the manufacture of ])ig iron. 

Gen. Wellington H. Ent, son of the Hon. Peter Ent, was born 
at Lightstreet, August 16, 1834, and died in Bloomsburg Nov. 5, 
1871. He gra<hiated at Dickinson seminary, Williamsport, in 
1858, and after being under the tutorship of Robert F. Clark, Esq. 
was admitted to the bar in 1860. He went into the army in June 
1861, as 1st. Lieut, in a volunteer Co. and was commissioned 
Cai)tain of Co. A. 6th Penna. Reserves, and after Antietam was 
jtromoted to be Major, after Fredericksburg to be Lieut. Colonel 
and after Gettysburg to be Colonel. His brevet came afterwards. 
His ])romotions show the brilliancy of his military record. 

His brother William was in the militia and died in 1868; his 
brother Robert S. was in the nine months seiwice, and died Oct. 16 
1882. His brother Usal H. was in the 84th and 28th P. V. 
about fourteen mouths, and is now sheriff of the county. 

ORANGKVILT.E. 

ORANfiKviLLE IS in Orange townshij), six miles north of Blooms- 
burg. Within a few years a large number of dwellings, quite in 
the modern style have been erected. It has several stores, two 
hotels, academy and i)ublic school house, churches, grist mill, 
tannery, foundry, and al)out one hundred dwellings. The origi- 
nal i»ro))rietor was Clemuel G. Ricketts, who first established a 
store there about the year 1822. Mr. Ricketts was a man of 
taste and culture, and gave to the little village of his residence 
quite a position, by the ])ublication of a book of Travels in the 
East, in which he described with care and accuracy what he saw 
and heard and experienced. 



116 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



Although the first store was opened in Oranocville in 1822 the 
place was settle<l very much earlier. 

Ml-. John INIcIIenry, an old and respected citizen who died in 
Benton township, March 17, 1808. at the age of 82 years, 6 months 
and 4 days, and who was born at Stillwater, a few miles above 
Orangeville, in the year 1785, says that at the time of his birth, 
two or three shanties stood where Orangeville now stands. Mr. 
McITenry was the first white cliild born north of Orange on the 
famous Fishingcreek, and he spent his whole long life upon its 
waters. He was a most successful and ae('oni])lish'(l hunter, and 
killed dui'ing his career more than two thousand deer. He was 
what was called a still hunter. No dogs ever tracked the game 
through the forest for hitu. A nice ear, a quick eye and an uner- 
ring rifle made success certain. Although deer were his princi- 
pal sport, yet all kinds of game, especially wild turkeys, 
were among those whose chase was most exciting, and 
whose capture Avas most satisfactory, on account of the deli- 
cious flavor of the flesh, as well as the skill recpiired to 
secure them. 





The Orangeville male and female academy, spoken of above, 
was incorporated by an act of assembly of March 11, 1858, P. L. 
104. It lias had a somewhat chequered career, but has in the 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 117 

main, done good work as an educational centre. It is Avell built 
and plensMiitly situated. It is quite c*'rtain however, that with 
the great facilities and advantages offered by the Normal School 
at Bloomsbui-g, such Institutions of learning as that at Orange- 
ville and at Millville, cannot offer successful comiietition. Their 
sujjjtort must be almost entirely local, but as prejiaratory to en- 
tering the Normal school, the children of the neighborhood could 
be very advantageously trained in the respective academies. 

Col. AVii.i.i a.m Wam.ack Kickictts, son of Elijah G. Ricketts, was 
born in Orangeville in 188G. lie entered the army with the Iron 
(Guards in 1 SGI. lie was instinctively a military man. He was 
made Colonel of Ids regiment July 27, IHfil ; came home in Feb- 
ruary 1802 and died at his father's house in Orangeville, August 
10, 1862, in the 2rith year of his age. 

Coi,. IJouKnT liincK RicKKTrs of Battery F. is a brothei- of Col. 
W. W. Kicketts and made himself a fighting record of which he 
may well be {jroud. Something more is said of them in the army 
record in this volume. 

STILI."\VATKR. 

Stii.i.watf.k is a beautiful little nook in the township of Fisliing- 
creek, and on the baid-c of the stream. It has several very taste- 
ful dwelling houses, two stores, a smith shoj), school house, and 
two beautiful church buildings. 

15KNTON. 

Bkntox, situated in tlie townshi]) of the same name, about six- 
teen miles north of Bloomsbui-g, contains forty or fifty dw-ellings, 
many of them tastfully biiill, an excellent hotel, several stores, 
carriage and furniture shops, churches, school house, and grist 
mill. It is a growing village, in a fine agricultural neighborhood. 

SAMiia. KocKHS, from Orange county. New York, settled in 
what is now Benton townshijt, on a farm next south of the one 
now occupied by William Ilulme. 

William Ea<;p:u, from the same i)lace, settled on the Hulme 
farm. 

John Kkklkr, another Orange county man, occupied the farm 
next north of and adjoining Eager. 

Danikl Jackson came from Jersey in the spring of 1792 or 1793, 
and located upon, cleared and occupied the farm upon wliicli the 



118 HISTORY OJF" COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

town of Benton now stiuuls. The whole number of families in 
what is now Benton town^^hip, was in 1799 about fifteen or six- 
teen. 

COI.ESOUKKK. 

Coi.EsoRKKK, in Sugarloaf township, at the forks of Colescreek 
and P^'ishing creek, is a post town, with store, grist mill, [«niith 
shoj) cfec. St. Gal)riers Ej)iscopal Church, and a number of dwell- 
ing houses are located there in tlie midst of romantic scenery. In 
relation to its early settlers I have been able to glean the following 
particulars. 

Wii.kia:\i IIess, the elder, settled in what is now Sugarloaf town- 
ship in or about the year 17i>2. lie came from Northam[)ton county 
witli a family of eleven sons, and a nuinher of comely daughters. 
He improved a farm in the warrantee name of Jane Boyd, and 
which is now occupied by Andrew Laubach. E/.ekiel Cole, son- 
in-law to William Hess, came at tlie same time and settled on the 
south end of the same tract. Mr. Cole built the first grist mill on 
Fishiugci'eek that did any business worth mentioning. Fishing- 
creek at that time included the whole north end of the county, 
and as far south as to the Nob Mountain. 

John Kh.e, senior, another son-in-law of William Hess, came 
from Bucks county, between the years 179;> and 1799, and settled 
on the same Jane Boyd tract of land, on what is now occu})ied by 
Joseph (). Hess. William Hess and his sons and his family con- 
nections in 1799 occupied all the land on both sides of the Fish- 
ingcreek, from the North ^lountaiu to the south line of what is 
now Sugarloaf townshij*. 

I'liii.ip F'ritz, senior, a nei)hew of William Hess, senior, came 
into the neighborhood about the year 1797, and settled on the hill 
northeast of his uncle. He was the first school master and Justice 
of the Peace in the north east corner of Columbia county. 

Christian LAruAcii, senior, also a relative of William Hess, 
senior, came into the county in the year 1790 and settled on the hill 
south east of him. The last four famiily names are still among the 
most extensive and respected in that region of the county in 
which tliey originally settled ; and it is matter of regi-et that not 
more full and specific family history has been recovered. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. W.) 

Jonathan Coi.ley settled at a-i early day on the east side of 
Fishiiigcreek, south of P^zekiel Cole. His son Alexander came in 
the year 1799. lie represented the county in the legislature in 
1822 and 1823. What is now Sugarloaf township, contained in 
1799, only about six families. 

KSI'Yr<JWN. 

Esi'YTowN is also in Scott towiship, and is located east from 
Bloonisburg about three miles. It has some fine and pleasant 
residences, tine stores, shoi)S, churches and school houses, one 
tavern, a large steam grist mill, and is a de])Ot lor the Lacka- 
wanna &, Bloonisburg railroad. George Es])y was the pro])rietor 
uiid ill early times it was noted for its shad fishery and its race 
ground, "VV'ebb's lane." 

Es[ty was for a long time better known as the residence of Mr. 
Frederick B. Swaby than for any thing else ; and he was in many 
respects a conspicuous man. He died at the residence of his son, 
Frederick J. Swaby, in Seneca Falls, at the age of 85 years. 

31r. Swaby was born in the island of Jamaica, in the year 1791. 
He was educated in England, and during the years 1805 and 
1806 was a scholar at the school near Barnet Castle, in York- 
shire, wliic^li has since been renderi'd celebrated by being descril> 
ed in a vein of very broad but amusing caricature by Dickens in 
his novel "Nicholas Nickleby," under the name of "Dotheboys 
hall," and Mr. Swaby was perhaps, the last survivor of that institu- 
tion. He came to this country in company with his fathei"-in- 
law, Capt. John Haigh of the British army, in 1821, and settled 
at the village of Espy, Columbia county. Fa., where he resided 
until 1846, surrounded by many warm friends, for whom he, to 
the last, cherished the kindest recollection and regard. In that 
year he removed to Seneca Falls, where he resided with his 
sons. His father, Joseph Swaby, died in Jamaica in the year 
1811 ; he was born in 1727; the lives of the father and son con- 
sequently extended through a period of 148 years During the 
nearly thirty years' residence of Mr. Swaby in Seneca Falls, he 
was little in public life, being rather retiring in disjiosition, 
but in the home circle and among those whose acquaintance with 
him became intimate, he was highly prized. He possessed the 
keenest sense of honor, which was alwavs manifest in his inter- 



120 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

course with the world, and the probity of his character was ever 
conspicuous. He was a communicant of the church of England, 
and always maintained the highest standard of a devout Christian. 
His genial and cheerful tem})erament rendered him peculiarly a 
favorite among the young. It was while jaarticipating with them 
in their innocent anuisements, that he received injuries from a fall, 
which liastened his death. His memory will remain as a precious 
legacy to those to whom he was a loved companion for years. 

THE HALF WAV HOUSE. 

The Half Way Hofse, in Centre township, now no longer a 
hotel, was years ago in the days of stages, a well known place. 
Stonytown, at the ferry, is now the stopping place for travel- 
lers, and the glory of the old stage office has departed, which 
Sanmel Harman made famous. 

Col. Samuel Knorr was born in Centre township, December 
24, 1836. He read law with Wm. G. Hurley, Esq. and was ad- 
mitted to the Bar in 1863. 

He entered the army with the Iron Guards April 22, 1861, at 
Bloomsburg. The Company became Co. A. 6th Penna. Reserves 
and he served as Sergeant until Oct. 23, 1861, when he was pro- 
moted to 2d. Lieut, and was honorably discharged Oct. 2o, 1862, 
on account of physical disability. July 4, 1863, he was commis- 
sioned Major of the 35th Regt. Penna. Militia, and mustered 
into the service of the United States, and discharged from ser- 
vice August 7, 1863. Was commissioned captain of the 19th 
Regt. U. S. colored troops, Nov, 30, 1863, as Major, Sept. 29, 
1864, Lieut. Colonel Feby. 27, 1865, and on January 6, 1866 hon- 
orably discharged, on resignation. His successive and rapid pro- 
motions prove his merit and standing as an officer. He was Pres- 
idential Elector in 1868, and collector of Internal Revenue for the 
13th District of Penna. from April 5, 1869 to May 30, 1873. 

MIFFLINVILLE. 

MiFFLiKviLLE is a Staid and ancient village nine miles east of 
Bloomsburg, on the east bank of the Susquehanna, contains about 
thirty dwellings, a couple of stores, a tavern, shops, churches and 
school houses, and a couple of grist mills. The North & West 
Branch railroad runs through the village. 



BISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 121 

MAINA'ILLE. 

]\rAiNvii,i,K is ill Main to-wnshi)), about six miles soutli-east from 
Bloomsburg', has fifteen to twenty liouses, tavern, stores, grist mill, 
forge, tfcc, and is situated on Catawissa creek, and on the l^ead- 
ing, and Sunhury, Hazleton &: Wilkesharre Railway. 

HKAVKK VALLEY. 

Bkavku Valley, twelve miles south-east of Bloomsburg, has a 
tavern, a store, half a do/en dwellings, and a depot for the Read- 
ing railroad. 

CENTRALIA HOROUGH. 

Ckxtkallv Bouougu, situate in Conyngham townshi}), south-east 
from Bloomsbuig about twenty miles, in the midst of a coal min- 
ing district, and has within and about it several hundred dwelling 
houses, a luunber of stores, and hotels and drinking houses innu- 
merable. It has a beautiful and tasteful place of worship, "Holy 
Trinity Cluireh," belonging to the Episcopalians, also one belong- 
ing to the Romanists, one to the Presbyterians and one to the 
Methodists. 

NLMIDIA AND SLAP.TOAVN. 

Kr.MiDLv and Slabtown, lying in Locust toAvnship, respectively 
thirteen and eleven miles south-east from Bloomsburg, have each 
ten to fifteen dwellings, store, tavern, sho])S, t%c. The village of 
Slabtown, whose post-office name is Roaringcreek, is on the stream 
of that name, which drives a grist mill tliere located. 



4> 



122 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



CHAPTER XYI. 




C01.UMI5IA COUNTY COURT HOUSE. 

By the Act of Assembly erecting Columbia county, it was pro- 
vided; "That from and after the lirst Monday of March, one thous- 
and eight hundred and fourteen, the several courts in and for the 
said county of Columbia, shall be opened and held at such house 
as is hereinafter provided for in the said county of Columbia, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 123 

until a Court House shall be erected in and for said county as 
hereinafter directed, and shall be then held at said Court House." 

The sheriflF, coroner and other officers of the county of North- 
umberland were to continue to exercise the duties of their respec- 
tive offices within the county of Columbia until similar officers 
were appointed within said county. 

The county was annexed to the middle district of the Supreme 
Court, and to the eighth judicial district of the Courts of 
Common Pleas, comprising the counties of NorthumVjerland, 
Union and Lycoming ; and the Courts were to be holden in and 
for the county of Columbia on the first Mondays in January, 
April, August and November. In districting the state under the 
amended constitution we were put into the 11th district with Lu- 
zerne and Wyoming, and subsequently into the 26th with Sullivan 
and Wyoming, and under the constitution of 1872 Sullivan 
and Wyoming were erected into a separate district and Montour 
annexed to Columbia, in which connection we are now, 1882. To 
this chapter is apjtended a list of the officers and personnel of the 
Court since the establishment of the county. This is not the 
place, or we might add much matter to this division, of personal 
history and anecdote, of gentlemen who upon the Bench or at the 
Bar, have given to our county a solid and honorable reputation at 
home and abroad. Of Robert Cooper Grier, who began the prac- 
tice of the law in Bloomsburg, and rose to be an Associate Justice 
of the United States Supreme Court — of William G. Hurley, for 
more than forty years identified honorably with the Bar of this 
county — of John G. Montgomery, a man of great power and elo- 
quence, elected to the legislature and subsequently to Congress, 
and who jterished in the National Hotel disaster — of John Cooper, 
himself an eccentric and brilliant man, the son of Judge Thomas 
Cooper, renowned in the old world as well as hei"e — of George ^V. 
Frick, second to none as a man, and as a lawyer of extensive and 
solid attainments — of Robert F. Clark and Morrison E. Jackson, 
who among the younger members of the Bar, achieved and main- 
tained a position at the head of the profession in the county. Nor 
would it be difficult to select from among the living, names whose 
sounds will long linger in the memories ef the young men of the 
Bar, and whose courtesy, learning and chaste professional honor 
it would be safe to follow, and ennobling to emulate. 



124 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



rRESIDENT JUPGES. 



Names. Appointed from. Date of Commls^sion. 

Seth Chapman, Bucks, Julyll, ISll 

Resigned October, 10-1833. 
Ellis Lewis, Lyeoniiiig:, October, It, 1833. 

Died in Philadelphia^ March 19-1871. 
Charles G. Donnel, NovthumberiaiKi, .laniiary, 14. 1843.- 

Died March, 18-1884. 
Joseph B. Aiitliony, Lycnuing, March, 1844. 

Died January 10th, 1851. 
James Pollock, Northumberland, January IG, 1851. 

John N. Conyiigham. Luzerne, November 5, 1851. 

Died April 23, 1871. 
Warren J. Wo )d\vard, Luzerne, May 19, 185G. 

Died September 23, 1879. 
Aaron K. Peckhani, Wyoming, December 10, 18(11. 

Died March 22, 1865. 
William Elwcll, Bradford, November 3, 1862. 

William Kluell, Columbia Novejnber 6, 1872. 

William Elwell, " January, 1883. 



ASSOCIATE jriXiES. 



Juhn Murray, appointed 

William Montgomery, " 

Leonard Rupert, " 

William Donaldson, " 

George Mack, " 

Samuel Oakes, " 

Stephen Baldy, " 
George H Willits, 

John Covanhovan, " 

Leonard B. Rupert, elected 
George H. Willits, 

Peter Kline, " 

Jacob Evans, " 

Siepht n Baldy, appointed 



October 11, 


1813 


August 5, 


1815. 


June 27, 


1816 


March 26, 


1840 


March 27, 


1840. 


March 6, 


1845 


March 11, 


1845 


March V>, 


1850 


March 12, 


1850 


Nov. 10, 


1851 


Nov. 10, 


1851 


Nov. 12, 


1856 


Nov. 12, 


1856 


Jan. 12, 


1861 



III. STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



125 



John McReynolds, elected Nor. 23, 1861. 

Su*i)hen Biildy, " Nov. 23, 1861. 

Peter K. Herbein, " Nov. 8, 1866. 

Died in office April 1, 1869. 

Iram Derr, elected Nov. 8, 1866. 

James Kester, appointed April 2S, 1869. 

Charles V. Mann, elected Nov. 26, 1869. 

Died in office, Jantiary 24, 1870. 

Isaac S. jNIonroe, appointed Yah. 1, 1870. 

Isaac 8. Monroe, elected Nov. 9, 1870. 

Iram Derr, " Nov. 17, 1871. 

George Scott, " Dec. 3, 1 875 

Died in office, April 10, 1876. 

Mayberry G. Hughes, appointed April 26, 1876. 

elected Dec. 8, 1876. 

" Dec. 8, J 876. 

" Dec. 8, 1881. 

" Dec. 8, 1881. 



Franklin L. Shuman, 
Isaac K. ivrickl>aum, 
Franklin L. .Sliuman, 
James Lake, 



PROTHONOTARY AND CLERK. 



George A. P^rick, 
Dr. David Petrikin, 
John Knssel, 
Jacob Eyerly, 
Janus Donaldson, 



Valentine Best, 
Jacob Eyerly, 



(( u 



appointed 



elected 



Jesse Coleman. 





1813 


March 15, 


1821 


January 14, 


1824 


January 19, 


1830 


January 8, 


1,836 


May 1, 


1838 


January 10, 


1839. 


January 18, 


1 839. 


December 1, 


1839. 




1842. 




1845. 




1848. 




1851. 




1854. 




1857. 




1 860. 


December 1, 


1863. 



126 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

\\v]\\n\x.Um IT. Ent, elected Dooomhor 1, 1S60. 

(uMioial Knt, tlit(l Nov. '), 1871. 

K. II. lviii>j;kM-, appointed 1871. 

B. F. Z:irr, elected DocomlxM- 1, 1872. 

'' " Decoiuber 1, 1875. 

William Krickbauni, '' 1878 

" '' " 1881. 







SI 

COtiDH 


IKRIFFS. 


January 13, 




TToiiry Alwanl, 


issioned 


1814. 


Joi-H'ph PnU/.iH:ui, 






<i 




October 10, 


isin. 


John Fndorwood, 




coui))n'tis/ofied 


October IS, 


isio. 






Die 


I in offioo. 






Win. Kobison, 


to rill 


'acancy 


So])tombor \(\ 


1822. 


Anilrow McReynolils, 


co))i missioned 


October 14, 


1822, 


John lihoiuls. 






u 




October 22, 


1825. 


William Kitchen, 






« 




October 22, 


1828- 


Isaiah Rood, 






ii 




October 24, 


1831. 


Isaiah Salmon. 






u 




October 25, 


1834. 


Willi.ain Kilchon, 






(( 




October 18, 


1837. 


.lolin Ffuit, 






C( 




October 30, 


1840. 


I ram Dorr, 






a 






1843. 


Benjamin Ilayman, 






a 




November 5, 


1 846. 


Peter Bilhneyer, 






(( 




October 24, 


1 840. 


John Snyder, 






a 






1852. 


Stephen II. IMiller, 






a 






1855. 


John Snyder, 






u 






1858 


Josiah H. Furman, 






(( 






1861. 


Samuel Snyder, 






a 






1864. 


Mordeoai Millard, 






n 






1867. 


Aaron Smith, 






ki 






1870. 


IMiehael Grover, 

Died 


in offi 


ce 


April 3, 


1876. 


1873. 


Charles G. Murpliy, 
Was sworn 


c 

in 


oronei 
Ai)ril 


5, 


1870, t( 


oMay, 1876. 


1876. 


Charles S. Fornwald, 










1876. 


Appointed by 


Gov. May 


5, 1876, 


to January, 1877 


. 



ILLSTOUY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



127 



Joliii W. Hoffman, 


elected Nov. 1876, 


1877. 


r/:il 11. Ki.t, 


" 1879, 


1880. 


Jidiii Moiircy, 


" " 1882, 


1 883. 



BK(;i.STKR <fc KKCOUDKli. 



Josiuli .AIcLIurc 


appointed 


1814 


Kllis Ilu.-hes 


u 


1821 


l{ii<l()l|ih Scclilor 


li 


1824 


Joliii ('o(»j)e'r 


11 


1830 


AlcxiiiidtT Best 


u 


1836 


Pliili]) liilliiK-yer 


li 


1« January 1839 


.. 


elected 


1 December 1839 


(yliiirlcs CoiiiicT 


u 


1812 


.lesHe G. Clark 


ii 


1818 


Daniel Lee 


(( 


1854 


Jolm G. Freeze 


(( 


1863 


VVilliamsoii II. Jacol 


.y 


J 809 


(ieorge W. Sterner 


(( 


1 Januaiy 1882 




ATTORNEYS-AT-I-A W. 




K(jl)ert C. Grier 


Blooinsburg 


Deceased 


William ir. Hurley 


ki 


(( 


James IMcasaiits 


Catawissa 


(( 


Samuel I^\ IIca<lley 


Berwick 


u 


Morrison E. Jackson 


u 


(( 


LeGrand Bancroft 


Bhjomslnirg 


u 


Ji. K. llluxles 


u 


Left the county 


Gliark-s K. Buckalew 


(( 


Practising 


l{ol)ert F. Clark 


li 


Deceased 


Reuben W. Weaver 


(1 


Deceased 


John (t. P'reeze 


u 


Practising 


Elisha C'. Thomson 


(( 


Deceased 


Franklin Stewart 


Berwick 


Practising 


Ephram H. Little 


Bloomsburg 


Practising 


Alexander J. Frick 


a 


Left the county 


Oliver C. Kahler 


(( 


Practising 


Wesley Wirt 


(( 


Deceased 



128 



JII^TOR Y OF COL UMBIA GO UNTY. 



Agib Ricketts 
Robert S. Howell 
W. A. Peck 
Cliurles G. Barkley 
Samuel Knorr 
Heny H. Grotz 
William II. Abbott 
Charles B. Brockway 
Wellington II. Ent 
M. M. Traugh 
James K. Brugler 
Peter S. Rishel 
Michael Whitnioyer 
M. M. L'Velle 
Russel R. Pealer 
Elijah R. Ikeler 
Charles W. Miller 
Geoi'ge S. Coleman 
J. B. Robison 
J. TI. James 
M. E. Walker 
O. B. Melick 
James Bryson 
Milton Stiles 
LeRoy Thompson 
John "m. Clark 
B. Frank Zarr 
A. C. Smith 
H. E. Smith 
John A. Opi) 
Warren J. Buckalew 
George E. Ehvi'll 
Robert R. Little 
Neviu U. Funk 
William L. Eyerly 
Charles B. Jackson 
Frank P. Billmeyer 
Levi E. Waller 
T. J. Vanderslice 



Bloomsburg 

Espy 
Berwick 
Bloomsbur<r 



Catawissa 
Bloomsburg 

u 

Berwick 
Bloomsburg 



Centralia 
Bloomsburo- 



Ceiilralia 
Bloomsbui-g 
Lightstreet 
Centralia 
Berwick 

Bloomsburo; 



Left the county 

Practising 

Left the county 

Practising 

Practising 

Retired 

Left the county 

Practising 

Deceased 

Left the county 

Left the county 

Left the county 



Practising 

Deceased 

Practising 

Left the county 



Practising 
Practising 

a 

Left the county 
Practising 

Left the county 

Deceased 

Practising 



Catawissa 

Berwick 

Bloomsburg 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



129 



H. C Bitteubeiidcr 
VV. II. llhawii 
William Bi-yson 
Paul E. Wirt 
RolxTt Buckingham 
L. S. Wiiitersteeii 
A. L. Fritz 
Andrew K. Oswald 
Jacob H. Maize 
C. C. Peacock 
Heister V. Wliite 
A. E. Chapiu 
John C. Yocum 
David Leche 
Guy Jacohy 
Wni. ChrisTuaii 
W. II. Snyder 
Wni. E. Smith 



Bloorasburg, 
Catawissa 
Centralia 
Blooinsburo: 



Berwick 
Bloomsburg 



Catawissa 
Bloomsburg 



Orangeville 
Berwick 



Left the county 
Practising 



Left the county 
Practising 

Left the county 
Practising 



MONTOUR COUNTY. 



Aloni JNIarr 
George A. Frick 
John Cooper 
John (i. ^Nfontgomery 
Joshua W. Comly 
Arthur W. Frick 
Edward H. Baldy 
Oscar F. Moore 
John I). Colt 
Paul Leidy 
B. K. lihodes 
W. C. Johnston 
Isaac X. (ri-ier 
Geo. I). Butler 
John C. Montgomery 
H. M. Hinckley 
L. K. Mourer 
II. Vincent 
W. J. Baldy 
James Scarlet 
F. C. Angle 
Ed. 8. Gearhart 



Danville 



Deceased 



Retired 

Deceased 

Practising 

Retired 

Deceased 

Deceased 

Practising 



130 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF PRESIDENT JUDGES. 

SETH CHAPMAN 



Of Judge Chapman I have been able to gather but very slight 
memorials. He was a resident of Bucks county, and was appoint- 
ed President Judge of the Northumberland District July 11th, 
1811. George A. Frick Esq., writes tome as follows, under date 
of Nov. 29, 1871. 

"Judge Cha]!)man had not the brilliant talents of many of the attor- 
neys who practised in the Northumberland courts — to wit, Thomas 
Duncan, David Watts, Charles Huston, Charles Hall, Ebenezer 
Greenough and Hugh Bellas ; but was a better judge than many 
others we had in Pennsylvania. When Columbia county was 
formed out of part of Northumberland in 1813, Chapman became 
President Judge of our Courts, and held his first court for the 
county in Danville, m January 1814. 

I was appointed prothonotary of the Conunon Pleas of Colum- 
bia county in 1813, and continued until 1821. Both Judge Chap- 
man and myself were appointed by Gov. Snyder. My last ap- 
pointment was by Gov. Finley." 

Judge Chapman resigned October 10th, 1833. 

o 

ELLIS LEWIS. 



BY IMRS. JULIET H. L. CAMPBELL, 



Ellis Lewis was born, May 16th, 1798, in Lewisburg, Penna., 
a town named in honor of his father, Eli Lewis, Esq. This gen- 
tleman, who was a person of means, influence and literary tastes, 
died when the subject of this memoir was four years of age. 
During along minority, his inheritance was dissipated by mis- 
management, and he was early thrown upon his own resources. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 131 

He became a good practical printer and editor ; studied law, and 
was admitted to the bar, at twenty-five years of age. At this 
time, he married Miss Josephine Wallis, daughter of Joseph Wal- 
lis, Esq., civil engineer. Two years later, he was appointed Dep- 
uty Attorney-General for Lycoming county. In 1832 he was elect- 
ed to the Legislature of Pennsylvania. The question of internal 
improvements was then an absorbing one, and placed on a special 
connnittee on this subject he rendered his usual efficient service. 

On a committee to visit the prisons of the state, he found in 
the debtor's department of county prisons, persons detained for 
sums less than five dollars. He drew up a bill and report con- 
cerning imj)risonment for debt, which was the first step toward 
the abolition of this then i)opular custom. 

His conspicuous talents attracting the attention of Gov. Wolfe 
he was l)y him appointed Attorney-General for the Connnonwealth 
of Pennsylvania in 1833 and later, in the same year, became Presi- 
dent Judge of the Eighth Judicial District, comprising the counties 
of Columbia, Northumberland, Lycoming and Union. The old citi- 
zens, and more especially the members of the legal profession, re- 
member the marked ability and acumen with which for ten years 
he expounded the laws. In 1843 he became President Judge of 
the Second District (Lancaster county) and in 1851 was elected 
Justice of the Supreme Court of the State. 

In 18o5 he became Chief Justice. The opinions delivered by 
him in this capacity are remarkable for profound legal learning, 
sound equity and research, and are considered valuable contribu- 
tions to the records of his time. In 1857 he declined the unani- 
mous nomination of the Democratic convention for re-election to 
the Supreme Court, and retired to private life. In 1858 he was 
again solicited to render })ublic service, and became one of three 
commissioners to I'evise the criminal code of Pennsylvania. 

Outside of his official labors, which are a valuable legacy to 
the legal ])rofession, Judge Lewis published a volume entitled, 
^'^ All Abridgement of the Criminal Law of the United States,^'' 
and made occasional contributions to the literature of the day. 
The honorary degree of Doctor of Medicine was conferred on him 
because of his especial study of Medical Jurisprudence, and he 
received from Jefferson College and other universities the degree 
of Doctor of Laws. He was a ripe scholar, a profound thinker, a 



132 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

l.'ir^i' lioartc'd iuid public spirited man. He died Marcli 19th 
1871, deejtly inourned l>y :v large circle of friends to whom he was 
endeared by liis bi-illi:iiit and genial qualities. 

Judge Lewis was by birtli-right a Quaker, but his residence 
cutting him off from intercourse with the Society of P^'riends, he 
attached himself to the Episcopal church. He died in an express- 
ed liope and trust in the love and mercy of his Saviour. 



CHARLES G. DONNEL. 

JuixiK DoNNKi. was the sou of Henry and Margaret Donnel, 
and was born Marcli the 14th, 181)1. 

On the 14th of January 1843 he was commissioned by Gov. 
David K. Porter, President Judge of the Eighth Judicial District, 
then composed of the counties of Northumberland, Union, Lycom- 
ing and Columbia. He was sworn into ottice on the 16th of Jan- 
uary and entered npon its duties. His first term in his own county 
began Ai)ril 3, 1843. He presided with great dignity ami urban- 
ity, and would undoubtedly have become emineut as a jurist, had 
he been spared to develop his powers. He died on the 18th of 
March 1844, aged forty-three years and four days, having held 
the office of President Judge fourteen months and four days. 

Judge Donnel peculiarly illustrated the saying, that the life of 
the successful lawyer is an uneventful one. Immersed in, and de- 
voted to his profession, neither politics nor general business at- 
tracted him. The excitements of foreiusic battles were enough for 
him, the delights of unravelling tangled threads of evidence oc- 
cupied his (piieter hours, while his leisure was given to exercise, to 
literature and to fiction. Hard facts are the business of a lawyer, 
works of the imagination his recreation. Judge Donnel was a 
member of the Episci)i)al church. 



JOSEPH BILES xVNTHONY. 



Josi'U'H Bilks Anthony was born in the city of Philadelphia, 
on tlie 19th of June, 1795. He fitted himself for the profession of 
liw, and was admitted to practice at Williamsport in i818, and 
in 1821 he married Miss Catharine Grafius, who survived him. 



HISTOUY OF COLVMBIA COUNTY. 133 

rji^iiig rMj»i(lly in liis profession, and becoming Kotnt'wli.at active 
in j>olitics, the democrats of his senatorial district elected him to 
the State Senate in 1H30. He served his term iso much to the sat- 
isfaction of his constituents, that at the end of it, in 1834, he was 
elected to Congress, and re-elected iji 1836, by an unpncedented 
majority. 

In 1843 Governor Porter aj)|jointed him judge of the court for 
the adjustment of the Nicholson claims, in wliich position he dis- 
played sound legal learning and discrimination. In March 1844, 
Governor Porter aj)pointed him President Judge of the Eighth Ju- 
dicial District, composed of the counties of Lycoming, Northum- 
berland and Columbia He presided in the courts with great ac- 
ceptability, disposing of many cases of consideiable importance and 
turning on nice legal questions. 

He died at Williamsport, of heart disease, on the lOlh of Jan- 
uary 18.51, at the comparatively early age of fifty-six years. He 
left to survive him, a widow, and one son and six daughters. 

In politics Judge Anthony was a democrat of the old school; as 
a citizen he was social and benevolent; as a lawyer honorable and 
talented; as a leprcsentative attentive and faithful, and as a judge 
penetrating, prudent and conscientious. All had confidence in his 
integrity, and his death was a source of unusual sorrow. 

The following lines were written by Hon. Joseph B. Anthony, 
during the trial, before him, of an indictment, at the Jan- 
uary sessions of the court in Danville, 1846, against a man for 
shooting a valuable setter dog, called Ij<>(jan, the property of a Mr. 
Mercer, of that place. While the trial was in }>rogre88, the lines 
were thrown down on the counsel table, by the Judge, for the 
amusement of the bar. One of the members of the bar has had 
the lines in his possession ever since, and now offers them to the 
public. 

Poor Logan's dead, no more he'll howl, 
And rend the air with deafening cries, 

No more he'll set for man the fowl, 
In death's cold lap he lowly lies. 

How fondly would he hunt the game. 
How closely would he seent the air, 

A setter known full well to fame, 

The huntsman's friend ! his master's care. 



134 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

From day to day, from year to year. 

lie roamed the wood, he scour'd tlie iield ; 
From every vicious practice clear, 

In faithfiihiess, to none he'd yield. 

A watchful, trusty, peaceful friend, 

From quarrel, strife and bickering free ; 

He never failed his aid to lend, 

But true to huntsman's call was he. 

In canine veins no drop of blood, 
Of "Logan" courses — all his race 

Is now extinct, — in wicked mood, 
Man sent him to his restiitg place. 



JAMES POLLOCK. 



Jamks Poixock, was born in the Borough of ]\Iilton, North- 
umberland county. Pa., on September 11th, 1810. His father 
William Pollock, was an American by birth, as also his mother 
Sarah Pollock. She was the daughter of Fleming Wilson, and was 
boi'n in Chester county, Penna., in October 1771. His paternal 
and maternal ancestors emigrated from the north of Ireland to 
America at least as early as 1760. They settled m Chester county 
Penna., and were the open and avowed friends of American inde- 
pendence during the war of the Revolution. One branch of the 
family settled in North Carolina, and some of its members were 
intimately connected with, if not prime movers in, the first declar- 
ation of Independence at Mechlenberg, North Carolina. They 
were known in that state by the name of Pol'k, an abbreviation 
of "Pollock," the original family name. 

His father, William Pollock, died in May 1817, leaving to sur- 
vive him a widow and seven children,-four sons,-of which James 
was the youngest,-and three daughters. The widow and mother, 
with an energy and determination that characterized her life, as- 
sumed at once the responsible duties of educating her children, 
and training them up in the "way they should go." She was a 
woman of strong intellect, of great moral courage, and marked 
religious character; qualities that aided in forming and moulding 
the character of those she loved, and for whose temi»oral and 



llItiTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 135 

eternal welfare she lal)ore<l and prayed. She died in Milton, Pa. 
February 19th, I860, in the ninety-fourth year of her age. 

The boyhood of the subject of this sketch, was passed principally 
at school. Ilis first teacher was the late Hon Joseph li. Anthony, 
afterward President Judge of the 8th Judicial District of Penn- 
sylvania, of whom he became the successor in the same office in the 
year 1850. He remained in the school of Mr. Anthony but a short 
time, and, soon after leaving, entered the Milton Classical Acad- 
emy, under the care of Rev. David Kirkpatrick. He here pre- 
pared for, and entered the Junior Class in the College of New 
Jersey, at Princeton, and graduated as IJachelor of Arts, with the 
highest honors of his class, in Sejit. 1831. In 1835 he received in 
course the degree of A. M. and in 1855 his Alma Mater confered 
upon him the honorary degree of L. L. D. and in 1857, the 
Trustees of Jefferson College, Pa., confeiTcd the same honorary 
degree upon him. 

After his graduation he entered as a student of law the office 
of Samuel Hepburn, Esq., a gentleman of eminent legal learning, 
iu his native town, and was admitted to practice in the several 
courts of Northumberland county, in November 1833, and sub- 
sequently in the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. In Aj>ril 1834 
he opened an otlice in Milton, Pa. and was successful in the prac- 
tice of his profession. In 1835 he was appointed District Attor- 
ney for Northumberland county, which office he held for three 
years. 

He was married on the 19th day of December 1837 to Miss 
Sarah Ann, daughter of Samuel Hepburn, Esq. 

He held a number of important civil offices. He was a whig in 
politics, but notwithstanding this, he was, in 1844 elected a mem- 
ber of Congress from the 13th Congressional District of Pennsylvania 
then strongly Democratic; and subsequently twice re-elected from 
the same District, holding the office foj- three terms, or six years. 
He was thus a member of the 28th, 29th and 30th Congresses. 
As a niember of some of the most important committees he con- 
tributed largely to the general work of legislation. In the 28th 
Congress he was a member of the Committee on "claims," and 
his numerous reports attest the extent and quality of his labors. 
In the 29th Congress he was on the Committee on Territories, 
of which the late Hon. Stephen A. Douglas was chairman. To 



1 ;U1 J/ IS Ton Y OF COL IMRIA ( H) UNTY. 

this Comuuttoo was roforrod all bills rolatino- t\> tlio ortiauization 
o( now Torritorios, aiul tho qm'stic>ii ol" oxohuliiiti' slaviM-y t'voin 
llu' Ti'Vi ili>ri(,'s ol' \hv Vuhvd States was o\'\vi\ jMTst'iiti'd. warmly 
iK'l)att,HU ami gt'iuMally ilotiM-inined in faxor ivf I'xrlusion. It was 
ovidoiit from thr toiu" and ti'mju'v of tlir disi-iissions in Committoo 
and in (.\>ni>Toss, t liat a ci-isis was approaoluno'. The ri'iiovts 
iVoin this (.'ommitttH' ^avc direction and Wnw t(> luiMic srntimont. 
Tlu' tlisiMissions ini'vcasod in warmth and hittrrnrss, and linallv 
onlminatod in atttanpti'd sooossioii, rovolution and war. tl>i' so- 
qnol \o all w hii-h was the trinniph o\' \hv riuht and (lio abolition 
o( slavery. Purin*;- the ;>()th (.'on^ress he was an aetive member 
o[' the (.\>mmittee of "Ways and Means, ol' w lueh tho lion. Sam- 
uel F. N'inton, of Ohio, was ehairman. 'P]\e eonntry was tlit'ii en- 
ii'aued in the Moxiean Avar, and in eousecinenee, the business of 
the l\nmuittee was greatly increased. The duties of the ]»laee 
w iMe oneuuis and responsible, but Avere fully and faithfully dis- 
ehargeil 

On the '2od of Juno 1818, (oDth Oouoress) ho oiYorod a resolu- 
tion for tlu> a]>|>(uutmeut of a speeial eommittoo to iiu|uire into 
the neeessity and praetieabilitv of eonstrut'tin>^- a railroad to the 
Taeitie. As ehairman of that eonunittoo ho made a re|H>rt to the 
House in favor of tho eonstruetion of suoh a road. 

The report Avill be found in the ,'hI volume o\' the.lournal of tho 
House of Keprosontativos for tho 1st session of tho o()th (.\ingross, 
Ko. 738. This Avas {hi\/irst/arorahle official act on this subject, 
on tho part of tho Congress of the United States. 

The report discusses the question in its international and do- 
mestic aspects, its feasibility and ])robable results, but only the 
opening sentences can be quoted here: 

"The proposition at first view is a startling one. Tlio magni- 
tude of the work itself, and the still greater and more magnitieont 
results promised by its aeeonqtlishmont — that of revolutionizing 
morally and eonnnorcially, if not politically, a greater ]>art of the 
habitable globe, and making the \ ast commerce of the world trib- 
utary to us — almost overAvholm tho mind. But your eonunittoo, 
on examination, tind it a subject as simple as it is vast and mag- 
nificent, and see no insurmountable ditlicultios in the w ay of its 
successful accomj>lishment." 

A bill accompanied tho report, and was referred to the conuuil- 



JTT STORY OF COLUMBJA COUNTY. 137 

tee of tlie Whole, \mt no further action was taken on it at that 
tiirie, mid Mr. Polloek soon after left Congress. In the fall of 
IHiH, however, he delivered a lecture on the Pacific Railroad, by 
invitation, to a ci'owded house, at Lewisljurg, Union county, Pa., 
closing with the following remark : 

"At the risk of being considered insane, I will vcnluie the j)re- 
diction, that in less than twenty-five years from this evening, a 
railroatl will be completed and in operation between Xew York 
and San Francisco, California; that a line of steamships will be estab- 
lished between San F'ranciseo, Japan and China; and there are now 
in my audience, ladies who will, befoi'e the expiratiojj of the period 
named, drink tea brought fi-om China and Jajtan, by this route, 
U) their own doors !"' 

This pro])hetic announcement was received by the audience 
with a smile of good-natured inci<'(lulity ; but some of those very 
ladies, during the year 1869, were able to sip their favorite bev- 
erage in exact accordance with the terms of the speaker's predic- 
tion ! 

On the 10th of May, 1869, the last rail was laid, the last sjjike 
driven, and the great Pacific Kailway, so long in embryo, became 
an accomj»lished fact. 

The subjects of special interest during his Congressional terra 
of service, were the aimexation of Texas, the Mexican war, the 
acquisition of California, tlie repeal of the Tariff Act of 1842, 
and the "Wilmot Proviso" in its application to the newly acquir- 
ed Territories of the United States. In all tlie discussions on 
these exciting topics he took an active part. His speeches and 
votes clearly disclosed his views on all those subjects. 

In 1850 he was appointed President Judge of the 8th Judicial 
District of Pennsylvania, composed of the counties of Northumber- 
landjMontour, Columbia, Lycoming and Sullivan. He held the office 
until the amendment of the Constitution, requiring the election of 
Judges by the peojtle, came into operation. He declined a nom- 
ination for the j»osition, left the 13ench, and resumed the prac- 
tice of the law. On his retiring from the Bench, the members of 
the Bar of the respective counties, unanimously passed resolutions 
highly complimentary to him as a man and Judge. 

In 1854 he was nominated and elected l^y a large majority, 
Governor of Pennsylvania, and Avas inaugurated in January 1855. 



138 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

He held the office for one term, huviiig refused to })ermit his 
name to be used as a candidate for re-nomination. 

At the expiration of liis official term, he resumed the duties of 
his profession. The principal measures of his administration 
were tlie adoption of means by which the reduction of the public 
debt Avas commenced, and nearly two million dollars of it paid; 
the sale of the mainline of the Public works to the Pennsylvania 
Central K. R. Co. for $7,500,000, which sum was made applicable to 
the payment and reduction of the debt of the Commonwealth, 
and which, added to the sum actually paid, reduced the debt prac- 
tically nearly $10,000,000: — a series of acts by Avhicii increased 
vigor and efficiency were given to the system of common schools; 
retrenchment and reform in the various Departments, and econ- 
omy in the general administration of the GovernmenJ;. 

In the Fall of 1857, occurred a financial crisis which led to the 
suspension of specie payments by the Banks of the State, and 
threatened every branch of industry with serious derangement 
and injury. To avert impending evils, an extra session of the 
Legislature was called, which convened in October of that year. 
On his recommendation, the suspension of specie payments was 
legalized for a definite period, the forfeiture of the charters of the 
respective Banks prevented, and other measures adopted which 
allayed the public apprehension, saved the credit of the State, 
and removed the dangers to which the general prosperity had 
been exposed. 

He was appointed in 1860, by Governor Curtin, a delegate 
to the Peace Conference (or Congress) which was held in 
Washington, D. C. in February and March 1861. The object 
of this assemblage was to consider, and if practicable to adjust 
the differences and dissensions existing between the North and 
the South on the mucli vexed question of slavery. He took an 
active })art in the deliberations of that body. Tlie couferuuce 
failed to secure a favorable result. In May 1861 he was appoint- 
ed by President Lincoln, Director of the United States Mint at 
Philadelphia, and held the office until October 1st 1866, when he 
resigned, unwilling to sustain the -'Policy" of Andrew John- 
son, by even a seeming acquiescence, in holding office under him. 

By his efforts, seconded by the approval of Hon. S. P. Chase, 
then Secretary of the Treasury, the motto "In God we trust." 



HLSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 139 

was placed upon our National coins, a motto of deep significance, 
and alike honorable to the people and Government of the United 
States. lie was re-appointed, in 1869, by President Grant, Direc- 
tor of the U. S. Mint, which office he held until 1879, when he 
was appointed Naval officer, which position he still holds, 1882. 

During the War for the Union his sympathies, efforts and la- 
bors were all for his Country, for Union and Liberty. Rebellion 
found no advocate in him — treason no friend. True to the Union 
he was ever ready to aid in its defence; true to liberty and hu- 
manity, he was always their advocate; true to his country, he re- 
joiced in the overthrow of her enemies, and in the triumph of 
those great and essential principles of liberty and free govern- 
ment that nuxke the United States the first and best of Earth's 
Empires. 

JOHN NESBIT CONYNGHAM. 

John Nkshit Conyn(;ham was born in the city of Philadeli)hia 
December 17, 1798, and graduated with high honor at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, in 1816. He studied law in the office of 
the Hon. Joseph R. Ingersoll, and upon being admitted to the 
bar, resolved to settle in Wyoming valley, and came to Wilkes- 
barre in 1820. Shortly afterwards he married Miss Butler, a 
gi-and daughter of Col. Butler, of revolutionary fame. His at- 
tention to the jiractice of his ])rofession was unremitting. In the 
year 1833 liis seveie forensic efforts produced a bronchial affection 
which coni})elled him to retire from active practice. In 1839, his 
friends irrespective of party, urged upon him the acceptance of 
the connnission of Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of his 
District. For thirty years he presided on the bench, with the 
dignity and urbanity of a gentleman of the old school. 

He came upon the Bench of Columbia county under a commis- 
sion dated 5th of November, 1851, and remained there until the 
formation of the twenty-sixth district, composed of the counties 
of Columbia, Sullivan and Wyoming, for which district Warren 
J. Woodward was commissioned on the 19th of May, 1856. 

Judge Conyngham resigned from the Bench in 1870, upon 
which occasion he was honored with a banquet, attended by the 



1 40 HIS TOR Y O F COL UMBIA CO VNTY. 

AvlioU' l^:u- of Luzerne county, to testify their appreciaiiou of his 
les4al learning and unswerving purity and integrity of cliaracter. 

But eminent as he was upon the IJench and in his })rofession, it 
was not his only, and by no means his highest claim to public cou- 
tidence and respect He was the grandson of Redmond Conyng- 
ham, and the son of David H. Conyngham of the old and honored 
firm of "Conyngham & Nesbitt," eminent in revolutionary finan- 
cial history. In politics he was a firm and consistent Democrat, 
and his voice and influence were always ou the side of his coun- 
try. 

Under the ministry of the Rev. Dr. Claxton, Judge Conyng- 
ham received the rite of contirmation in St. Stephen's Church in 
Wilkes Barre, at the hands of Bishop Tl. LT. Onderdouk, iii the 
year 1841, and during a long life he adorned himself with all the 
christian virtues. He was a vestrynuxn in Saint Steplien's fi-oni 
Easter 1821, until his death, a ])eriod of almost fifty years. He 
was elected to the Diocesan Convention for the first time in 1826 
and in 1850 he was elected a Deputy to the Genei-al Convention 
of the Church, and re-elected to every subsequent one, except one. 
In 18G2 he was a member of the connnittee on Canons, with Judge 
Chambers of Maryland, Murray Hoffman of New York, and Rob- 
ert C. Winthrop of Massachusetts. In October 1868 he was elect- 
ed President of the American Church Missionary Society. 

His judgment was sound and eminently conservative. He was 
not a radical, either in laAV, politics or theology. He was a pol- 
ished gentleman, a thorough lawyer, an upright Judge, an humble 
christian. 

The circumstances of the death of Judge Conyngham were })e- 
culiarly distressing. Accompanied by Mr. W. L. Congnyham, he 
was on a visit to another son, living in Mississippi. They arrived 
at Magnolia, in that State, about nine o'clock in the evening of 
Thursday, April 23, 1871, where the train stopped for the passen- 
gers to take supper. While they were thus engaged tlieir train 
was taken away from the })lace they left it and another came u}), 
and when they returned they went into one of the cars, to find, 
however, that it did not belong to their train, and very naturally 
they turned to leave it. The train was slowly starting, and they 
did so with some haste, Mr. W. L. Conyngham and Mr. Hender- 
son alighting without trouble, except a harmless fall on the i)art 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 141 

of the latter. The Judge was not so fortunate, as in stepping off 
the car steps to the platform of the depot, which was rather low, 
he stund)led and fell, w illi his legs between the platform and the 
cai-s of the train, and when they had passed it was found that his 
legs, below the knees, were crushed in a terrible manner, the 
whole of the hind trucks having passed over both of them. He 
was taken to the hotel and medical aid immediately summoned, 
and everything possible was done for his comfort. He did not 
realize the extent of his injury at first, no })ain attended it, and he 
even made an attempt to gtt up, before he was removed from the 
])latform, saying, "No matter, I am not hurt ; I will get up in a 
few moments." lie lived two hours, and toward the last, when 
reaction seemed to be taking place, and he began to feel some 
pain, and was told how serious his injury was, he desired am))uta- 
tion to l)e ])erformed. Injections of mor})hia were made to allay 
the pain, while prei)arations were making for the am))Utation, but 
uiidci- the effects of the morphia he seemed to decline, and not a 
great while after, dissolution took place. His last words were, "I 
know that my Redeemer liveth." His remains reached Wilkes- 
IJarre on the tii'st of March, and were interred on the third, attend- 
ed to their last resting place by an iinmense concourse of friends 
and admirers. He left a widow, and four sons and two daugh- 
ters. 

o 

WARREN J. WOODWARD. 



Upon the formation of the 2Gth Judicial District, composed of 
the counties of Columbia, Sullivan and Wyoming, this estimable 
gentleman was appointed President Judge by Governor Pollock, 
upon the reconmiendation of the membeis of the Bar of the sever- 
al counties comjiosing the district, his service commencing in 
June of that year, and continuing under the executive appoint- 
ment until the first Monday of December following. In the mean- 
time, at the general election in October of that year, he was elect- 
ed without opposition as the President Judge, for the constitu- 
tional term of ten years. He connnenced with the expiration of 
liis term under his prior appointment, and served until the first 
Monday of December, A. D. 18G1. In the latter year upon the 
retiremf'ut of the Hon. J. Prin<de Jones from the office of Presi- 



142 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

dent Judge of Berks county, Judge Woodward was elected to 
succeed him, resigned his office of President Judge of the 26th 
district, and removed to the city of Reading. At the end of ten 
years' service he was re-elected President Judge of Berks county 
without oi)i)Osition, and continued to serve upon the Bench of that 
county, until his election as a Judge of the Supreme Court under 
the new constitution at the general election in 1871. 

Taking his seat upon the Bench of the Supreme Court on the 
first Monday of January 1875, he served in that Court for a period 
of over four years and six months, until the time of his death, 
wliich occurred at his summer residence, near Hamden, Delaware 
county, in the state of New York, Tuesday, September 23rd 1879. 
At the time of his death he was within one day of sixty years of 
age. The immediate cause of the Judge's death was nervous ex- 
haustion accompanied by an enlargement of the liver. For twen- 
ty years he had been subject to recurring bilious attacks, which 
with over- work appear to have caused his final sickness, and death. 

Judge Woodward was born near Bethany, Wayne county, in 
this State, secured in his youth an academic education at Wilkes 
Barre, taught school several terms in his native county, entered 
the printing office of the Wayne county Herald, at Bethany, and 
conducted that newspaper for a time in the absence of its proprie- 
tor, and was then for about two years connected with the I^en?i- 
sylvanian at Philadelphia in an editorial capacity. 

He next studied law at Wilkes-Barre, and then practiced for 
about fifteen years with eminent success, holding at the time of 
his appointment to a judgeship, the leading practice at the Lu- 
zerne bar. 

He had the habits and tastes of a student, and was one of the 
most laborious of men, always disposed to master difficulties and 
go to the bottom of a subject. A conscientious performance of 
judicial duty involves much of concentrated attention and effort, 
quite unknown to the outer world because performed mostly in 
private. Even in the long run results only become evident ; it 
comes to be known that the faithful Judge is a great or accom- 
plished lawyer — that his work is correctly and promptly perform- 
ed — that sound law is pronounced and impartial justice adminis- 
tered by him — but little is known by the general public of the 
days or weeks or years of potent toil, and of self-discipline 







HON. WARUKN J. WOODWARD. 



//7/S TOR Y OF COL UMB TA CO UNT Y. 1 43 

which have ma*lo him what ho is — an accompliBhed rniniHter of 
juHtice. 

Judge Woodward was never a candidate for political office, 
in the ordinary sense of that term, but by devotion to his profes- 
Bion of the law lie qualified himself for higli judicial positions and 
o>)tained them without j)ersonal solicitations or effort. Uiton the 
bench l»e exhiV)ited great ability and impartiality, united with a 
faithful devotion to the duties of liis office. All business before 
him was promptly dis|tos('d of and the intrusion of ))olitical feel- 
ings or other sinister infiuence into his courts was sternly pre- 
vented. He brought to the bench a mind which had received 
its training and discipline under Judge Conyngliam of Luzerne 
county, before whom his professional life at the bar had l>een 
passed. His qualities, constituting high qualifications for a ju<lge, 
were gi'eat integrity of j»urpose, great industry, and a most sincere, 
unassuming devotion to justice. And in social inten.-ourse off 
the bench, his temper was genial and kindly, and his friendsliij) 
was considered a pro])er object of just and honora})le (;ffort. 

His walk was remarkably erect, his limbs and face clothed with 
little flesh ; but his frame was of fair size, his body substantial, 
and his head showed intellectual development and power. His 
eye was kindly and kindled in familiar discourse; his conversa- 
tion was emphatic, without violence, and had the charms of earn- 
estness and variety in intercourse with friends. He read much of 
general literature, and obtained larger views of mankind and af- 
fairs than those of the mere lawyer or plodding judge. But of 
all his characteristics, conscientiousness was, perhaps, the most 
connnanding and constant; this was the spur to labor and study 
throughout his career, carrying him with tireless activity through 
all the obscurities and difficulties of every case, and presenting to 
him at all times a wholesome apprehension that some man's right 
or some ]»rinci])le of justice miglit be overlooked or neglected. 

From notices which were published at the time of his death, in 
leading journals of the State, it plainly appears that the great 
abilities and high character of Judge Woodward had come to be 
known and apjtreciated generally by the legal profession and by 
the people of the whole state, and most sincere regrets were ex- 
pressed at the loss which the a<lmiTiistration of justice had sus- 
tained by his death. His opinions, to be found in the books of re- 



Ml HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

|uirls. will ri'iuaiii to \iv:\v I'viiU'iUH' of his ability. ;iii(l tlu'ir l;ui- 
o'liau'i' ami coinimsition to j^ratily all r^'adcrs ut sound taslr and 
jiidn'iiu'ut. 

At Ihr o|)riiiim' of tin' session of tlu' Su|)rrnu' CVmrt in I'itts- 
bniu, on the first ^Monday of October, 187!), W. D. Moore, Ks(|. , 
o'^ the AlU'<;']ieny eoimly bar, called attention to tln' death t)f 
JudLi'e ^^'ood\\a^d, in soint' well eonsidiTi'd and eoniiiliinentary 
remarks. They will be found in the o|n'nin^' pagi's oi' the lOth 
volunu' of N'orris' IJeports. 

Chief Justice Sharswood replii'd as follows: — 

'Vo all that has bei'n said to the character, attainments and 
((ualitications of oui- lanienled bridher, we a(Ul our cordial concur- 
rence. 'I'he conununily has sulVii'ed a loss in his early removal 
from us which it is ditlicult i>ro]>erly to estimate. 'Vo thoroui^h 
n\astery of the general principles of law, intimate ac(|uaintanco 
with practice and prcci'tU'Uts in all their details, he added a sound 
judgment, intlexible integrity and untiring industry, lie always 
stood by the ancient landmarks, and it was with him a matter of 
conscience not to make but to administer the laws as settled by 
adjudged cases. We nuvy be }»ermitted as our especial testinu>ny, 
tt>mentit)n his unvarying gentleness, courtesy, amiability and for- 
bearance, which endeared him to his colleagues and inadi' thi'm 
all his personal frientls. In the whole period of their association 
with him no instance of unpleasant collision can be recalled. 
His t'anxe as a judge will rest upon opinions exhibiting inde- 
pendent research, expressed in a char and forcible style, without 
pretensions to eloqnejice, models of judicial composition. His 
memory will long ))e cherished by all who knew him. and all w ho 
know how to ai)preciate the character and services <.^^ a faithful 
ami learned judge. 

-o 

A. K. rKCKIIAIVI. 



HY .lAJlKS W. I'lAlT, ESQ. 

Aauox Kingsi.ev Pih'kiia:\i was the second child o'i Kiugsley 
Peckhani and Hannah Ketta Kounds and was born at Bristol, 
Bristol county, Rhode Island. October 15th, l81o. His father 
was a farmer and while residimr in Rhode Island made a bare 



lIltiTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 145 

comp(;t<'iu;(' for himscH' ;iii(l fiiiiiily. Learning of the (;ho;ij)nesH 
and facility with wiiich land could be acquired in l^ennHylvania 
he left Rhode Island in the Hpring of 1829, and after a long and 
tedious journey fraught witli the dangers, difHcidtio.s and discour- 
agements incident to the season and mode of travel, arrived and 
settled early in the spring, in Columbia, Bradford connty, Penn- 
Bylvania. The expenses of the trip left his fatlier little to begin 
with, but he went earnestly to work in the heavily timbered for- 
est, soon made a clearing and erected habita})le buildings. At 
tliis tiuie the subject of our sketch was fourttnui years old, just 
the age when he should have been placed at school and had o|)- 
portunities for fitting himself better for his after work. lie re- 
mained with his father until about the age of nineteen assisting 
in clearing, working the land and making improvements in spring, 
summer and fall, and attending the common schools of the neigh- 
borhood in the winter. He then procured a tract of land in Ar- 
menia townsliip, Bradford county and went to work for himself. 
Not a tree had been cut ujion this tract when he went upon it. 
He cut and cleared a number of fallows, set up a good sugar 
bush and made sugar several seasons. The land has now become 
a fine farm and is in the possession of Benjamin Knight. He re- 
mained there until the spring of 1838 when he rented a pail fac- 
tcn-y of Samuel Myers and C. M. Manville near Towanda, Pa. 
It was shortly after he began manufacturing pails that he deter- 
mined to study law. He entered his name as a student with 
Johti C. Adams of the Towanda bar. He meanwhile carried on 
his business and in addition taught school winters. In 1842 he 
was a<lmitted at Towanda as a meml>er of the Bradford county 
bar. It was at this time that Wyoming county was separated 
from J^uzerne county and he went to Tunkhannock to engage in 
practice. He opened an office on Tioga street in a frame Ijuild- 
ing which was subsequently destroyed by fire and stood near Lo- 
beck's lilock. For about three years he practiced alone. Col. 
Elhanan Smith, now of the Towanda bar, went to Tunkhannock 
in 1845, when a law partnership was foraied under the name of 
Peckham & Smith. This partnership contirmed about three 
years and was the only one formed by him during his whole legal 
practice. He immediately obtained a fair share of the business 
in the county and by his industry, application and perseverance 



146 ins TO li Y OF COL U3fBIA CO UlSTTY. 

worked his way into a d:oo(1 practice. 

In 1860 tlie late Warren J. Woodward, tlie tlien Presiding 
Judge of tlie then 26th jndieial district, eoin])rising among- others 
Wv«nning connty, was elected President Judge of tlie 2.'{d judic- 
ial tlistrict and surrendered his connnission as Presiding .Judge of 
the 26th. Governor Andrew i\. C^urtin coniinissioned \. Iv. Peck- 
ham to fill the vacancy in the fall of 1861. In the fall of 1S62, 
Judge Wm. Elwell, then a member of the Bradford county bar 
and now Presiding Judge of the 26th district, was nominated by 
the Democrats and concurred in by tlie Rei>ublicans. Judge 
Peckham declined to be a candidate. Upon December 1st 1862, 
his commission expired and he resumed his practice at Tunkhan- 
nock, continuing there until the time of his death, March 22d, 
1865. 

He married Jane A. T'. INIanville at Towanda, February 21st, 
1845. She died at Tunkhannock the 5th day of July, 1855. By 
her he left one daughtei", Mrs. N. P. Hicks, who now resides at 
Towanda, Pa. He married Jane E. Ivnowles at Chittenango, 
N. Y., November 24th, 1858. By lier he left one daughter, Mary, 
Avho now resides with her mother at Chittenango, N. Y. 

He was regarded as an enterprising citizen, a kind neighbor, 
a considerate husband and parent. I know of nothing mort? apt 
to say of him than that which is rnscribed upon the monument 'J 
over his grave at Tunkhannock. 

"In life au upright citizen, devoted companion, affectionate 
parent and faithful friend. Always firm and eHicient i)i defence 
of justice, and hostile to all oppression and Avrong. He being 
dead yet speaketh." 



WILLIAM ELWELL. 



WirxiAM Elwkll was born in Athens, Bradford county, Penn., 
October 9th, 1808. lie received a good English education at the 
Athens academy. At the age of nineteen he was an assistant 
under Chief Engineer Randall in running exploring lines on both 
sides of the Susquehanna river for the location of a canal from 
the New York state line southward. After leaving the engineer 
corjts he taught school for three years and then com- 
menced the study of the law in the office of Horace Willis- 




HON. wii.i.iAAr K\.\vy.i.i.. 



148 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

toil, Esq. and was admitted to the Bar in February, 1833 For 
sixteen years he ])ractise(i his profession as partner of his pre- 
ceptor, in the nortlun-n counties of the state, and until the ap- 
pointment of Mr. Williston as President Judge of the 13th Dis- 
trict 

lie was a member of tlie Legishiture in 1842 and 1843, and at 
his tirst session at Harrisburg, was chairman of the Judiciary 
conxmittee, among the members of which committee were men 
who afterwards attained great distinction, notably Judge Shars- 
woed. Judge Gamble, Judge Barrett, liendrick B. Wright and 
Thaddeus Stevens, and of whom ho was in every respect the equal. 
In 1843 lie was chairman of the committee of ways a'.d means. 
As chairman of the Judiciary Comjnittee he prepared and report- 
ed Ihe bill to abolish imprisonment iov debt, which witli a single 
cliauge, stands now as originally reported. 

In 1844 lie declined being a cjuididate for Congress, preferring 
the practice of his profession to a })olitical life; but in 18GG he re- 
luctantly yielded to the demands of his i)arty (the Deiuociatic), 
and accepted the nomination in the 13th Congressional District- 
He ran far ahead of his party vote, but did not overcome the lie- 
publican majority. 

The Supreme Court Re])orts show the extent of his i)raetice, 
containing as they do, over one hundred cases argued by him. 

In 1862 he was elected President Judge of the 26th Judicial 
District composed of the counties of Columbia, Sullivan and Wy- 
oming, no candidale being named against him; and upon the ex- 
piration of his term, in 1872, he was re-elected withont a dissent- 
ing vote. In May 1874, Wyoming and Sullivan were created the 
44tli Judicial District, and Montour county was added to Colum- 
bia, the District still remaining the 26th. ITpon his election in 
1862, he removed to Bloomsburg, where he lins ever since resided. 

In April 1871, Judge Elwell Avas chosen umpire to settle the 
dithculties between the operators and the miners in the Anthracite 
coal regions, and his im|»artial judgment was accepted by all 
parties as a just and eijuitable solution of the troubles. He has 
been frequently urged to become a candidate for the Supreme 
Bench, and he has been voted foi- in convention for that place ; 
but he has uniformly declined to authorize a canvas in his favor, 
forthe office, not deeming it consonant withjudicial propriety. And 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 149 

for the same reason he has refused to allow his name to be can- 
vassed for the office of Governor of the Commonwealth, for which 
lie has been frecjuently and warmly nrged. 

On the exj)iration of his second term as President Judge of the 
2nth District, the JJar of the District unanimously, and without 
distinction of i)aity re^juested him to accept a third term, to which 
he consented ; and the political convention of the Democratic and 
Republican party respectively, followin«»' the lead of the J5ar, 
nominated him to the office for the election of 1882. He was 
then iiLiaiii unanimously elected. 

Judge Elwell is a member of the EjtiseopaJ Church, having 
been conlirmed a few years since by Bishop Howe. He was a]»- 
jiointed on the Bi-Centennial committee by Gov. Hoyt in 188], 
but his official duties jtrevented him from taking any active part. 
In 18(j8 he was elected a Trustee of the Bloomsburg State Nonnal 
School, and since 1873 he has been President of the Board of 
Trustees, and in the dark days of the school he did much in guid- 
ing it through to its j)resent successful condition. 

It is believed that Judge Elwell has held more special Courts 
than any Judge now ujion the Bench. And in order to have the 
advantage of his legal learning and ability mariy important cases 
have been certified to Columbia county from other districts and 
tried before him. 

Among the many notable cases which he has tried are the 
Williamsport l^ondcase — Fisher against the City of Philadelphia 
— Tryon and Dull against Munson, and the celebrated Cameron 
AV^ill case from Union county, each involving the rights of parties 
to the amount of hundreds of thousands of dollars, and in all of 
which his opinions were affirmed by the Supreme Court. On the 
ai)peal in the wiii case, after elaborate argument by eminent coun- 
sel for the apjjellant, the decision was affirmed, the Supreme Court 
adopting the o)»inion of the Court below as the opinion of that 
Court. 

The Mollie Maguire case growing out of the murder of Alex- 
ander W. Kea, which was affirmed by the Supreme Court, of 
itself forms a large volume, and establishes many important ques- 
tions on the law of homicide, was tried before him. 

Numerous cases in Equity in thi> and other counties liave been 



150 HISTORY OF C0LU3IBIA COUNTY. 

he:ivd and decideil by him, and ex('('i)t in a single instance these 
decisions liave been sustained on aj»j)eal. 

His opinions which ai)[)ear in the State Reports, in the 
Weekly Notes of Cases, and other legal j)ublications, are considered 
as valuable additions t ) the legal literature of the time. It is wor- 
thy of mention that of all the ca^es in the Court of Oyer and 
Terminer, (Quarter Sessions and Orphans' Court, not a single case 
from his district has been revei'sed during the twenty years he 
has been upon the bench. 



-^S 




1^ 



HI^STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 151 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

While facts and circumstances are still fresh in the knowledge 
of citizens, it is well to put upon record what ought to 
be renienibered, of the early historyof "Tlie Bloonisburg Literary 
Institute and State Normal School." 

In the year 1856 the following named gentlemen, to-wit; A. J. 
Sloan, M. Coffman, E. Mendenhall, A. J. Evans, Wm. McKelvy, 
J. J. Brower, B. F. Hartman, S. II. Miller, J. M. Chaniberlin, 
Philip Unangst, Jesse G. Clark, A. Witnian, Michael Henderson, 
John G. Freeze, Levi L. Tate, Peter Billmeyer, M. C. Sloan, 
Jonathan Mosteller, Alexander J. Frick, E. B. Bidleman, Robei't 
F. Clark, A. M. Kui)ert, K. B. Menagh, W. J. Bidleman, Robert 
Cathcart, A. C. Mensch, and H. C. Ilower, associated themselves 
together "for the promotion of education both in the ordinary and 
higher branches of English literature and science, and in the 
ancient and modern languages," and therefore jiresented a petition 
to the Court, and at the September term, A. D. 1856, became and 
were a corporation under the name, style and title of "The Blooms- 
burg Literary Institute." 

Under the articles of incoriioration constituting the Charter, 
William Robison, Leonard B. Rupert, William Snyder, Elisha 
C. Barton, William Goodrich, D. J. Waller, Joseph Sharpless, 
John K. Grotz, and I. W. Hartman were made Trustees, to serve 
until the annual election provided for in the Charter. The min- 
utes of that Board of Trustees have never come into the hands of 
the writer, and neither the organization nor any of the proceed- 
ings are known. But a school of a high grade was promptly 
opened, and for some time kept in successful operation. It was 
held in a building located on the lot now owned and occupied by 
the Roman Catholic Church. The causes that eventually re- 
sulted in suspending operation need not be here detailed ; but a 



152 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

('(Hisidorable tiinc elapsed hetwcon the closing of the school in the 
huildiiij:; iiientioiied. and its re-opening in what was known as tlie 
Old Aca<len»y Building. In the meantime the ]>ublic schools had 
improved considerably, and a more general feeling for a higher 
educational training was develo})ed. A number of young men 
were to be fitted for college, and though the standard i-ate of 
public school teachers was raised by the State, yet all the educa- 
tional interests of tlie county were in a most backward condition. 
None of the schools, either private or public, came near tilling the 
])ublic requirements, and it was the duty as Avell as the oppoituni- 
ty of Bloomsburg to lead in a new, and lasting and magnificent 
educational enterprise. 

In this conjuncture of alfairs Mr. Henry Carver appeared in 
town and o|)ened a classical school in the Old Academy on Third 
street. He was successful in his then undertaking and acquired in 
a large degree the conlidence of our people. The tirst and best 
result of that feeling of contideuce was the re-organization of the 
''BUu)msburg Jjiterary Institute." 

Pursuant to a notice given, the Trustees of the liloomsburg 
Literary Institute met at the study of D. J. Waller on the evening 
of May 2nd, ISOti; present D. J. Waller, William Snyder, J. K. 
Grotz, L. B. l{uj)ert and I. W. Ilartman. On motion of J. KGrotz, 
D. J. Wallei- was elected }>resident and I. \V. liartman secretary. 
The places of E. C. Barton, Wm. llobison and Wm. Goodrich 
Avere declared vacant, and John G. Freeze, liobert F. Clark and 
William Neal were elected to till the vacancies. 

At the next meeting. May 4th, the resignation of Joseph Sharp- 
less was accepted and Conrad Bittenbender was chosen to till the 
vacancy. A committee of six was named to open books and 
take subscription to the stock of the corporation. A committee 
on location of the building was also chosen, and Wm. Neal was 
elected to be treasurer. At the next meeting, May 25th, Profes- 
sor Carver was elected principal of the contemplated school. A 
number of subscriptions to the stock having been obtained, the 
stock-holders met in the Grand Jtny room, June 16, 1866, to lo- 
cate the school building. x4fter some discussion the question was 
postponed, and the meeting adjourned to June 22nd. On assem- 
bling, i)ursuant to adjournment, propositions were received from 
William Snyder, Wm. B. Koons, M. S. Appelman, C. Barton & 



154 IIISTOEY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Vo. and D. J. Waller. On a vote being taken it resulted as fol- 
lows : 

P'or Snyder's location 489 votes. 

For Koons' 3 votes. 

On the same day the Board of Trustees at a meeting resolved 
to accept William Snyder's j)ropositioii and adoj)ted the location 
voted for by the stock-holders. 

On the 29th of June the Board ordered that jjlans and speciti- 
cations be at once procured and a building be contracted for and 
})ut up at a cost not to exceed $15,000.00. 

The resignations of Wm. Neal and J K. (4rotz were tendered 
and accepted, and thereupon M. S. Appeliuan and Peter Billmeyer 
were elected to till the vacancies. On the 12th of July Mr. Hart- 
man resigned, and F. C. Eyer was elected, in his place. 

M. S. Api)ehnan who was electe<l to till tl»e place of J. K. Grotz, 
not accepting, Mr. John Wolf was chosen. On the resignation of 
Wm. Neal, Wm. Snyder was elected Tieasurer. The Snyder lo- 
cation having been accepted, a committee was ajjpointed to select 
the site. On the 18th of July Mr. Waller offered a minority re. 
]>ort in favor of locating the school buildings on the north side of 
the extension of Main street, but Mr. Snyder declined to sell that 
and upon the acceptance of the present location, Mr. Waller re- 
signed from the committee, and on the 21f-t of July, from the 
Presidency of the Board and fi-om the Board of Trustees ; and 
subsequently Freas BroAAm was elected in his stead. 

Hon. Leonard B. Rupert was elected President of the Board of 
Trustees in the place of Rev. Mr. Waller, resigned, and was an- 
nually re-elected until May 9, 1873, when Hon William Elwell 
was elected and is still, 1882, the President. 

During all this time tlie matter of subscriptions and building 
were pushed forward with considerable vigor. On the question 
of location, some difficult v was experienced. It was designed to 
locate the building north of the projection of Second street, but 
Mr, Snyder did not consent to the change. We all see now how 
great the advantage would have been. A committee waited upon 
him about the matter and after consultation wiih him, at a meet- 
ing on the 4th of August, 1866, it was 

"Resolved, that in accepting the location offered by Mr. Snyder, 
the Board act in view of the assurance given to the public in con- 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 155 

iiectioii witli that oflFer, that the owners of the Porks Hotel will, at 
no distant day, remove that hotel, and open Main street directly to 
the front of the Institute grounds." 

On such terms and conditions the grounds were accepted and 
the building erected. 

On Thursday, April 4, 1867, The Bloomsburg Literary Insti- 
tute was opened and df(licated to the purposes of education. The 
day was warm and beautiful, and at one o'clock in the afternoon 
the Bloomsburg Brass Band lieaded the procession, marching from 
the Old Academy Building on Third street to the Institute. The 
Band was followed by tlie Board of Trustees, then by the 
Clergy, next the parents of the pupils, then the pupils, and lastly 
the Faculty. The piocession passed up Third to Market, up Mark- 
et to Second and uj) Second to the Institute. On arriving at the 
door Judge Rujjert, President of the Board, unlocked it, the 
Band fell back and escorted the Faculty and pupils, who entered 
lirst, followed by the parents and Trustees. The Hall of the In- 
stitute was filled by the citizens and friends of the School in at- 
tendance at the inauguration. 

After nuisic by the band, prayer was offered by the Rev. I). J. 
Waller, a song, "Welcome Chorus," given by the glee club, after 
which Hon. L. B. Rupert, President of the Board of Trustees 
made a report of the inception and progress of the work. The 
<ledicatory address was made by Prof. Moss of Lewisburg. The 
following named pupils took part in the exercises : Misses Brower, 
Purse], Hendershott, Bittenbender, Rupert, John, Lowenberg, 
Harman, VanBuskirk, Abbot, Tustin, McKinney, Williams, Ster- 
ner, Torbet, Correll, Edgar, Dereamer, Caslow, Bobbins, Lutz, 
Armstrong, Buckingham, and F.lwell : and l>y Masters Waller, 
Little, W. H. Clark, Snyder, Buckalew, Billmeyer, Funk, Hender- 
shott, G. E. Elwell, J. M. Clark, Bittenbender, Neal, Schuyler, 
Woods, and I'nangst. 

At I he close of the afternoon exei-cises, Mr. E. R. Ikeler, on be- 
half of the teachers of Columbia county, with an apprr)priate 
speech, presented Prof. Carver with an album, containing i)or- 
traits of the donors, as a testimonial of their respect It was re- 
ceived by the Prof, who returned his acknowledgements in a few 
well chosen sentences, and after a song by a class of the pupils, 
the audience was dismissed. 



156 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

In the evening- the hirge hall of the Institute M\as filled with a 
gratified and appreciative audience, and the exercises began with 
a prayer by Rev. J. R. Dimm. A song was then given by the 
glee club. At the request of the Board of Trustees, Judge Ehvell 
then delivered an admirable address, in brief reciting the history 
of the Institute, and urging the friends of education to push on 
the work, and complete the building, beautify the grounds, pro- 
vide a library and necessary apparatus , and assuring them that 
thus they were affording to their children means for an ample ed- 
ucation, and bestowing u})on them a legacy which would be for- 
ever a blessing. 

The evening exercises were engaged in by the following : 
Misses L. E. Jolm, Appleman, M. John, Ehvell, Lutz, Sharpless, 
Bittenbeiider, Clark, Edgar, Caslow, Irving, McKinney, M. E. 
Sharpless, Armstrong, Pursel, Brower, Rupert, Agerand Robbins; 
and Masters J M. Clark, Bomboy, Hartman, Neal, G. A. Clark, 
Pursel, Billmeyer, Pardee, Turnbach, Smith, B. Pardee, G. P. 
Waller, Irving, Swisher, Rupert, Schuyler, L. Rutter, Sloan, Mor- 
ris, Lutz, McKelvy, Buckalew, Mendenhall, Bittenbender, L. Wal- 
ler, H. Rutter, Dillon, P^unk, Thomas, Evans, Edgar, Appleman, 
Girton, E. Rutter, Woods, G. McKelvy, Van Buskirk, Hender- 
shott, J. K. Morris, jr., Melick, 1). J Waller, jr.. Little, L^nangst, 
T. F. Connor and G. E. Ehvell. 

Looking back now upon that occasion, important as it seemed 
at the time ; it is doubtful if any one realized all that it has accom- 
])lished for the Town, and will yet accomplish. All its influences 
have been for good, and must continue so to be. It has brought 
many strangers to our town — it has been a means of education to 
many here who could not have gone elsewhere — all its surround- 
ing influences and teachings are of the pleasantest kind. 

On the 4th of May 1867, the stockholders of the Bloomsburg 
Literary Institute met and elected the following Board of Trus- 
tees : 

For one year, Robert F. Clark, Peter Billmyer, F. C. Eyer. 
For two years, J. G. Freeze, L. B. Rupert, Wm. Snyder. 
For three years, John Wolf. C. Bittenbender, J. P. Connor. 

On the 2oth of October, 1867, Mi. E. Mendenhall was elected 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Wm. Snyder. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 157 

During the year 1867, a tine bell weighing 2171 pounds was 
placed in the cui)ola of the school, at a cost of about $1,200. 
The money was raised by subscription through the efforts of D. 
J. VValler Jr., Geo. E. Elwell and Charles Unangst, wdio were 
then pupils in the school. 

And here we may pause for a moment in the history of this 
great educational enterj)rise. Contrary to the expectations even 
of friends, in spite of the sneers and opposition of the indifferent 
and close-fisted and narrow-minded, the building and school were 
a proud success. As it stood there in its solitary grandeur upon 
the hill, the Board of Trustees could look \\\)Q\\ the work with 
satisfaction and gratification. Undeniedly it increased the value 
of all the i»roperty in Bloomsburg; it increased the attractions of 
the town as a place of residence; it cheapened the cost of the nec- 
essary preparation of boys and girls for the active duties of life; 
it raised the true re})Utation of Bloomsburg among the surround- 
ing counties, and even beyond the State lines the rumors of us ex- 
tended, and pupils came thence among us. The liberal and 
large hearted man rejoiced in the good he had accomplished, and 
knew it was a monument to his labor and perseverance more last- 
ing than brass. One after another the faint-hearted became foot- 
sore, and weary ; but as they fell out of the ranks their places 
were tilled by others, and when at the end of the first year a 
Board came to be elected, it ajipeared that but four of those whose 
names appeared among the first roll call, had struggled on. togeth- 
er to the end. It had been a struggle, such as they only who had 
gone through it, could api)reciate. Amid so many discourage- 
ments they were surj)rised at their own success, but having suc- 
ceeded it is but right to say that a very large majority of the citi- 
zens of Bloomsburg gave substantial support to the enterprise. 

In the meantime the year 1867 was passing away, the school 
was attracting attention, the building was large and conspicuous, 
and our citizens began to awaken to its importance. Mr. Wicker- 
sham, the State Superintendent of Public Schools, had heard of 
us, and seeing wliat we had already accomplished, suggested the 
erection of additional buildings and the organization of a State 
Normal School, to be run in connection with the Literary Insti- 
tute. Discussion on the subject was general and warm, and on 
the 9th of March 1868, the Board "Resolved that the Trustees of 



158 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

the Bloomsbiirg Literary Institute agree to establish in connection 
with the same, a State Normal School under the Act of Assembly 
of the 2nd of May, 1857, and to ])rocure the grounds and put up 
the necessary buildings as soon as the sum of seventy thousand 
dollars is subscribed by responsible persons, agreeably to the fore- 
going propositions." 

In })ursuance thereof, at that and subsequent meetings, commit- 
tees on plans, specifications and subscriptions, were appointed and 
proceeded to the discharge of their duties. 

On the 18th of April, 1868, a public meeting was held in the 
Recorder's office to consider "the S!ibject of a Normal School to 
be located at Bloomsburg." The Rev. Mr. Waller was called to 
the chair, and Capt. Brockway was chosen Secretary. Mr. Neal 
stated the object of the meeting. After a very fiee and spirited 
discussion, the following resolutions were moved and carried : 

"That the Trustees of the Bloomsburg Literary Institute be 
earnestly requested to pjirchase the necessary grounds and proceed 
to make an agi^eement to carry forward the enterprise of erecting 
the building required. 

That the plans submitted by Prof. Carver be reconmiended to 
the ti'ustees for adoption. 

That it be reconmiended to let the building to Prof. Carver at 
his estimate of $36,000." 

Tlie ])roceedings and i-ecommendations of the piiblic meeting 
having been certiiied to the Board of Trustees, then in session, the 
Board on the same day appointed a building committee, consisting 
of L. B. Rupert, P. Billmeyer, and F. C. Eyer, and authorized it 
"to contract for the erection of the building with Prof. Carver at 
his bid of thirty-six thousand dollars, in accordance with the rec- 
ominendation of the citizens," and it was accordingly so done, and 
the building was put in process of construction. 

On the 2d of May, 1869, the stockholders elected the following: 
For three years, Robert F. Clark, William Elwell, William Neal; 
For one year, Elias Mendenhall. 

It being thought best to have the building committee members 
of the Board, Judge Rupert, Judge Elwell, and William Neal, 
were elected. 

On the 23d of June, the Board met to consider the subject of 
the Normal School Building. It was "Resolved, that the following 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 159 

specific articles be put in the corner-stone of the new buihling, 
to-wit : A copy of the Bible, a certified copy of the charter, 
names of the Board of Trustees as follows : L. B. Rupert, Presi- 
dent ; John G. Freeze, Secretary ; Elias Mendenhall, Treasuier ; 
Robert F. Clark^ Conrad Bittenbender, John Wolf, Joseph P. 
Conner, William Elwell, and William Neal ; Catalogue of Fac- 
ulty and Students, State School Board as follows : Maj. Gen. 
Geary, Governor of the Conmionwealth ; Hon. J. P. Wickersham, 
Superintendent of Common Schools ; C. R. Coburn, Deputy Su- 
perintendent; last message of Gov. Geary ; cpy of School laws ; 
history of the Institute and school buildings ; one copy of The 
Columhia7i, The Republican and The Democrat ; proprietor of 
the grounds, and first treasurer, Wni. Snyder deceased : building 
connnittee, Leonard B. Rupert, William Elwel! and William Neal; 
architect and builder, Heniy Carver ; ad-.dsory architect, Samuel 
Sloan ; one specimen of each of the following curre icy : 1 three 
cent j)ostal currency, 1 five cent postal currency, 1 ten cent postal 
currency, 1 three cent silver piece, late issue, 1 five cent silver 
piece, old issue ; and programme of the anniversary exercises. 

The laying of the corner stone of the Bloomsburg State Nor- 
mal School was performed upon the 2oth day of June, 1868. 

At 1:30 p. m., the Hon. C. L. Ward, delivered an oration in the 
hall of the Institute. At its close a procession was formed, head- 
ed by the Board of Trustees, and proceeded to the corner where 
the stone was to be placed. Arrived there and opening to the 
right and left. Gov. Geary, Mr. Wickersham, and other distin- 
guished gentlemen, came forward. Rev. Mr. Waller offered 
prayer. Gov. (4eary then laid the corner stone, after having de- 
posited within it, the articles mentioned. After the stone had 
been placed, with a]»i)r()priate ceremonies, the Governor made an 
address. Judge Elwell then, on behalf of the Board of Trustees 
made an address. Judge Rupert, read a history of the Institute as 
deposited in the corner stone. Governor Geary then handed the 
])lans of the new building to Prof. Carver, with a short address ; 
Prof. Carver accepted them, promising to urge the completion of 
the building as ra))idly as possible. In the evening Mr. Wicker- 
sham met and addressed a large audience, in the hall of the Insti- 
tute, on the subject of education generally, and of Normal Schools, 
particularly. 



160 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Thus this new and important enterprise was fairly under way, 
and a reasonable prospect of sufficient interest in it to insure its 
completion. There was still a small element of croakers, clogs on 
all progress, who sneered at the whole matter and predicted it 
would never succeed. As it is intended that their names shall be 
forgotten, they do not appear in this sketch. 

What do they think now, however, when they see following 
that enterprise, tlie erection of the best hotel within the forks of 
the Susquehanna — the building upon Second street of more than 
a dozen first-class three story brick buildings — of extensive im- 
provements and repairs in all parts of the town — the erection of 
an Opera House — the introduction of gas and water — the removal 
of unsightly obstructions from the streets — the opening, grading 
and extension of thoroughfares —the large influx of permanent 
and desirable citizens. 

It is but fair to say that little, if any, of all this would have 
happened had not those buildings first been erected. They are 
an advertisement of the town of which it has not yet shown itself 
to be, collectively, entirely appreciative. It was the first deter- 
mined effort at improvement and progress, and it Mas an effort 
whose far-reaching good can never be measured. And it brings 
money, and reputation, and population to the town, as well as 
providing healthful educational influences to thousands of our 
coming men and women. 

On the 19th of February, 1869, the Legislative committee, com- 
posed of Messrs. Hon. Wilmer Worthington, Hon. James C. 
Brown, Hon. George 1). Jackson, and Hon. Henry M. Hoyt, met 
at Bloomsburg for tlie purpose of inspecting the buildings, grounds 
&c., pre{)aratory to reconunending it to recognition us a Normal 
School. The report was unanimously favorable, and the an- 
nouncement was heard with lively satisfaction. Si)eeches were 
made by Judge Rupert, Hon. Thomas Chalfant, Gen. Ent, and 
others. 

On the 22d February, 1809, the proclamation of the Depart- 
ment, recognizing it as a State Normal School, was published, and 
our legal existence dates from that famous d ay, the birthday of 
Washington. 

The following is the full report of the State Superintendent of 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 101 

coiiiTnon schools on tlie official recognition of the State Normal 
School of the sixth district : 

"A connuunicution, was received at this department, dated 
February 8th, 1869, and signed by L. B. Rupert, President, and 
John G. Freeze, Secretary, of the Board of Trustees, of the 
Bloonisburg Literary Institute, stating that said board had ob- 
tained grounds, erected buildings, and opened a school, which 
they desired to have inspected by a committee appointed according 
to the provisions of the act of Assembly approved May 20th, 
1857, with the design of having the institution recognized as the 
State Normal School of the Sixth District. 

Accordingly, with the consent of the Governor, the following 
named gentlemen were appointed the committee : Hon. Wilmer 
Worthington, Hon. Jas. C. Brown, Hon. Geo. D. Jackson, and 
Hon. Henry jNI. Hoyt; the several County Superintendents in the 
counties composing the district were notified, and Friday, the 
19th day of February, was agreed upon as the day for the 
examination. 

All the members of the committee were present on the day 
api»oiiited, and they, in connection with the State Superintendent 
of Connnon Schools, and the County Superintendents of the coun- 
ties of Columbia, Montour and Union, proceeded, at 9 o'clock A. 
M., to discharge the duties of their appointment. They first at- 
tended the opening exercises of the school in the Chapel of the 
institution, and then spent some time in visiting the several class- 
rooms and listening to recitations in the various branches. After 
this, they were conducted by members of the Board of Trustees 
and delegations of citizens over the grounds and through the 
buildings. All the official papers appertaining to the institution 
were duly examined, its deeds, charter, by-laws, rules and regula- 
tions. Full explanations were elicited in reference to the organ- 
ization of the school, the constitution of its faculty, its plan of 
study, tfcc, &c. 

The connnittee retiring for consultation, then organized by 
electing Wilmer Worthington, President, and J. P. Wickersham 
Secretary, and, after due deliberation, adopted the following pre- 
amble and resolutions, and thereto appended their proper signa- 
tures : 



162 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Bloomsburg, Columbia County, Feb. 19, 1869. 

Whereas, The "Bloomsburg Literary Institute," having made 
formal api)lication to the Department of Common Schools for the 
ap})ointment of a committee to examine its claims to be recogniz- 
ed as the State Normal School of the Sixth District, according to 
the provisions of "An Act to provide for the due training of teach- 
ers for the Common Schools of the State," approved the 20th day 
of May, 1857; and 

Whereas, The undersigned, being duly appointed and author- 
ized under said act, and having personally, and at the same time, 
on Friday, the 19th day of February, 1869, visited and carefully 
inspected said Institute, and made a careful examination thereof 
of its by-laws, rules and regulations, and its general arrangements 
and facilities for instructing, and having found ihem to be sub- 
stantially such as the law requires ; 

Resolved. That the "Bloomsburg Literary Institute" is, in our 
opinion, entitled to recognition as a State Normal School, with all 
the privileges and immunities enjoyed by other institutions of 
like character in this Commonwealth. 

WiLMER WoRTHiNGTON, Chairman. 
George D. Jackson, ^ 
James C. Bromt^, >- Committee. 
J. P. WicKERSHAM, Sec'y. Henry M. Hoyt, ) 

C. G. Barkley, County Stipt. Columbia Co, 
C. V. Gundy, County Sti^^t. Union County. 
Wm. Henry, County Supt. 3fontour County. 

This report was announced to a large audience, which had as- 
sembled in the Chapel of the institution to hear it, and was receiv- 
ed with the most lively satisfaction. Prof. Henry Carver, the 
Principal of the school, presided at this meeting, and a'l dresses 
were delivered by different members of the committee, Judge 
Rupert, President of the Board of Trustees, Hon. Thomas Chal- 
fant. General Ent, and others. In the evening a "Sociable" was 
held at the school, and this was followed by a banquet at one of 
the hotels. 

The following is the proclamation of the Department recogniz- 
ing the Bloomsburg Literary Institute as a State Normal School: 

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, "^ 
Department of Common Schools, V 

Harrisburg, February 22d, 1869. \ 
Whereas, In pursuance of the api)lication to this Department 
of the Trustees of the Bloomsburg Literary Institute for the ap- 
pointment of a committee to examine its claims to recognition as 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 163 

the State Normal School of the Sixth District, according to the 
provisions of "An Act to provide for the due training of teachers 
for the Couiraon Schools of the State," approved the 20th day of 
May, 1857, the following gentlemen were appointed, viz: Hon. 
Wilmer Worthington, of the County of Chester ; Hon. James C. 
Brown, of the County of Mercer ; Hon. George D. Jackson, of the 
county of Sullivan, and Hon Henry M. Hoyt of the County of 
Luzerne ; and, 

Whekkas, The committee so appointed, in conjunction with the 
State Sui)erinten(lent of Common Schools, C. G. Barkley, Esq., 
County Superintendent of the County of Columbia, C. V. Gundy, 
Esq., County Suj^erintendent of Union, and William Henry, Esq., 
County Superintendent of the County of Montour, the County 
Superintendents of the other counties in the district — Northum- 
berland, Snyder, Dauphin, Perry, Juniata, and Mifflin — being 
unable to be present, after having, on the 19th day of Februaiy, 
1869, visited an<l carefully inspected said Institute, and made a 
careful examination thereof of its by-laws, rules and regulations, 
and its general a'rangements and facilities for study, reported 
unanimously that said Institute is entitled to recognition as a 
State Normal School, with all the privileges and inununities 
enjoyed by other institutions of like character in this Common- 
wealtli: 

iVo*o, therefore, I, State Superintendent of Common Schools, do 
hereby give notice, as required by law, that I have recognized the 
said Bloomsburg Literary Institute as the State Normal School 
of the Sixth District, composed of the Counties of Columbia, 
Union, Montour, Snyder, Northumberland, Dauphin, Perry, Juni- 
ata, and Mifflin. 
^^^A^. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and 
-< L. S. V affixed the seal of the De})artment of Conmion Schools, 
' — r — -' at Harrisburg, the 22d day of Februai y, 1 869. 
J. P. WICKERSHAM, 
State Superintendent of Common Schools. 

It is not the ;.ur})ose of the writer to follow chronologically the 
course of events in the history of the school. It is impossible, if 
it were desirable, to describe the strugirles of the Trustees in con- 
tinuing and carrying forward the work of building. The very 
large amount of money required, the falling off of subscriliers, 
the want of jtrompt payment of those which were good, the talk 
of those who were not in sympathy with the movement, were all 
discouraging circumstances. The Trustees were therefore obliged 
to assume personally the cost of carrying on the work. They 
have had upon themselves at one timr, as a personal obligation 



164 III^TOJiy OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

— more than twenty thousand dolhirs. IJepnirs, exj)en(litnre8 
iintl detieieneies to the amount of from one lo tliree tlious- 
and (h>llars annually, have been provided for by them, on their 
pi'rsoiial responsibility. They liave given days and nights to the 
business of tlie school, tliey have borue for tlie public and general 
good, burdens which no num in the town has struggled under in 
his own business. When State aid came slowly or not at all, 
when subscriptions failed, when the daily pressure of debts was 
almost unbearable, when Prof. Carver left us so unceremoniously 
without a Principal, the Trustees shouldered the work and accept- 
ed the responsibility. Sometimes it seemed doubtful on Friday 
evening whether there would be a teacher or a student on the 
hill on the coming Monday morning; but Professors Brown and 
Ferree were true as steel to their duty, and with the other mem- 
bers of the faculty kej)t off the daily threatened catastrophe. This 
is only a nuM-e outline of the daily and nightly toil and anxiety, 
and no man needs to wish a closer acquaintance with the busi- 
ness. But the school was without a head, the Sheriff" had sold 
the lease of Prof. Carver for his debts, and all parties were hang- 
ing by the eyelids. The Jioard called upon Mr.Wickershamfor ad- 
vice and assistance, and he met them on the 19th of December 

1871, at the othce of Col. Freeze. After a long and contidential 
talk upon the subject, Wickersham suggested Charles G. Barkley, 
Superintendent of Cohnnbia County Common Schools, as a proper 
person for Principal ; and on motion of K. F. Clark, Esq. he was 
unanimously elected. He accepted the position upon condition that 
he should be relieved as soon as the Trustees could supply his 
place. The Board of Trustees met at the Hall the next moriung, 
December 20th, accompanied by Mr. Barkley and Mr. Wickersham. 
Col. Freeze announced to the Faculty and School the action of 
the Board in the election of a Principal, and Mr. Wickersham ad- 
dressed theni, warmly endorsing the selection. Some changes 
were made in the management and a visible in[)rovement oc- 
curred. 

Mr. Barkley continued in charge of the school until March 27, 

1872, when at his own request he was relieved, and the Rev. 
John Hewitt was elected, and on Thursday March 28, the Board, 
accompanied by Mr. Hewitt, proceeded to the building. Mr. 
Barkley called the school to order, Mr. Freeze announced the 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 165 

election of the Priiici])al, and Mr. Hewitt made an address, and 
took i'onual charge of the School. He continued to conduct it 
until the end of that school year, June :^6, 1873, and the improve- 
ment begun under Mr. Barkley continued, closing the year in a 
condition much ahead of the opening in every respect. But, 
although all felt that the crisis in the affairs of the school was 
past, yet there was a large deficiency, and the Board was again 
obliged to sit day after day and night after night as a committee 
of ways and means. It would be most mon- tonous to repeat here 
what has before been said as to pressing pecuniary difficulties. 
Again the Trustees were obliged to step into the breech and 
pledge their own names and means to satisfy creditors, and save 
the pro])erty and credit of the Institution. I am i)Uisuaded that 
the time and labor have not been fully appreciated by the com- 
nninity who are reaping the benefit of the expenditure. But let 
.that pass! Dr. Griswold assumed the duties of Principal at the 
Commencement in June, 1873, and it isiiot proposed here and 
now to speak of the management and success of the school under 
his administration; but it is only justice to state that he made it 
pay expenses — a thing it never did before. In May, 1874, at a 
meeting of the Stockholders, Hon. Wm. Elwell, Elias Mendenhall, 
Conrad Bittenbender, Leonard B. Rupert, Jacob Schuyler, John 
A. Funston, William Neal, John Wolf, and John G. Freeze, were 
elected Trustees; and on May 3, 1875, the same jiersons were re- 
elected, together with J. J. Brower, Hon. C. B. Brockway, and 
Joseph Sharpless, the Legislature having increased the Board to 
twelve. At the same time the Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion appointed on the part of the State the following named gen- 
tlemen, viz: Hon. C. R. Buckalew, Charles G. Barkley, D. A. 
Beckley, Col. Samuel Knorr, Hon. M. K. Jackson, and C. W. Mil- 
ler, Esq. 

On Wednesday, August 25, 1875, the school opened with the 
largest list of students ever entered upon its books, and we were 
one and all looking forward to an increasingly successful school 
year. But in a moment, as it were, all our hopes were dashed to 
the ground. 

On Saturday afternoon, September 4th, the Boarding Hall was 
observed to be on tire, and in two hours the magnificent building 
was a nuiss of ruins. It was a total loss, the $30,000 of insur- 



166 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

aiu'c IxMiijjj less t]\:iii liivlf the value of tlu' building, not including 
furniture and lixtur(>s. But tlii' Hoard of Trustees, with the elU- 
cient aid of the eitizens of Hloonisburtf, gra})pled with the emer- 
gency, and took innui'diatt' measures to begin the (>reetion of a 
new, eidarged, and inipioved building. Their late exiterienee now 
stood tiiem in good stead, and tlu'y [)ushed tlie work with great 
energy. 

The Corner Stone of the new Nt)rmal lioarding Hall was laid 
on Saturday October, 80th, IHTT), and although the day was very 
inelement, there was in attendance a large concourse of people. 
The ensuing winter was an unusually mild and open one, and 
with the exception of a very few days the work of re-erection and 
construction went rapidly forward. So nuich so, that on Wednes- 
day, April 2()th 187(), the building was formally dedicated to use, 
and opened for the admission of students, and the beginning of 
the spring term. After some time Dr. Griswold was superseded, 
and the Rev. David J. Waller Jr. was elected Principal. His ad- 
ministration of the school has been siiccessful and satisfactory, 
and it is to be hoped that a brilliant career is now open to the 
Bloomsbnrg State Normal School. 






///A' TO R Y O F COL UMBIA CO UNTY. 1 07 



CHAPTER XIX. 



The common scliool Hystem had been in cxiHtfnce in the Btate 
since 1835, with more or less succeHH, wh(;n in 1H54 an Act crea- 
ting tlic office of County Superintendent and defining his powers 
and duticH j)aHsed the legislature. Although conHideraV>le opposi- 
tion was manifested, yet upon the whole the eflFect has been favor- 
able to the advancem<'titof thc^ schools. Better teachers hav(! been 
employed and better discipline has been maintained. During all 
these years howerer, owing doubtless to the continued inefficiency 
of the public schools, private schools as distinguished from the com- 
mon, have been supported at differ'-nt places in the county. Up to 
within a very short time, at Blootnsburg, at Berwick, atCatawissa, 
at Miilvillc, and at Orang(;ville, there have Vjeen schools, and at 
some places there are yet, in which the classics and higher mathe- 
matics have been taught. Sometimes they have flourished with 
great vigor, and at others have languished or died out under the 
blighting inefficieticy of the principal. Nevertheless, in all the 
schools, both public and private, there has been great improvement. 
It has been manifested not only in the character and acquirements 
of the teachers, and in the grade of studies, and the higher stan- 
dard proposed, but also, and notably, in the better character of the 
school houses, and their appointments. Thus, not only in this coun- 
ty but elsewhere, the common sch(Kjls have superseded the pri- 
vate, and have thus also improved their tone and character. Year 
by year the school department issues very elaborate reports on the 
educational system, with statistics and tables, and as these are con- 
stantly changing, and are as regularly coming into the hands of 
my readers, it has been thought not to V>e expedient or necessary 
to trouble any one with columns of figures, which while the book 
is passing through the press are heconiing incorrect and mislead- 
ing. 



108 niSTOBY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

The early liistory of schools, school houses, and education is 
more iiiteiesting than any presentation of the present condition 
and future prospects of the subject ; and 1 therefore gladly avail, 
myself of the lepoit of William II. Snyder, late County Superin- 
tendent, concerning tlie early schools in Cohunhia county, and 
which he has \i ry kindly allowi d me to coj)y. i\lr. Snyder says : 

'"■These schools, with but one excei)tion, weie snj)porttd by sub- 
scription, and the houses were generally built in the same manner 
up to 1834, when the public schools vv(3re established. The 
branches usually taught in them were spelling, reading, writing, 
and written arithmetic. A pu[)irs ouifit was a very modest affair- 
A Webster's spelling-book, an English reader, or a Testament, a 
Daboll's arithmetic, a slate, a goose-quill, and a few sheets of pa- 
per, covered the entire range of known material for winter after 
winter, as long as he might go to school. 

After i)ublic schools were established, Malte Brun's geogra{)hy 
and Smith's grammar, on tlie inductive system, were soon adiii)t- 
ed. Seeing the numerous algebras, geometries, histories, rhetorics, 
philosophies, physiologies, copy books, drawing-books, language- 
books, etc, in the schools at the present day, one can scarcely real- 
ize the vast improvement. 

How much higher and broader the schools shall be elevated, is 
only a question of time. 

IJK.WKK. 

The first school in Beaver, was taught in Mr. Kostenbauder's 
grist-mill, by Isaac Davis, in 1821. Four years later, Mr. Davis 
opened another, in his private dwelling, which stood where Davis 
church now stands. In speaking of j(?r/ya^6 dwellings, or residence 
we shall omit the word "private," hereafter. 

In 1825, Henry Schell taught in a dwelling which stood near 
wheie the church Jiow stands, by the road leading from Beaver to 
Mainville, and Adam Holocher, in a similar building, which was 
located on the land now owned by Charlen Michael. 

After teaching several terms, which were usually held during 
winter, Mr. Schell permanently closed his school, when another 
was opened in a dwelling which was situated on tlie land owned 
by Joseph Lehr. The instruction in these schools was principally 
in German. 



TTTSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 169 

BENTON. 

During the year 1799, there were but two families living in the 
vicinity where llie village cf Benton now stands. Here Isaac 
Young opened the first school, in a private dwelling. After it 
permanently closed, another was opened in a similar building, 
which stood where Eli Mendenhall's barn now stands, above the 
village. As the pine forest fell before the sturdy axeman, a small 
log school-house was built on West creek, above, and another be 
low Benton, where Stephen Jjazarus now lives. 

Honorable Alexander Colley, who died Monday, June Gth, 1S81, 
at the age of nearly 95 years, having been born August 17th, 1786, 
was for many years the only surviving member of the first public 
school board. He was a man of sound judgment, a surveyor, a 
school teacher, and had been a number of the lower house of the 
Legislature. 

BERWICK. 

A mist enshrouds the early school history of Berwick. Before 
1800, lierwick h;id its schools, but under what teachers, and of what 
character nothing is known. 

From 1800 to 1837, it was customary to hold school for a few 
months in each year. Prominent among the teachers of this pe- 
riod were Mr. Holloway, David E Owen, son of the founder of 
the town ; Doctoi- Duilon, David Jones, Doctor Roe and James 
Dilvan. These men taught between the years 1800 and 181S, and 
were, without exception, men of education. The prominent teach- 
ers from 1800 to 1837, were Messrs. Comstock, Hoyt, Richards, 
Reverend Crosby and Simon Haiks. 

The innrket-house and Quaker church were the only school- 
buildings during this time. In 1837, on the site ot the market- 
house, the academy was erected. 

This was a prominent step for Berwick. Among the distin- 
guished teachers who taught in it were Rev. J. H. Ritterdiouse, 
George Waller, Joel E. Bradley, and Mr. Runk. The school flour- 
ished for several years, but finally, the building was sold for public 
school ])urposes, and has since been torn down. 

In 1872. a splendid brick structure was erected, which cost in- 
cluding all necessary equijtments, $15,000. 






^s 



"tj^ 'Wv C 



1 70 HISTOR Y OF COL UMBIA CO UNTY. 

BLOOM. 

Bloorasburg had her early schools, but as to their whereabouts, 
and by whom taught, nothing is definitely known. The first school 
of which there is any recollection, was taught about the year 1802, 
by George Vance, in a small log-building, which was located 
where the Episcopal church now stands. Finally, this house was 
torn down, and a frame one erected in its place, in which William 
Love taught for some time. The hii^hest branches taught in this 
school, were reading, writing, and arithmetic. The advanced read- 
ing class read in the Bible, and the second class in the New Testa- 
ment. 

The ncYt school was established in the lower end of town, in a 
building which was located near where Joseph E. Barkley's cabinet- 
shop now stands ; Robert Fields was its first teacher. Messrs. 
Love and Fields were succeeded by William Fergeson, Murray 
Manville, and Joseph Warden. 

About the year 1830, Hiram W. Thornton opened one in a chair 
or wagon-shop, which was located where Mr. William Neal's resi- 
dence now stands. 

The old academy, which was erected on the site of Dr. Evans' 
present residence, and opened for school purposes in the spring of 
1839, was a monument of zeal in the cause of education, at a time 
anterior to the introduction of the public school system. The 
standard of instruction was elevated, if judged by the advertise- 
ment of the first teacher, to give instruction in the Hebrew lan- 
guage, which was not extensively pursued at that early day in 
Bloomsburg. But the teacher's literary reputation dwindled 
when, on perusing a copy of Shakspeare, he inquired whether 
this was the celebrated author of that name, and what were his 
principal works ; and evinced his astonishment in the question, 
" 'What ! these dialogues f " This building contained four school- 
rooms, and Avas occuj)ied for public school purposes until 1875. 

Between 1850 and 1860, Professor Joel E. Bradley taught a 
high school in the room now occupied by the Democratic Sentinel 
and Mrs. Anna K. Drake a primary one in the adjoining room. 
About the same time Miss Mattie Wells, was also teaching a select 
school in a small building which was located where William Gil- 
more's establishment now stands ; and Miss Susan Painter another 
in the back part of her father's justice office, on Market street. 



Hli^TORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. IIX 

[The interesting sketch by Mr. Snyder, was only intended to 
rescue from oV)livion a few facts relating to early schools. The 
improvements since made were not in the task imposed upon him. 
Nor is it intended to give full statistics of the schools, with wliich 
official publications every year fully acquaint our people, and I 
shall therefore only mark special cases. In other portions of this 
work, different schools are spoken of, and need not be here repeat, 
ed. 

In 1870, the school directors erected on Fifth street, in the 
eastern jtart of the t«jwn, a large two-story brick building with 
two wings, containing four main rooms and five recitation or class 
rooms, one of the class rooms being intended and mainly used for 
a library. The princi])al building is about 50 feet by 70, and 
the wings about 18 by 20 feet. The building will accommodate 
from 800 to 1000 children. It is heated by steam, with the latest 
and most ap])roved school furniture, including maps and appara- 
tus of all kinds. The whole expenditure was not less than fifteen 
thousand dollars. 

In 1873 a second building was erected, on the brow of the hill, 
at the west end of the town, on Third street. It is a trifie larger 
than the Fifth street school, but in all material respects, upon the 
same plan, and heated and furnished in the same complete man- 
ner. 

The two buildings were so arranged as to accommodate all the 
children in the town, and no other common school building now 
exists. These, with the Normal School place Bloomsburg in the 
front rank in point of educational advantages.] 

BRIAU CREEK. 

In the year 1800, the first school was opened in the stone 
church, still standing near Samuel Kelchner's residence. Ten 
years later a school house was built at Foundryville, when the 
former school closed and all the pupils in the vicinity attended 
the Foundryville school. The next house was erected below Ber- 
wick, on the land now owned by Daniel Romback. The third 
school was taught in a dwelling which stood on the land now 
owned by William Stout The names of the teachers who taught 
these schools were Cordelia A. Preston, Daniel Goodwin, Morris 
Hower, and John Arney. 



OATAWISSA. 

The lirst st'liool in this U)\vnshi|) was ostablisliod in Conrad (Ji'i- 
jvor's (Iwt'HinL:', whirh was h>i'aletl on what is calU'd (he Mrlntyro 
pl.'U'o, now owiumI 'oy K. M. Towksbni-y. and tan^lit l>y Martin 
Stiu'k. 

Abont tlio year 18l)-l, Mrs. Mjivy Paxton oiumumI a school in hor 
rosidonoi', which was UH'atod noar the Friends' nieetiny,' house, at 
C\itawissa, and in atUlition to thi' usual branches, taught sewing- 
and knitting. Those who eould not remain at school were pcr- 
niittetl to retire alter riH'itatitMi. Al'li-r this school was kept in 
successful operation for son\(.' time, a small franu' house 
was built near where Frederick Ffahler's lesidencc now stands, in 
which Elijah Harger, of Chester county, taught, followed by Ellis 
Hughes. Finally, Joseph Paxton, (son o\' the former teacher,) 
built an addition to the house for his daugliter liuth Ann. In 1815, 
.1 Mr. Kent, of New Vork, (whose son is a popular dry-goods mer- 
chant in Philadelj)hia,) ojtened a liigh school in the resident' now 
occupied by Mrs. Kelh'r. IK' w as succeeded by a ^Ir l^ly, .also 
of New York. 

The next school was opened in ISIS, by Thomas Barger, uj) 
stairs in a spring-house, which stood on the land now owneil by 
•lohn Keifer. 3[r. liarger was succeeded by ,1ohn Stokes, .li^sej)!! 
(■JittUn>4. :ind Thomas Ellis. The seluH>l w as principally support- 
ed by pu[»ils of Main townshi}). 

Ezra S. llayhurst, to whom l^itawissa is nuu-h indebted for his 
school lab(,)rs, not only assisted in establishing schools, but also 
taught successfully for some time. Next catue Joel E. Hradley, 
from the "land of steady habits," and opened a scliool in the acad- 
emy, which was founded in IS.'^S. He continued until lS4l.\ when 
Jeiemiah J. lirower took his place in the same building until 1S48. 

[Since the preparation of this sketcli by Mr. Snytler, there has 
been erected in Catawissa, a Public school building, second to 
none in the county. It occupies a beautiful location upon rising 
ground, on tlie one side overlooking the river, and on the otlier 
the valley of Catawissa creek. It is fully up to all the modern 
improvements, in heating, lighting and apparatus. In size it is a 
little greater than the Bloomsburg Third Street School House; 
and is intended to sujH'rsede all the public school buildings in 
Catawissa, and by concentration of lieat :uid teaching force and 



JILSTORY OF (COLUMBIA COUNTY. 173 

oversight, give all pupils increased advantages. It is claimed that 
in some respects the Catawissa house is an improvement upon any 
thing else, and such may be the fact.] 

(JKNTKALIA. 

Tliis l)or()ugh was taken from Conyngham township in 1867. 
The Hrst school-building within its present limits was erected i)i 
18.')8, in which school was continued until 1868, when it was en- 
gulfed by the breaking down of tlie mines. 

In the following year, a frame building, with two rooms in it, 
was erected to till its place. Here Mr. Bowers was emi)loyed to 
teach a term of eight months, at a salary of iifty dollars per 
month. The number of pu})ils increased so rapidly, that it was 
necessary, in 1S72. to erect another l)iiilding. This is a first-class 
building, well furnished and properly ventilated. 

There are now (1877) four good schools in the borough, uiidei- the 
able supervision of Mr. W. J. l>iirke, lule priiicijial of the Ash- 
land high school. 

CENTRE. 

The earliest schools in this township were tauglit in dwellings, 
which were located as follows: One neai' the ferry, taught by 
Solomon Friedeci ; another near Lime Kidge, where Joseph Gei- 
ger now lives, and the third on the land now owned by Hiram 
Schwe)j]»eidieiser, which was taught by John Dietterich. 

The first house for school purposes was located at Centreville 
in 1810. Being destroyed by fire after a few years' service, an- 
other was erected at the lower end of the village, where the pub- 
lic school-buildings now stan<l. 

Solomon Xeyhard, who died 10 January, 1879, aged about 
80 years, was the only surviving member of the first public 
school board. 

In 187.>, the Patrons of Husbandry in this townshij) erected a 
beautiful hall, furnished the room on the first floor with improved 
school furniture, and employed Professor Lockard to take charge 
of the school, which is still in a prosperous condition. 

CONVNflHAM. 

Tills township was formed from the southern part of Locust in 
18.j('). It ami the borough of Centralia had no schools before the 
jiublic school law was in force. Its school history only dates 



174 JIISTOEY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

back to 1857, when, through tlie exertion of Mr. A. W. Rea, a 
school buiUling was erected at Gerniantown. The ricli mineral 
product of this region, which was developed in 1860, attracted a 
large population. Consocpiently, we tind, in 1865, four new school 
buihlings, which were all su[)plied with school apparatus, and in 
character far sujterior to the earlier. 

FISHING CREEK. 

The first school in this township was taught by Christopher 
Pealer, in a weave-shop, which stood where John Zaner's resi- 
dence now stands. 

About the year 1794, Henry lleiss came from Philadelpliia to 
Stillwater, to oversee a tract of lau'l, which belonged to his father. 
Being a young man of more than ordinary ability, he was persua- 
ded to open a school there in a dwelling house. 

The first school house was built at Pealertown, in which Jona- 
tlian Colley taught. 

The next was erected near where Zion church now stands. The 
Pealer town school finally closed, and the i)upils attended this 
school. 

FRANKMN. 

After the school closed at Mclntyre, in Catawissa township, a 
liouse was built, just above the foundry, on tlie land now owned 
by Williaiu Stocker, to accomiuodate the settlers at the mouth 
of Catawissa creek. Mr. Stuck, wlio liad taught at Mclntyre, was 
succeeded in this school by Daniel Krist and Daniel Kigles. Sev- 
eral married men availed themselves of the opportunity to receive 
instruction at this school. Near where Joseph T. Reeder now 
lives, Joseph Ilorlocher opened a school, which was called "Clay- 
ton's school," the same name the one goes by in this district now. 
The one established below Esther furnace was taught by Samuel 
Bitler and James Stokes. 

Anterior to public schools there was also one kept at the 
river, about where the public school ))uilding now stands. 

GREENWOOD. 

About the year 1785, a school was kept in a dwelling, at Mill- 
ville. In 1800 a house was built near where Richard Ileacock 
now lives, and occupied until 1836. 

In 1805, another was built on the laud now owned by Jacob 



HLSTOR Y OF COL UMBTA CO UNTY. 1 75 

Gerard. '^I'his Iiouhc not being suitably located, was abandoned 
after a few years' service, and a more convenient one erected, 
where Catharine McCarty now lives, west of Kohrsburg. In 
1838, when public schools were adopted, there were six houses 
erected. 

Prominent among the early teachers were Jesse Haines, Jacob 
Wintersteen, John Shively, Mr. Thompson, Mr. Ferguson, Ben- 
jamin Kester, Jonathan Colley, Robert Lockard, and liis daugh- 
ters, Jane and Nancy Lockard. 

HEMLOCK. 

About the year 1801, Mr. Donaldson established the first school 
in a dwelling which was located on the land now owned Ijy 
Isaac Pursel. Eight years later, Thomas Vanderslice opened one 
in the same kind of building, which was erected on the land now 
owned by M. S. Appelman and John Boonemother, at tlie forks 
of Hemlock and Fishing creek, near James Barton's. Henry Ohl 
succeeded Mr. Vanderslice as teacher. The next was opened in 
1810, by Jacob Wintersteen, in a building which was located on 
the estate now owned by Dennis Pursel. The house located at 
the forks of the road, where the brick school-house now stands, is 
given in Montour township sketches. The Doll school, which 
was kept near where ex-Sheriff Smith now resides, in IHKJ, was 
principally composed of pupils from Madison townshi]), now West 
Hemlock, in Montour county. 

JACKSON. 

John Denmark taught the first school in the township, in 1820- 
21, in a dwelling, which was located near where the Union church 
now stands. In 1822, a school-house was built close by, in which 
John Keeler taught four, and William Yocum three terms. The 
house was then torn down. In 182.5 a house was built at the 
lower Jackson church, and Mr. Yocum, who had taught in the 
former building, opened the first school. He was succeeded by Cor- 
nelius McEwen, Miss Helen Calvin, Joseph Orwig, and Peter 
Girton. In 1832, a house was re-locuted at the Union church, 
and those who taught in it before puVjlic schools were established 
were William Riche, John Fullmer, and Isaac K. Krickbaum , 
lately associate judge. 



176 HI8T0EY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

LOCUST. 

The first school in this townsliip cannot be accurately 2,iven, 
as there were several scliools in session about the same time. 

Joseph Stokes taught one in his residence, which was located 
on the land now owned by D. Mears. Joseph Hughes taught 
another at Kerntown ; Alexander Mears one at Slabtown ; and 
James Miller one near where the old Quaker church now stands. 
There was also one at Esther furnace, but by whom taught is un- 
known. 

When the vote was taken on tlie public school question there 
was considerable excitement in the township. Had it not been 
for Mr. John Kline, who induced his tenant not to vote, (but vot- 
ed himself,) the election would have been a tie ; consequently, 
there was one majority in favor of establishing public schools. 

MADISON. 

The first school in the township was taught, in 1799, by a Mr. 
Wilson, in a dwelling Avhich was located at Jerseytown. 

In 1810, Thomas Lane opened one in a similar building, which 
stood on the land now owned by Leonard Kisner. 

The third and fourth were also in dwellings, one of which was 
erected near where the Reformed church now stands, close by the 
road leading from Jerseytown to Bnckhorn, and the other in the 
eastern part of the township, near Millville. 

Jacob Demott is the only surviving member of the first public 
school board. 

MAIN. 

This townsliij) formerly belonged to CataMassa. Before any 
school was established witliin its present limits the pupils were 
obliged to attend the school which was held up stairs in the 
s[)ring-house spoken of in Catawissa township, which was consid- 
ered a very important school. 

About the year 1820 a school was established in a dwelling 
which was located near where the old fulling-mill stands, above 
Mainville, and was taught by Jacob Gensel. 

In 1824, John Walts opened another in the same kind of build- 
ing, which stood near Avhere Fisher's church now stands. When 
this church was completed, the old church which stood close by 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 177 

was fitted uj) and occupied for school purposes until public 
schools were established. 

Daniel Krist was a prominent teacher of this school. 

MIFFLIN, 

In the year 1794, David Jones opened the first school in this 
township, in a hut which stood among the scrub pine and oak 
below Mifflinville, on the land now owned by Christian Wolf. 

There being no primary books in market, the teacher printed 
the alphabet on shingles for the abecedarians. 

This hut was occupied but a short time, then abandoned, and a 
school was opened in a building located where the Lutheran 
church now stands at Miftlinville. 

Another school-house was finally built in the eastern part of 
the township. 

MONTOUR. 

The following is a synopsis of John G. Quick's report, secre- 
tary of Montour : 

The first school, to my recollection, was established in the year 
1831, by ^liss Harriet Rupert, daughter of the late Judge Rupert. 
She opened this school in a shanty, which had been built and oc- 
cupied by contractors, while making the North Branch canal, and 
building the aqueduct across the mouth of Fishing creek. In 
this shanty Miss Rupert commenced instructing the children in 
the vicinity of Rupert, charging one dollar for each pupil per 
term. After teaching here a short time, she had a room comfort- 
ably fitted up, in a log house near her father's dwelling, in which 
she taught successfully for some time. She, being a Christian 
lady and model teacher, always opened school with reading the 
Scriptures and prayer. After this school closed, we Avere obliged 
to travel fully two miles to a school, M^hich was taught by James 
L. Nevius, in an old log-building, located at the forks of the road 
leailing from Bloomsburg to Buckhorn. At this time Montour 
belonged to Hemlock township. The law, in those days, provid- 
ing for the schooling of indigent children at the expense of the 
county, was scarcely realized. Parents would rather have their 
children grow up in total ignorance, than permit them to be edu- 
cated under this act. 

Then came the passage of the common school law, which crea- 



178 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Xx'i\ :i gTo;it sons.'ition. The idea of iissossintij a tax U]>on the jieo- 
ple for X\\o schooling of all children, was a serious thought with 
some, and, consequently, a division of Hemlock township was 
brought about, by a caucus being held by some of the citizens in 
the southern ])art of the township, who thought, by dividing the 
township, they could get rid of the school law. Thus, in 1838, 
Montour was taken from Hemlock. Much might be said, in com- 
paring the past with the jtreseut ; but, in conclusion, I sluxll only 
say, that I have been a director for six years, and have just entered 
upon the duties for three nu)re, to look after the future blessings 
of the rising generation. Yet, I loathe to say, there are some 
who are o[)posed to public schools, and ever ready to criticise a 
director for faithfully and conscientiously discharging the du- 
ties of his office. 

Why not make our school-houses and grounds pleasant and at- 
tractive, as well as our homes ? 

One of the greatest privileges I enjoy is to visit our scliools, 
and compare their contrast with those of forty years ago. 

JIT. riJiASANT. 

The first school in Mt. Pleasant was founded by Peter Oman. 
He employed an instructor, at his own expense, to come to his 
dwelling to instruct his and his neighbors' children. Finally 
three houses were built, one upon the laud now owned by Joseph 
Gilbert, one upon the land now owned by Aaron Kester, and an- 
other upon the land now owned by Andrew Crouse. These 
houses were of the same description as early school-houses gener- 
ally, built of logs, filled between with sticks, daubed over with 
imui mixed with cut straw, and furnished with slab seats. Care- 
ful provisions were made for a large fire hearth, and spacious 
door, so that logs could be rolled in for fuel. This afforded 
amusement for the boys at recess. 

OKANGE. 

The first school in this township was taught in a building which 
was located on the north eastern part of Honorable H. R. Kline's 
farm, by Daniel Rake, Philij) Doder, and Jonathan Colley, father of 
Alexander Colley, of Benton. In 1820, George Vance, Avho taught 
at Bloomsburg, opened a school in a small log-building, which 
stood on the land now owned by William Delong, below Orange- 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 179 

ville. Mr. Vance was succeeded by Clemuel G. Ricketts, William 
Kantz, and John Kline. The house was then torn down, and a more 
suhstantial one erected at Orangeville, on the very spot where 
Mr. Kline's residence now stands. This house was accepted after- 
ward for ])ublic school purposes. Among the earliest teachers 
were Abraham Kline, Ira Daniels, and Charles Fortner. 

In regard to adopting public schools, the same feeling arose 
here as elsewhere in the county. The most enlightened, by whom 
nearly all the taxes were paid, advocated their adoption. 

PINK. 

This township was not as early and rapidly settled as some of 
the townships in the county. In 1830, there was but one school 
in it, which was taught by John Masters, in a house located at 
Sereno. In 1836, when public schools were accepted, education 
took a new impetus, and at present the schools in this, as well as 
the schools in other sparsely settled townships, compare favora- 
bly with those in towns and villages. 

ROARING CREEK. 

The first school within the present limits of this townshij), was 
taught in 1816, by Joseph Stokes, in a small dwelling which be- 
longed to Mahlon Hil)bs, and stood on the land now owned by 
William Rhoads. 

This school continued only one term. The following year 
Thomas C'herington, a surveyor and experienced teacher, opened a 
school in his son's dwelling, which stood on the land now owned 
by Samuel Hauck. After teaching several terms, making his 
entire work in the field as a teacher, forty winters, he abandoned 
the profession, and assigned the school to his son Samuel, who 
taught it successively n)» to the introduction of pul)lic schools. 

In 1821, C'harles Breech re-opened another school in the same 
house in which xMahlon Hibbs liad taught, and about the same 
time, David Chase also opened one in an old log-dwelling, near 
where the Methodist Episcopal church now stands. The first 
house for school purposes was built on the site where "No. 2" 
school house now stands, fourteen years after the organization of 
the first school. 

SCOTT. 

The first school-house.^ were built in Scott, about the year 1805. 



180 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COXTNTY. 

One at Espy, on lot No. 56, and the other below Light street, on 
lot now owned by J- W. Sankey. This lot belonged to the tract 
of land pnrchased from Tlionias Penn and John Penn, Esqnires, 
])roprietaries and governors-in-chief of the Province of Penn- 
sylvania, in 1773. 

The school at Espy was established by Messrs. Webb, Kenne- 
dy, and Waters. 

In 1814, the third school was opened in a building which was 
located on lot now owned by B. Amnierman, at the n}>per end 
of Light street. 

The names of the teachers who had charge of these schools 
wei*e George Vance, Joseph Solomon, William Love, and John 
Kennedy. 

SUGARLOAF. 

The pioneers, following uj) Fishingcreek, settled along its head- 
waters. Among them was a scholarly gentleman, by the name of 
Philip Fritz, from Philadel()hia. He taught the tirst school of the 
township, in a log hut, which stood where Saint Gabriel's church 
now stands. This hut was occupied for school purposes for some 
time. Finally, a school-house was erected on the land now owned 
by Andrew Hess. Joseph Massey, a professional teacher, taught 
in it many terms. 

N.VMKS OK COrXTY SITEKINTKN DENTS, AVIIEN, AND HOAV SELECTED. 

Joel E. Bradley, elected June 5, 1854. 
Reuben W. AVeaver, appointed January 1, 1855. 
William Burgess, elected May 4, 1857. 
Lewis Apj)leman, elected May 7, 1860. 
William Burgess, ai)pointed October 23, 1861. 
John B. Patton, appointed Marcli 31. 1863. 
C. G. Barkley, elected May 4, 1863. 
C. G. Barkley, re-elected May 1, 1866. 
C. G. Barkley, re-elected May 4, 1869. 
William H. Snyder, elected M.ay 7, 1872. 
William H. Snyder, re-elected May 4, 1875. 
William H. Snyder, re-elected May 7, 1878. 
J. S. Grimes, elected May 3, 1881. 



HI. STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 181 



CHAPTER XX. 



The "Columbia County Agricultural Society" was incor])orated 
by the Court on the 15th day of December, 1868 : Deed Book "V", 
Page 97. It has been in existence as an Association however, 
since about 185.5, the last having been the 27th Aimuul Fair. 

The charter provided and set out that Benjamin F. Ilartman, 
James Masters, William II. Shoemaker, Caleb liarton, IMathias 
Hartman, Joseph P. Conner, Thomas Creveling, Jacob Harris, 
Johnson H. Ikeler, Andrew J. Sloan, Charles G. Barkley, Palemon 
John, Joshua Fetterman and Elijah I{.. Ikeler had associated 
themselves together, "for the promotion of science, to foster and 
improve agriculture, horticulture, mechanics and the domestic and 
household arts.'' It can well be said of it, that as a Society it 
has been a success from the beginning. In the amount, variety 
and quality of displays, the County Fair has been second to none 
in the State, considering its area, and in nmltiiudinous attendance 
it stands unrivalled. 

Doubtless if the scientific }»art of the charter, as applied to 
agriculture and horticulture received more attention, and the kind 
and quality of our soils were investigated so that the best meth- 
ods of culture and manuring should be taught in an annual scien- 
tific lecture or report to go out with the official proceedings, much 
more might be, than has yet been accomjdished. On this depart- 
ment some money might be judiciously and advantageously ex- 
pended. This part of their charter promises they have not per- 
formed. Ill the more than a quarter of a century in which the 
Society has been in existence, much effective work in the direc- 
tion of scientific agriculture ought to have been done. The 
county ought to have been divided into sev^tions, and subjecte 1 to 
Scientific examination as to soils, and other characteristics for the 



182 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

hig^iest prodnotiveiiess. It is to be hoped that now this duty to 
ihe county .'uid its material interests will be taken in hand. If 
farming is a science, why should it not be scientifically done? 
And if it should, whose duty is it to see that it be done, if not 
that of the Society, which, by its charter has assumed that duty? 
It has long been seen, and the fact has heen the subject of well- 
grounded comj)laint, that more attention is paid to the S};ecd of 
horses, and lo the accommodation of sharpers and showmen than to 
the more legitimate business of tlic annual e\'hiV)iti()n. For the 
connnou duty of life, the })air of hoi'ses that will walk the most 
miles in a day, is worth more than the pair that will trot or run 
the most miles \n a minute or an hour or a day. The liorse 
trained to walk rapidly, is tlie horse that makes time, of which 
fact, the fabled race between the hare and the tortoise is an illus- 
t ration. 

The soils in Columbia county are very various. We Inive clay, 
limestone, red shale, white and black slate, and river bottom 
loam. All these are differently constituted, fitted to produce dif- 
ferent kinds of grain and root cro|)S, needing for their improve- 
ment ditfeient kinds of mamire, and a <lifferent rotation of cro|)S ; 
and yet, in all these years, the Agricultural Society of Columbia 
county has not informed the farmers, for whose advantage it was 
supposed to be incorporated, of the nature and character of the 
soils of the different parts of the county and of the methods and 
manures, and crops, which scientific ex[)eriment and examination 
have ascertained to be the most profitable. 

If the Annual Fair is a mere holiday and pastime, if it is a mere 
method for getting together a large number of people, then it is 
an abundant success; but if it is intended year by year to show 
scientific and practical iinjirovement in farming and raising and 
fattening stock; to ascertain Avhat soils are adajjted to what crops, 
and what roots and foods are the most nutritious, then it h-is been 
a failure. The very large attendance at the annuixl exhibitions 
slvows the interest the people take in the doings of the Society, 
and it ought to stimulate the managers to the raising of the Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural {losition of Columbia county to the very 
front rank. 

The "Columbia County Horticultural Society" was incor})or;ited 



ITISTORY OF (COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



183 



by an Act of Assembly, passed April 8, 1872, P. L. 82G. Its pro- 
ceedings have not attracted the attention of the public, and indeed 
if the first above named Society were fully alive to its duties, 
there would be no occasion for the existence of this latter. As it 
is, however, a little wholesome comi)etition might be to the ad- 
vantage of both of the'Societies. 



184 MISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



CHAPTER XXT. 



IPOOI^ HOTJSES. 



BLOOHr I'OOR DISTRICT. 



BESIDES the statutory provisions for the care, support and 
maintenance of the poor, the county of Cohimbia has had 
furnished for three several portions of its territory, houses and 
farms for tlie more comfortable existence of tliose needing public 
care. 

It was first |)roposed and attempted to organize the whole 
county into a j)oor district, and a bill was passed for that purpose, 
in 18G6, P. L. o67, in the 17lh section of which it was provided 
that "For the purpose of ascertaining the sense of the citizens of 
Columbia county, as to the ex})ediency of erecting a poor house," 
an election was ordered to be held on the Urst Tuesday in June 
of that year ; and "if a majority of the votes in any township or 
borough shall be against a poor house, then the foregoing act to 
))e null and void as to the townships or boroughs voting against 
such poor house." The election was accordingly held with the 
following result : 

TO^VNSUIPS FOR AGAINST 

Benton 3 137 

Beaver 1 73 

Bloom 227 4 

Berwick 1 80 

Briarcreek _ 4 128 

Catawissa 7 109 

Centralia 5 45 

Conyngham 4 64 

Centre 8 131 

Fishingcreek 6 119 

Franklin ' 53 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 185 

TOWNSHIPS. KOR. AGAINST. 

Greenwood 107 72 

ITeiulo(;k 102 15 

Jackson 2 66 

Locust 223 

Montour 2 52 

Madison 23 116 

Ml. Pleasant 13 92 

Mifflin 6 126 

Main, 21 58 

Orange 5 100 

Pine 56 9 

Roaringcreek 53 

Sugarloaf 8 53 

Scott '■I-I 69 

No further proceedings were liad under that act; but in 1869, 
P. L. 320, "an act to authorize the erection of a poor liouse by 
the township of Bloom, in the county of Columbia "was i)assed, 
in which it was also ])rovided, that "at the request of any ten 
taxable inhabitants of any township in the county of Columbia," 
an election should be ordered to decide whether said township 
should become a part of said jioor district. Under that provision 
the townships of Scott, Sugarloaf and Greenwood elected to be- 
come members of the corj)oration in 1870. 

The poor house farm comprises about 100 acres, and is located 
on the Fisliingcreek, in Mount Pleasant township. The buildings 
are of a commodious and substantial character, and the manage- 
ment lias been entirely satisfactory. 

CONYNfJIIAM AND CENTRALIA. 

In the year 1869, P. L. 1228, the legislature passed "An act to 
erect a poor house for Conynghara township and the boi'ough of 
Centralia, in Columbia county." In ])ursuance thereof they pur- 
chased a tract of land in Locust township, comprising about 75 
acres, and established the poor of the township and borough 
thereon. By the 18t]i section of the act, "all the proj)erty, real 
and personal, of said corporation, be and hereby is exem])t from 
all taxation, except state." It was doubtless an act of wisdom as 
well as economy, to make the location outside of the distx-ict to 



lS(i 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 



lie aocommodatod. and tlieveby put the managonu'iit as imich as 

jiossiblc, bt'voiul the immediate inthieiiees of the ueigliborhood to 

be beiu'lited. 

MAMisoN rooi: hovsk. 

Madison township yoov house was authorized by "An Aet of 
Assendily of IS72, 1*. L. ll)!>- ; and uiuh'r it the eorporalion pur- 
chased a traet of huul in the lownslii[), eoniiJiising about 100 
aeres, and liave sinee then assembled tl)e [toor in nuuh more eom- 
fortabh' quarters tliaii thosi' in wliieh thi'v iisiiallv tind thi'mselves. 
In a pui'ely agrieidtiu'al ecunniunity, eompK'ti' destitution is so 
rare, that a small expenditure will make all who nei'd assistauee 
lia[»})y and contented. The assistanei' tliat the uidortunates can 
usually give to a kiiul hearted steward, w ill run the wlu)le esiab- 
lislnnent without outside lielj), and thus mental and physical 
health is secured to the inmates. Thus provided for, tlie old age 
of a man hard-worked in his youth, m.iy be and shotdd be free 
from repining on the one hand, and from public contplaint on the 
other. Where such institutions are needed their erection and 
supjiort redound to the credit anil honor of the community. 




HISTORY OF C0LU3IBIA COUNTY. 



CHAPTER XXIT. 



TWV. Br.ooMSHUur, Rkgister, a newspaper 10^ by 17 inches, pub- 
lisliocl by James Delevni', was beariin about the first of October, 
1826, as a|)pears by the oldest co[»y I have seen, being in thepopses- 
sioi: of Hon. Leonard B. Kin)ert and bearing date May 10. 1827, and 
being Vol. 1. No. 32. So far as my researches have extended, I 
am unable to find any older, and conclude th^' Sloomshurg Regis- 
ter to be the first paper published in this town. 

In April, 1828, Thomas Painter purchased the pajier from the 
owners and changed the name to the Columbia County Register 
as appears by a coi)y of it. No. 47, Vol. 2, dated February 9, 1830; 
so that he also began a new vohune and mimber when he took 
charge of the paper. He continued the publication until 1 844, in 
April, when, I am told, it was discontinued. The Register was 
devoted to the party opposed to the democracy, and was vigor- 
ously edited by Mr. Painter, who was a man of more than average 
ability and force of character. He was born in the town of Nor- 
thumberland, l^ennsylvaiiia, Jur:e 8, 178.1 He served one term as 
Sheriff of his nativi- county, and w*. a member of the General 
Assembly, for several terms ; fiist while the ca|)itol of the State 
was at Lancaster, and afterwards when it had been removed to 
Harrisburg. He died in Muncy, Pennsylvania, on the 12th day 
of February, A. D. 1863, in the 78th year of his age. 

The Columbia Democrat was established, and the first number 
issued April 29, 1837, by John S. Ingrmi. Then, or shortly after, 
he was joined by Fianklin S. Mills. Th^y conducted the paper 
for one year, and in 1838, sold it io Capt. Her ry Webb. He gave 
it permanence, and in 1847, in March, s»ld it to Col. Levi L. Tate, 
who continued it until 1866, and in February, of that year sold it 
to Elijah K. Ikelcr. He consolidated it with the Star of The 



188 IIISTOJIY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

JSForth, and called the coiubiiiation the Democrat ct Star, and 
subsequently changed the name to the Bloomshurg Democrat. 
It was continued under that name until Jatniaiy, 1869, when it 
was bought by Capt. Charles Ji. Brockway, and merged into The 
Columhian. 

The paper was, undt-r all its name^ and varying fortunes, con- 
sistently democratic in its politics, and was always deservedly in- 
fluential. Of its editor-*, Ingram went from here to Pottsville, 
Mills to New Jersey, Tate to VVilliamsport. 

Capt. Henry Webb was born in Windham in the state of Con- 
necticut, July 23, 1796, and died iti Bloomshurg, September 22, 
^848. 

The Star ot Thk Nouth was established by Reuben W. Wea- 
ver and Benjamin S. Gilmore, February 1, 1849. Gilmore retired 
August 1, 1850, and the paper was continued by Mr. Weaver until 
his death, December 2, 1857. 

It was subsequently sold by his administrator and bought by 
AVilliamson H. Jacoby, in January, 1858. He published it until 
October 16, 1862, when he went into the army, and the paper was 
suspended until August, 1863, when he returned and resumed the 
publication. It was cai'ried on under the old name nntil February, 
1866, when it was consolidated with the Columbia Democrat, 
then owned by Elijah R. Ikeler, as the Democrat and Star. 

At the end of about seven months, Mr. Ikeler sold his interest 
in the establishment to Josiah P. Shuman, and Jacoby & Shuraan 
ran the paper nntil January, 1867, when Mr. Shuman retired, and 
Jacoby continued the paper as the Bloomshurg Democrat, until 
January, 1869, when he sold it to Capt. Charles B. Brockway who 
merged it into The Columbian. 

The paper was always democratic in its political faith. 

The Coi.ujriUA County REruuLiCAN Avas established March 1st 
-1857, by Dr. Palemon John. In 1869 he sold the })aper to a stock 
company, and Dr. William H. Bradley was employed as editor. 
Dr. Bradley and Lewis Gordon subsequently purchased the paper, 
and in 1871, sold it to Daniel A. Beckley and John S. Phillips, 
who became the publisher, the editorial department being manag- 
ed by Mr. Beckley. In 1873, E. M. Wardin bought the interest 
of John S. Phillips and not long after, that of Daniel A. Beckley, 



J1I8T0RY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



189 



and became tlie sole propi-ietoi-. On tlie 1st of August 1875, James 
C. Brown purcluise"! th»' paper IVom E. M. Wardin, and has con- 
tinued it to the i)resent time witli Daniel A. I-5ecl:ley as associate 
editor. As its name imports, it has been and is the organ of the 
Republican party in the county. 




THE COI.r.AiniAN HIII.DINC, KKKCTEn 1881. 



Tmk Coi.L-.MiUAN was established May 5th, 1 SG6, as the organ of 
the Johnson Republicans, under the managtnient of George H. 



I'JO UltiTOllY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Moore, who published tliirty five numbers. The good will, sub- 
scription list and material was then i)urchased by a number of 
Democrats of the county, and placed under the charge of John G. 
Freeze, January 4th, 1867, as a Democratic newspai)er, beginning 
Vol. 1. No. 1. He continued until P'ebruary 15th, 1867, when 
Capt. Charles B. Brockway became associated with him, and 
eventually bought up the stock and took entire charge and owner- 
shij) of the paper. It was enlarged July 12th, 1867, and began 
to be printed on a steam power press. On tho first of January, 
1869, by the purchase of the Bloomshurg Democrat., from Mr. 
Jacoby, The Golumhian became the sole Democratic paj>er in 
the county. On the 1st of January 1871, Henry L. Dieffenbach 
bought the paper and published it one year, when Capt. Brock- 
way resumed the control. In July 1873, Mr. Dieffenbach again 
took the paj)er and continued until October 1st 187o, when Charles 
B. Brockway and George E. Elwell ])urchased it. They continued 
it to October 1st 1870, when Capt. Brockway retired, and on that 
(hiy Mr. John K. Bittenbender, a practical ])rinter, i)urchased an 
interest in the i)aper, and the publishing firm became Elwell & 
Bittenbender. 

Since January 1867, the Columbian has been democratic in 
l)olitics, and devoted to the general policy of that party. In Oc- 
tober 1881 the otlice was moved into a three story brick building 
erected specially for it, on Main street, and now occupies the first 
floor and basement of the building. The presses are run by water 
power, and in all its appointments the oflice is one of the finest 
newspaper establishments in the state. 

The Christian Messenger was started by Edward PI Orvis, at 
Benton, in January, 1870. It was a montldy of 24 pages. In 
1872 the title was changed to the Messenger & Laborer, and D. 
Oliphaiit of London, Canada, was admitted as co-editor, with E. 
E. Orvis as the publisher, and the publication was enlarged to 32 
pages. In January 1875, the Messenger & Laborer was changed 
from a 32 page monthly to a four page 24 column weekly. The 
publication office was moved to Orangeville, October 1, 1875. Oli- 
phant retired from it in December, 1875, and it was suspended 
December 26lh of that year, for want of support. 



HISTOR Y OF COL UMB I A CO UNTY. 1 91 

The Inokpendent Weekly was started by William H. Smith 
and Edward E. Orvis, in Benton, April J, 1874, as a democratic 
newspaper. It was continued by them until October 1, 1875, 
when it removed to Orangeville with the Messenger & Laborer^ 
when and where Smith cfe Orvis dissolved, the Independent be- 
ing continued by Smith. On the first of Aj^ril, 1876, The Inde- 
pendent Weekly returned to Benton, where it was published until 
September, 1877, when it was removed and established in Milton, 
.Northumberland county, by the name of The Argus, and where, 
with varying fortunes, it is still published. 

TiiK Democratic Sentinel was established in Bloomsburg, in 
1871, by Mr. Charles M. Yanderslice, and has continued under his 
management as editor and publisher. It is democratic in poli- 
tics, and has, as it deserves, a fair share of patronage. 

The Bloomshur« Journal was begun in 1876, by G. A. Potter, 
as a temperance and family newspaper. It was a five column 
four )>age i)aper. In October 1881 the form was changed to a 
quarto of twelve pages, and then of 16 pages. In September 
1882, Dr. Jacob Schuyler purchased a half interest in the paper, 
and the new firm changed the form to the old folio style. The 
paper is Jiepublican in politics so far as it allows politics to have 
a ])l;u'C' in its colunms. 

The Sin, a <hiily paper, was put in issue in April 1881, by Alem 
B. Tate and H. W. Kahler, and about eighty numbers were issued. 
Dissensions in the management and ditticulties growing out of a 
want of support, put an eclipse upon the Sun, at the end of about 
three months. 

The Herald of Freedom was published by a gentleman 
named Case, between the years 1850 and 18(50. It was, I believe, 
a sort of 'workingman's free soil advocate. After an unsuccessful 
struggle the establishment was transported from Bloomsburg to 
McEwensville ; and it is my imjiression that it ceased to be pub- 
lished there after a few months. Except the general fact of its 
short existence, nothing seems to be certainly remembered by any 
body — either of the pa})er or of its editor. 



192 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



CATAWISSA. 



The Np:ws Item was established in Catawissa by Gideon E. 
Myers, in 1878, the first nnmber being issued the 16th of May. 
It is independent in politics, but of Republican proclivities, and 
has established a successful business. 



BERWICK NEWSPAPERS. 
BY COL. JOHN M. SNYDER. 



The Independent American commenced to be published in 
Berwick, in the spring of 1812 or 1813, by William Carothers, by 
whom it was continued until 1818, when David Owen, son of 
Evan Owen the founder of Berwick, took charge. He was suc- 
ceeded in a short time by Orlando Porter, who managed the pa- 
per for about five years, and up to 1827. During this time it was 
devoted mainly to local and foreign news. Daniel Bowen assum- 
ed control in 1827, and continued it in the same general line un- 
til 1832. In this last year, 1832, George Mack became the editor 
and proprietor, and changed the name of the paper to Berwick 
Gazette, and gave it a democratic political direction. Judge 
Mack continued the paper for several years, and until it passed 
into 

The Argus, a well edited Democratic journal, managed and 
published and edited by Evan O. Jackson, who about the year 
1839 disposed of it, and it next appeared as 

The Democratic Sentinel published and edited by Col. Levi L. 
Tate. In 1840, Col. Tate associated with himself in the business 
Mr. A. _M. Gangewere. The partnership was disolved in 1843, 
Gangewere retiring. Col. Tate then established 

The Enc^uirer, a-nd in 1845 Mr. B. S. Gilmore purchased a half 
interest in the paper, and took general charge of it; Col. Tate 
going to Wilkes Barre and starting the Luzerne Democrat. In 
1847, Mr. Gilmore bought the whole of the Enquirer from Col. 
Tate, who at about the same same time purchased the Columbia 
Democrat from Capt. Henry Webb, and removed to Bloomsburg. 
Gilmore continued the Enquirer until the spring of 1849, when 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 193 

he removed the material to Bloomsburg, and with additional new 
material, in company with Reuben W. Weaver, commenced the 
publication of the Star of the North. 

The Sentinkl, a whig paper, was issued m 1834 by John T. Davis 
who continued it until about the year 1838, when it passed out of 
his hands, and became 

Thk Inukpkndbnt Ledger, an eight page literary journal, by 
Messrs. Wilber & Joslin, and was cai-ried on by them as such, 
about one year, when it was bought up by several gentlemen, 
and 

The Conseuvator was issued by them, with John T. Davis as 
editor. It continued during the "Hard Cider" campaign of 1840, 
and its ultimate fate I have not learned; but am of opinion that it 
was discontinued shortly after the election. 

The St.vr of the Noutu was projected by A. M. Gangewere 
in 1843, after he and Col. Tate dissolved; and it was published 
by him about one year. He disposed of the good will and mater- 
ial, and the paper appeared by U. J. Jones & John H. Winter, 
who continued it until sometime about the year 1848, when it ap- 
peared as 

The Standard, published and edited by Dewitt C. Kitchen^ 
who moditied the politics of the paper, and supported the opposi- 
tion to the Democracy. From 1848 till the spring of 1850, the 
paper was issued, when it again changed hands, and appeared as 

The Tele(;raph by Col. John M. Snyder, the paper returning 
to the support of the Democracy. From April 1850, until the 
spring of 1851, it was so published, when once more the name 
and ownership changed and it became 

The Berwick Citizev, by Jaines McClintock Laird. He pub- 
lished it until the spring of 1853, with considerable new type and 
material; at the end of which time the office and outfit were sold. 

The Investigator was established in 1853, by Stewart Pearce 
and John M. Snyder. Mr. Pearce retired at the end of a month, 
but Colonel Snyder continued the publication until the spring of 



194 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

I800, whoa tho paiHT \v:is ])uiTh;ised by Col. Levi L. Tato and 
the iianu' changed once move to the 

Berwick Gazeite, and pnblished and edited by Tate and Irwin. 
They continued tlie })aper until 18o(), when Walter II. Ilibbs 
succeeded them, lie was succeeded in 1857 by Aleni 15. Tate 
who published it until about the year 1860 when it was jjurchased 
by Jeremiah S. Sanders. It was continued by Mr. Sanders until 
1809, wlieu he removed press, type and materials to Ila/.leton. 

Thus for the tirst time in about fifty years, Berwick was with- 
out a newspaper. For about the last twenty years, all the papers 
hadbeen Democratic in politics, ami their circulation and inllu- 
ence in Columbia and Luzerne counties had been considerable. 
They were usually well printed, aiul edited with good taste and 
judgment; nor, except on very rare occasions, did tluir columns 
become vehicles of i)ersonal abuse or objection ublc ptditical dis- 
cussion. 

The lNiM>:rExi>ENT was issued by Charles B. Snyder on the lirst 
of June 1871, the outfit and material entirely new. Frank L. 
Snyder was assistant editor and Col. John M. Snyder had charge 
of the local department. The Messrs. Snyder coiulucted thr pa- 
per with success for about nine years, when they sold out to Rob- 
ert H. Bowman who changed the title to The Berwick Lidrpend- 
ent. The paper, though neutral in politics, is in the hands of a 
gentleman who is in politics a Republican. On his retirement 
from The Independent Mr. Charles \^. Snyder succeeded Mr. J. 
S. Sanders in the proprietorship and editorial management of the 
Hazleton daily and weekly Sentinel, in Luzerne county. 

The Berwick Gazette, being the second of that name, was be- 
gun March 2o, 1882, by Mr. J. H. Dieterick. It is neutral in 
politics but of democratic proclivities, and full of local and neigh- 
borhood news. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 105 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



3ivii:^A^IDu?L.3N/£E JMIOlNrTCTJI^. 



A SKETCH (jf I Ills celebrated womaii uiid Ik r family will be 
properly introduced by a short description of the magnificent 
mountain ridge whidi bears her name. 

Montour's Uidge rises somewhat al)ruptly (m the West Branch of 
the SusquHhatiM.i, near the mouth of Chillisquaque creek in North- 
utid)erlaiid county, PennsylvaniH, and stJirtirii; out in a noitheast 
course become-* the boundary between tfie townships of Point and 
Chilli-quaque in Northumberland counts, and between Point and 
the townships of Liberty and Mahoning in Montour county, near 
Danville, wheie Mahoning creek bieakn through to the North 
Branch of ihe .Suscpiehai/iia — thence beconing the boundary be- 
tween Valley and Mahoning, and West Hemlock and Cooper in 
Montour county, and between Hemlock wwA Montour lownshijjs 
in Columbia county ; breaking down again where Hemlock creek 
flows through into Fishingcreek, and again at short distance, where 
Fishingcreek rolls between its i>recii)itous sides north of Blooms- 
burg, off south-west wardly into the North Branch; then rising 
again and throwing towards the surface its rich iron deposits 
north and east of Bloomsburg, and sinking forever, after devel- 
oping millions of tons of limestone, north and east of the lown 
of Espy. 

A geological axis of elevation passes nearly along the middle 
of the ridge, composed of hard gray and reddish sandstone, 
which are covered along both sides, sometimes nearly and some- 
times quite to the top, by slates and shales of overlying series, 
the low^er part of which consists of yellowish or greenish slates, 
containing thin strata of limestone, in which are impressions of 
shells and other fossils ; and near these is a very valuable layer 
of brow^nish red iron ore, from six inches to over two feet in 
thickness, also containing fossil impressions. This ore is found 



196 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

on both sides of the ridge us far east as the vicinity of Blooms- 
burg, where the strata converge over its top as it sinks away on 
the east, and finally disappears under the overlying red shale in 
the neighborhood of Espytown. In the slates above the iron ore 
are some thin layers of dark colored limestone, succeeded by a 
thick bed of red shale, which forms the upper j)ortion of the 
series. Overlying this red shale is a limestone formation, which 
encircles the ridge outside of the red shale, and which may be 
seen not far from the river above Northtiniborland, and along the 
railroad from ])anville to Bloomsburg ; dipping under the Fish- 
ingcreek half a mile above its mouth, and passing under Blooms- 
burg, it rises again near Espytown, and extends nearly to Ber- 
wick, where it sinks away beneath the overlying slate. A fine 
deposit of mantle and roofing slate of the very best quality? 
develops itself on Little Fisliingcreek, about a mile above Blooms- 
burg. It has been wrought and apjn-oved of by competent judges 
and workmen, and needs only capital and enterprise to become a 
recognized industry of the county. 

Thus it will be seen that Montour's ridge is useful as well as 
ornamental, rich as well as rugged ; yielding right at our doors 
iron ore, limestone, slate and building stone in almost unlimited 
quantities. 

There are three celebrated Indian women who have played im. 
portant parts in the history of Pennsylvania, and especially in 
that of the Forks of the Susquehanna ; but their names, their 
exploits and their persons have become so interwoven with each 
other, that it has become a difiicult, if not an impossible, task to 
distinguish them. From the mass of obscui-e and contradictory 
matter relating to them, I shall however, endeavor to assign her 
proper position and actions to each one, dissipating some of the 
romance and correcting some of the statements which have here- 
tofore been received as veritable history; or at any rate, as history 
applicable to certain persons. 

Those three women are Madame Montour, Catharine Montour 
and Queen Esther. 

In his "Historical Collections of Pennsylvania" Mr. Sherman 
Day speaks of "the celebrated Catharine Montour, sometimes call- 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 197 

ed Queen Esther, whose more perinaiient residence was at Cath. 
ariiu'stown, at tlie head of Seneca hike, as being a half-breed who 
had been well educated in Canada. Her reputed father was one 
of tlie French Governors of that i)rovince, and she herself was a 
lady of conijiaiative retinenient. She was much caressed in Phil- 
adelphia, and mingled in the best society. She exercised a con- 
trolling influence among the Indians, and resided in this quarter, 
[Tioga point, Bradford county] while they were making their in- 
cursions upon the Wyoming settlements. It has been even sus- 
pected that she presided at the bloody sacrifice of the Wyoming 
prisoners after the battle ; but Col. Stone who is good authority 
upon the history of the Six Nations, utterly discredits the story.'' 
Here we have the three women utterly confounded. Let us see if 
we can separate them and assign to each one her own history and 
individuality. 

Who was Madame Montour? Lord Cornbury in a letter under 
date of August 20, 1708, published in Vol. V. page 65 of the Col- 
onial History of New York, speaks of a French gentleman 
by the name of Montour, settled in Canada previous to 1668, 
who married an Indian woman by whom he had three children, 
one son and two daughters ; and that subsequently to the birth 
of the children they got among the Miami Indians in the neigh- 
borhood of Detroit. Some sort of intercourse was kept up with 
the east, and a woman calling herself Madame Montour is 
reported lo have been with the Senecas at Albany, as an interpre- 
tess, in 1711. In 1744 Madame Montour was at Lancaster, Pa. 
at a treaty there held with the Six Nations, and in a conversation 
with Mr. Marsh, Secretary of the Maryland Conmiissioners, she 
told him that she was born in Canada, whereof her father, who 
was a French gentleman, had been Governor, under whose admin- 
istration the Five Nations of Indians had made war against the 
French and the Hurons in that Govi-rnment, and that in the war 
she was taken by some of the Five Nations' warriors, being then 
about ten years of age, and by them was carried away into their 
country, where she was habited and brought up in the same man- 
ner as their children : That when she grew up to years of matu- 
rity she was married to a famous war captain of those nations, 
* * by whom she had several children, but about l".f- 



198 i/rsTO/n' or coLiwiui ('()r^^TV. 

tiHMi voiirs fts^o l»o w:v^ killiHl in a )):itll<' with tho (.''atawbiis, sinoo 
whicli she had not boon inarrii'd : That slu> liad lit(U> or no ro- 
inoinbraiice of tho pbioo of hfr hirtli, nor iixh'ed of lior pariMits, it 
bi-iiiLT noar tiftv voars sinoo sho was ravisliod from thom by tlio 
lailiais. Mr. Marsli also says, tliat ''in h^M* cabin wore two of hor 
dauijhtors by thi> war i-aptain. wlio woro bi>th niarrioil, ami that 
»uio of thorn had a boautifiil boy about livo yoars ohl. At this 
tinio, 17 t I, thoroforo. IMailanu' Montour must l\avo boon ;'.\)out 
sixty voars old. ,)anios l.o Tort, an Indian tradi'r upon tlu' Sus- 
quohanna, in a oommunioation to tho (Ti>vornor in 172S, says, 
"That intondim; last fall to tako a jinirnoy as far as tho Miami 
Indians, or Twooht woys, to tradi' with thi'ni, ho had oonsullod 
Mrs. Montour, a Fronoh woman, wifo to C'arondawana, about his 
journov thithor, who haviuL:; livod amonj^st and havino a sistor 
marriod to ono of that nation," ito., sooms thus to oomph'to tho 
identity of Madanu> Montour and tho littlo Fronoh L^ivl. 

It sooms agrood on all l>ands that hor first husband was Holand 
Montt>ur, a bravo of tho Sonooas. Ami hor soooiul husband waa 
Oarondawana, a oliiof of the Onoidas. I>y hor iirst husband sho 
had four sons Andrew, llenry, Robert and Lewis, and two diaiijh 
tors. Ono of tluMu, named Margaret was already, in ITo;?, n>ar- 
rioil to an Indian named Katarionioohn, and was livini«- in the 
neighborho h1 of Shamokin. The name of tho other daughter has 
not been ascertained. 

Madame Montour makes her first appearance in onr history at a 
council held at Philadelphia, on the ;b-d of July, 1727, between 
the Hon. Patrick Gordon, Lieutenant Governor, and his coimoil on 
one side, and divers chiefs of the Five Nations, the Conestogoes, 
Gangawese, and Susquehanna Indians, on tho other. The coun- 
cil being mot and seated : "The Governor told thom by M. Mon- 
tour, a Fronoh wojuan wdio had lived long among those people, 
and is now interpretess, that ho was glad to see thom all well af- 
ter so long a jonrney, and was now ready with his council to re- 
ceive what they have to say." The meetings continnotl several 
days, Mailamo Montour making tho interpretations between the 
parties. Again in 1728, in some ijist ructions given by (^ovornor 
Gordon to llonrv Snii:'i and John I'ottv, then about to visit tho 



UTS TO II Y () F (!() L II M li I A CO (IN T Y. 1 f >f> 

SiiHqneli;iiiii;i IiHlijiiis, I fi" ( Jfivcnior sayK: "(4ivo my kind love 
jiIko f<» ( ';iriiii(lov\':iii;i ;uii| liis wife, ainl Kpeak to tliein to tlie 
Kitiiic |nir|)i»sc. Let liiiii know I cxjxjct of liirn, that hh he Ih a 
great captain, lie will take care that all th(; peoph; about liini shall 
whow themselves good mviri and true heart(!d, a^ he is himself, and 
that I hope to see him at the Treaty." And agiin, in the same 
year, there is the following memorandum: "It was afterwards 
considered by the lioanJ what present might be proper to be 
made to Mistress Montour and her husband, Carandawana and 
likewise to Shikellima, of the Five Nations, appointed to resi<le 
among th<! Shawnese, whose services had been and may yet be of 
great advantage' to this <ioveniment: An<l it was agreed that 
live pounds in bills of (credit should be given U) Mistress Montour 
and her husband.' 

After the death of her second husband in 172'.) sh(; was no 
doubt a good deal in I*hil;ul«-lpliia. Mr. Marsh, before referre<l 
to, calls her "a French lady,'" and "being a white woman was very 
mucli caressed V>y th(; ge-itlemen of that city," and that "tlie la- 
dies of that city always invited her to tlnir Imjus'js, entertained 
her well an<l made ht-r seveial presents." Accordingly in 1734 
several of the Oneidas and otliers coming to town, "Mrs. Mon- 
tour, now in town but not a memljcr of the delegation," was in- 
quired of as to their standing and importance, and they were en- 
tertaineil and rewarded with some reference to her information 
concerning them. 

From hen(;e we are authorized to conclude that Madame Mon 
tour was always a friend of the proprietary Government: and tliat 
conclusion is strengthened V>y the fact that at least three of her 
sons re<-eived large grants of "donation lands" from the government. 
Henry's lay on tlie Chillisquaque, near its mouth, Andrew's on 
the Loyal Sock, near Montoursville, and Lewis' at Shade Gap, in 
ILmlingdon county. Li Sejitember 1742, Shikellimy, the great 
Cayuga cdiief was living at Shamokin and was there tlien visited 
by Conrad Weiser, Count Zin/endorf, Martin Mack and his wife, 
and several other |»ersons. After s]»ending some time at Shamo- 
kin, "the Count and pail of his comjtaiiy forded the Sus'pjehanna, 
and went to Ostonwachin on the West liranch. This place was 
then inliabited, not only by Lidians of different tribes, but V>y 



200 JII.STOUY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

E\iro))eans, wIki Imd adopted tlic Indian manner of litV. Aniono- 
till' lattoi- was a I*''renc'h woman, JMadame Montonr, wlio had mar- 
ried an Indian warrior (Carondawanna alias llol)ei-( Iliiiitt'i;, but 
lost him in a war against the C'atawbas. She kindly entertained 
the C\Mint for two days. The Count soon af((.'r wi'iit to 
Wyoming. In his "History (^i Eiglit (\)unties," ]Mr. \\\\y\i 
has the following remark: "When Count Zin/.endorf visit- 
ed Ostonwaehin (or Frenehtown) he was met (July 30, 1742) by 
an Indian who understood I'^reneli and Knglish." Conra<l Weiser 
under date of jMareh 1st 17.").), to Governor Morris, speaking of 
sonn' Shawanese Indians, wlio had lately come from the Ohio, 
says: "They jointly intend to make a town lu'xt sj»ringon the AVest 
Hraneh of Susquehanna, eommonly railed Ot/.inaehson, at a 
pl;ice called Otstuagy, or Frenehtown, about forty miles above Sha- 
mokin." And the Indians desired the Governor to send up some in- 
dustrious people to fence a cornfield for them. Under date of June 
12, 17.5,5, Mr. Weiser says lie has just returned from Otstuacky, 
an Indi;in town about forty five miles above Shamokin, on the 
North West Branch of the Susquehanna river, "where I have been 
with ten hired men to fence in a cornlield for the Indians, accord- 
ing to your Honor's order." lie says he left them a sack of Hour, 
and that he left aiu)t]ier at Canasoragy, .about ten miles below 
Otstuacky. In the journ;il of Mack and (xinibe from Bethlehem to 
Quenischaschachki, they say: "In tlie :vfternoon of Sunday, Aug. 
2(i, 17.58 we launched our canoe and paddled up the river. Four 
miles above Shamokin we came to Logan's place * * * *. On 
the 27th we arrived at John Shikellimy's hunting lodge * * * * . 
After dinner we canle to the nu)uth of Muncy creek, forty miles 
above Shamokin. As the Susquehanna was high, and current 
rapid, we left our canoe in care of an Indian ae(]uaintance, shoul- 
dered our packs, and kee]>ing along the banks of tlu' river, arrived 
\\\ Otstonwakin in the evening.'' The distances are not to be de- 
pei\ded upon, for they were determined by the pace of the walker, 
or the arm of the n)wer; nor is the spelling of the Indian names of 
places any more certain, each man spelling it as it struck Ins ear. 
But it seems certain that a town at the nu)uth of Loyal Sock creek 
now called Montoursville, was, over one hundred years ago, known 
indifferently as Frenehtown, Ostouwackin, Otstonwakin, Otstuagy, 
;ind Otstuacky ;xnd was, in 1742,tlie residence of Mad:ime Montom-. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA C0UN2Y. 201 

There is no evidence that slie ever lived any farther up the 
West Branch, and she never was uj) the North Branc?i. In 1744 
she was with the Indians at tlie Treaty at Lancaster, and 
in 1745 SpangenVjerg visited her at Shamokin, which was 
then her |)lace of residence. On the general question of lier age, 
in addition to her statement, we find James Logan as early 
as 1733 writing of her as "ancient," and in 1734 she is spoken 
of by a chief and messenger from the Six Nations, as "an 
old woman." But still further, her son Andrew, in 1756, on an 
examination as to distances, testified tViat he thought it sixty 
miles from Logstown to Weningo, that he had travelled the road 
three times, once when his mother was blind, and on horse back, 
an<l he led the horse on foot all the way. The date of the death 
of Madame Montour I have not been able to ascertain; but I have 
found no mention of her after 1745, though the death of Shekelli- 
raus at Shamokin in 1749 is mentioned. 

No history nor authentic tradition connects Madame Montour 
with the shedding of any blood, white or Indian. The whole 
tenor of her life forbids it, and her constant friendship with the 
proprietary Government prevents the conclusion of her being at 
the massacre of Wyoming or of Fort Freeland. A woman, old in 
1734, and blind before her death, as mentioned by her son An- 
drew, in March 1754, would not, at the age of almost one hundred 
years, imbue her hands for the first time in blood, and that the 
blood of those with whom she had all her life been on terras of 
friendship. 

So much it seemed necessary to say, that the truth of history 
might be vindicated, and the confusion or error which the author- 
ities leave upon the mind might be dispelled — that the good repu- 
tation of Madame Montour might be as immoval>le as the rocks 
tliat underlie the beautiful ridge which perpetuates her name, and 
that her memory should be as green and grateful as the pines 
that clothe its sides, and waive over its summit. » 

Wlio was French Margaret ? It already appears that Madame 
Montour had two daughters, one of them named Margaret, and 
married, and the authorities show that French Margaret was the 
same person. She and Madame lived at Montoiirsville in 1742? 



202 HISTDHY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

anil the dausxlittM- roiuaiiicd tliciv ('(.'rtaiiily as lato as 17(i(). Slu' 
had si'vt'ral fliildrcii, (linn' of wliom wcit dau^httTS, to wit Kstlior, 
Catliariiu' and IMary. CoiiccniinL^- tliesi' tlircH' wmiuMi, (u'li. JdIui 
S. Clark of Auburn, N. 'N'. writes as follows: 

"Kstlior was the wife of Ei'liooluind, king of the Mousey chin 
of the Sus(|uehanna Delawari's. In the s])riii<; of IToo nearly all 
the Indians of the lower Suscjuelianna abandoned that i)ai't of the 
country and settled at Tiooa Point and above on the Chen>un<; 
river. The Monsi'y or Wolf elan settled at Aehsinnissink, near 
the site of i>resent Big Flats, on present Sing Sing creek, about 
nini' miles by way of the river al)o\e Klniira. Here they I'eniain- 
ed until tlie destruction of all tlu' towns on the OluMnung, in 1764 
l)y iiarlies st'ut out by Sir William Johnson, one of which was 
conuuanded by Andrew Montour. This chm then retired to the 
protection of tlio Senecas, and remained tliere until the peace, 
when they returned down the river and founded the town of She- 
shequin.on the west side of the Sustpiehanna, some six miles below 
Tioga roinl. They remained iicre until 177l\ when the christian 
]iarty migrated west of the AUeghenies, undi'r the leadership 
of Kotli, and the pagan parly removed up tlie Uiver about six 
miles, and founded the new titwn, afterwards gencrallv known as 
(Jueen Esther's Plantation. In the meantime, Kchgohund having 
died, his wife Esther became generally known as (^''i'*^'" Esther, 
a rank to which she was fully entitled, as the widow i>f the Mousey 
King. His town was destroyed by C/olonel Hartley in 1778, when 
they probably retired to (.^henuing, which was also destroyed 
by the ai'iny under (Jeneral Sullivan in the succeeiling year, when 
all retired \o Niagara. After tlie close of the revolution she hov- 
I'red around lu-r former home for a few years, but finally settled 
at Long Point in Cayuga county. New York, about a mile .~outh 
of ITnion Springs, where she was living with the noted Cayuga 
Chief, Steel Traj*, and where she died and was buried on the east 
shore of Cayuga Lake, at an advanced age, well known as Queen 
Esther, the fiend of Wyoming. Koswell Franklin, the first settler 
of that locality, who was well accpiainted witli her when liv- 
ing on the Susquehanna, also kiu'W hvv wi'll when living near 
him at his liome, at present Aurora. 

Catharine Montour marrii'd and removed up the Susquehanna 



HISTORY OF (COLUMBIA COUNTY. 203 

;iim1 foiiiiilc(| tlic town of Klihiiicrnct, loctutc*] nearly opposite prew- 
cnt W('llsl)nig, Hotn(! nix miles below F^lniiru. when; she livtHl for 
seveiiil yeurs witli her inotlier, and during the same time tliat 
Esther, her sister, was living at Aehsinnissink, n(!ar liig Flats. 
This town was also destroyed in 1704, when they retinn! temjjo- 
rarily up the ('hemung, and after. th(! jteace niturned arul founded 
the new town on Sheocjuaga creek, ahont three miles from the 
hea<l of Seneca I.,ake, and where she and they remained until the 
town was destroyed by Sullivan in 177!), when they retreated with 
the others to Niagara. After the return of peace slie returned to 
her old home, died there, and was buried on a natural mound near 
present Havana, in the immediate vicinity of her former home, 
knr»wn generally as Catharines-town. I'he belief is so general 
that she was buried at tiiis place, that to deny it would be looked 
upon by the good people of Havana as evidence of the greatest 
ignorance of the fa(;ts of history. 

IVrhaps the most satisfactory contemporary evidence in regard 
to thes<' eharactters is that of Mrs. Wliittaker, who when quite 
young knew (^ueen Ksther well, and also hei- sister Mary. Mrs. 
VVhittaker was a daughter of Sebastian Strope, who settled at 
Wysox, Pennsylvania, in 1773. (^uecMi Esther was a welcome and 
frequent visitor at his house, and it is to the recollection of Mrs. 
Wliittaker that we ai-e indebted for a descnption of her ))ersonal 
appearance, com[)lexion, the color of her hair and her dress and 
peculiarities. Mrs. Wliittaker tells us that on ojie occasion. Queen 
Esther on a visit at her father's, was accompanied by a half-breed 
woman called Catharine, who, as C^ueen Ksther said, was her sis- 
ter. This Strope family was afterwards captured by the Indians, 
and during the captivity of the family were under many obliga- 
tions for the acts of kindness of their fonner friend. The daugh- 
ter, while a prisoner, rambled over the grounds of the Queen, and 
describes her )>alace particularly. Sometime after this, while an 
route to the West as a prisoner, Mrs. VVhittaker stopped for a 
week at Catharine's town, and while there she again saw the same 
woman and recognized her as the same one that she had previous- 
ly seen in conipany with Queen Esther, and who had introduced 
her as her sister." 

The history of the sister Mary is not as easily traced. In 17o3 



204 JII^TORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

FriMio'h ]\r:irg:irot told Mack, th;vt, hor son and son-in-law hail boon 
killod tho provious wintor whilo on a niarand against tlio Crooks." 
(IMacks Journal, Moniorials of tlu- MtM-avian oluiioh, \V,\0, noto.) 

Tt is i>iH>l>ablo, in tho light o{ what wo know about tho othor 
girls, that tho son-in-law was tho husband of JMary. Slio is known 
as ^lolly, and Mrs. Whittakor know hor woll. Ilor oxistonoo and 
rolatiitnship to Catharino, and oonsoquontly to Quoon Ksthor, are 
sottlod by tho following roferenco to hor in Pennsylvania Colonial 
Kooords Vol. Vlll, page 499. 

"Soptond)or IVlli, 17(10 ; tho following letter, received from 
jNIr. Holland, the Indian Agent at Shaniokin, waa ordered to be 
entered : 

Shamokin, 9 Mo., 17th, 1700. 
Permit me to acquaint tho Governor: 

That John Hatson arrived here on the loth, in 8 days, from 
JMargaret Town, and deliver'd me the inclosed string of Wampum, 
and the following speech, which he said was sent to the Governor 
by Catharine, the l^aughter of French Margaret. 

That she desired, by this String of Wampum, to acquaint the 
Governor of the receipt of his by Papunohoal, and that she was 
sorry tho Indisposition of hor Family had so long prevented her 
from conq)lying with the tTOvernor's request to bringdown tho 
prisoners, but that she would bo down this Fall with the two that 
belonged to her, and desired that she may Jiot be blamed for her 
sisters carrying the woman she has to the Allegany, as it was not 
in hor power to prevail with her to take hor to Philadelphia; in 
continuation of which she sent tho (.Tovornor tho inclosed String 
of Wanq)um. 

John informed me that Molley was to set off for the Allegany 
with the white woman after he left the towMi, and that he expect- 
ed Cate here in ten days, and that he should go with her to Phil- 
adelphia and ilolivor them to the Governor. 

from thy friend, 

Natiianiki, HoM.Axn." 

It is entirely possible that l\Iary never returned from tho west, 
but may have remained among the members of the Montour fam- 
ily in Ohio. The history of the Montours has yet to be written. 



HLSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 205 

This chapter has been only an attempt to disentangle the person 
ality of the five women who have given to them a name and 
place in history. 

Of the sons of Madame Montour, mentioned in the course of 
this article, Andrew was the most prominent, and held a Captain's 
commission, and was for a considerable time engaged as interpre- 
ter between the Government and the different tribes. It is a 
somewhat remarkable fact that the family generally were natural 
linguists. One Mary, whom I take to be our "Molly," is spoken 
of as a regular polyglot, speaking English, French, and nearly all 
the western Indian dialects. It is greatly to be regretted that so 
little attention was paid to the personal history of those Indians 
who showed themselves to be men and women of character and 
ability. Where there was one Marsh or Logan who inquired and 
wrote down what was learned, a hundred persons with equal or 
greater opportunities, made no inquiry, or no memorandum. I 
see that Dr. Egle, of Harrisburg, is about to issue at that place, 
a quarterly periodical, of "Notes and Queries, Historical and Ge- 
nealogical, relating to Interior Pennsylvania," and in that we may 
look for something elucidating still further the history of the 
Montours. 




^f^ 



206 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



IPOST OI^IE^ICES. 



TT is very often a matter of great convenience to know at what 
point of a county or township a post office may happen to be 
located. You may know nearly the residence of your correspond- 
ent, but his nearest post office is required in order to reach him 
promptly. I have therefore, in a general way indicated the local- 
ity of each one in the township, and in cases where they are on 
Or near the line of adjoining townships also stated that fact ; as 
in the case of lola, Sereno, Derr s, cfec. Bear Gap is on the line be- 
tween Columbia and Northumberland counties ; and as is known. 
New Columbus, Cambra, Fairmount Springs and Red Rock, are in 
the county of Luzerne, but lying so near the line of Columbia, as 
to accommodate people on the east side of Fishingcreek, Benton 
and Sugarloaf townships. And just as Berwick in Columbia 
county, on the very edge of Luzerne, is the nearest office to many 
persons of the lower end of that county. 



NAMK OF OFFICE. 



TOWNSHIP. 



LOCATION. 



Bear Gap 
Beaver Valley 
Benton 
Bloomsburg 
Buckhoru 



Locust 

Beaver 

Benton 

Bloomsburg 

Hemlock 



West side 

Centre 

West side 

South east 



Canby 

Catawissa 

Central 

Centralia 

Colescreek 



Mt. Pleasant 
Catawissa 
Sugarloaf 
Con) ngham 
Sugarloaf 



Centre 

West side 

North 

South centre 

South 



Berr's 



Greenwood East-edge of Jackson 



HLSTORY OF COLUMBIA 


COUNTY. 207 


NAME OK OFFICE 


TOWNSHIP. 


LOCATION. 


Espy 


Scott 


South 


Evansville 


Briarcreek 


West side 


Eyers Grove 


Greenwood 


West side 


Fishingcreek 


Fishingcreek 


South east 


Forks 


Fishingcreek 


South 


Glen city 


Beaver 


North east 


Greenwood 


Greenwood 


Centre 


Guava 


Sugarloaf 


Above Colescreek 


lola 


Greenwood 


West — edge of Pine 


Jerseytown 


Madison 


Centre 


Light street 


Scott 


North 


Lime Ividge 


Centre 


South west 


Maiiiville 


Main 


Centre 


MitWiii X Roads 


Beaver 


North west 


MitHinville 


IMifflin 


North side 


Millgrove 


Roaringcreek 


South west 


Millville 


• Greenwood 


West 


jMordansville 


Mt. Pleasant 


North west 


Nuraidia 


Locust 


Centre 


Oraiigeville 


Orange 


Centi-e 


Pensyl 


Franklin 


South west 


Pine Summit 


Pine 


South west 


Polkville 


Jackson 


Centre 


Ravencreek 


Benton 


East 


Roaringcreek 


Locust 


North east 


Rohrsburg 


Greenwood 


East 


Rupert 


Montour 


North east 



20S 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



NAME OF tH'KlCK. 

Soreno 
Still Water 



TOWN SUIT. 



LOCATION. 



Greenwood West — edge of IMiio 
Fisliiiiiivreok North west 



\':iii Camp 



FishiuLCcreek 



North 



Waller 
Wellivers 
Whitinire 
Willow Springs 



.1 acksou 

Mount Pleasant 
Centre 
Centre 



Centre 

North east 

North east 

Southeast 



/ 1 L»' ■ • 



P^* 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 209 



CHAPTER XXV. 



UNITEI> STATES SENATE. 



Although not the first in order, yet as the first in dignity, it is 
proper to begin this chapter with the representation which Col- 
umbia county has furnished, in the Senate of the United States, in 
the person of a distinguished citizen, a native of this county . 

Charles R. Buckalew was born in Fishingcreek township, Col- 
umbia county, Pennsylvania, December 28, 1821. After receiv- 
ing an academic education, he studied law with M. E. Jackson, 
Esquire, of Berwick, Pa , and was admitted to the Bar of the same 
county at August term 1843. He was appointed Prosecuting 
Attorney of Columbia county in April 1845, and resigned in 1847. 
In 1850 he was elected to the State Senate for the District com- 
posed of the counties of Luzerne, Columbia and Montour, and re- 
elected in 1853. In 1854 he was appointed special 
commissioner to exchange the ratifications of a treaty with Para- 
guay, and made a journey to South America by way of Eng- 
land. 

In 1850 he was chosen a Senatorial Presidential Elector for 
Pennsylvania. In 1857 he was chairman of the Democratic State 
Coimnittee, and in the same year was re-elected to the State Sen- 
ate for the district composed of the counties of Columbia, Mon- 
tour, Northumberlajid and Snyder. In the following winter he 
was nominated by the Governor, and confirmed by the Senate to 
be one of the commissioners to revise the criminal code of the 
State. This post, and the office of Senator he resigned in the 
summer of 1858, and was appointed Minister Resident of the 
United States at Quito, in the Republic of Ecuador, where he re- 
mained three years. 

On the 14th of January 1863, he was elected a Senator of the 
United States for six years from the 4th of March following. In 



210 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

1869 he was re-elected a State Senator for the district composed 
of the counties of Northumberland, Montour, Columbia and Sulli- 
van. In 1872 he was the nominee of the Democratic party for 
the office of Governor of the state, but was not elected. 

At the same election. Col. Freeze was chosen a member of the 
convention to reform the Constitution of the State, and upon the 
defeat of Mr. Buckalew for Governor, promptly tendered to him 
the seat to which he had been chosen, in the Convention. Ac- 
cordingly, on the third day of the sitting of the Convention, Col. 
Freeze offered his resignation to that body, and on the next day 
November the 15th, Mr. Buckalew was selected to fill the vacancy 
and served during the sittings. 

In the same fall of 1872, Mr. Buckalew published a work on 
"Proportional Representation," which was edited by Col. Freeze, 
and issued by John Campbell & Son, Philadelphia. 

In March 1876, at the Democratic Convention, at Lancaster, 
Mr. Buckalew was, by acclamation, nominated to head the Dem- 
ocratic Electoral Ticket of the State at the ensuing Presidential 
election. 

Duj-ing his term in the Senate of the United States, Mr. Buck- 
alew, in addition to his ordinary legislative duties, on the 1st of 
March 1864, submitted to the Senate a "Minority Report on the 
Repeal of the Fugitive Slave Acts," Mr. Sumner submitting the 
report of the majority. On the 20th of February 1865, he sub- 
niitted an elaborate report on the subject of lighting, heating and 
ventilating the Halls of Congress. On the 21st of February 1866 
he delivered his celebrated speech on "Representation in Congress." 
On the 15th of January 1867, he addressed the Senate "On the 
Executive power to make removals from office" — on July 11th 
"On Reconstruction" — and on the same day on "Cumulative Vot- 
ing" — on January 29, 1868, on the subject of "Reconstruction" — 
on the 26th of March, on "The McArdle Case — Jurisdiction of the 
Supreme Court" — on the 3d of March 1869, he submitted a "Re- 
port on Re})resentative Reform" — and on the close of the proceed- 
ings, an "opinion on the Impeachment of Andrew Johnson." 

Since the adjournment of the constitutional convention, Mr. 
Buckalew has been practising law in Bloomsburg and engaged at 
leisure limes in the preparation of a work on the Constitution of 
Pennsylvania. 







C. r.. HICKALICW 

.i5TAT r.0. 



212 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



STATE LEGISLATURE. 

By the eighth section of the l^ill erecting- Cohnnbia county, it 
was provided — "Tliat tlie inliabitants of the county of Northum- 
berhmd, Union and Colunibm sliall jointly elect four representa- 
tives. 

1813 

Sannu'l Bound, Leonard Rupert, Thonuis Murray Jr. and George 
Kreanier were elect I'd. ^Vll Democrats. 

1814 

David E. Owen had 2218 votes in district. 
Robert Willit had 20;M votes in district. 
Capt. Joseph nutcliison had 1990 votes in district. 
Henry Shaifer had 14")!) votes in district. 
John Maclay had 1 1 96 votes in district. 
James Strawbridgc had 1188 votes in district. 
Andrew McGlenachan had 1080 votes in district. 
James Hammond had 1040 votes in district. 
John MontgOTiiery had 239 votes in district. 
Abraham JNIcKinney had 892 votes in district. 

In 1815 Columbia county was made a separate representative 
district with one nuMuber. 

1815 
James McClure had 892 votes. 
David E. Owens had 579 votes. 

181 () 
Sanuiel Bond had 807 votes. 
James McC^lure had 731 votes. 

1817 
Samuel Bond was elected. 

1818 
Sanniel Bond had 757 votes. 
Samuel Webb had 487 votes. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 213 

1819 
James McClure was elected. 

1820 
Col. John Snyder had 768 votes. 
Col. James McClure had 754 vote-i. 
Dr. Russel Park had 352 votes. 
William Uobison had 92 votes. 

1H21 
John Clark was elected. 

In 1822 Columbia county was made a separate district with 
two members. 

1822 
William McBride had 1313 votes. 
Alexander Colley had 1282 votes, and they were elected. 

1823 
William McBride and Alexander Colley were elected. 

1824 
John McReynolds, Democrat, had 836 votes. 
Eli Thornton, Democrat, had 1121 votes. 
Christian Brobst, Democrat, had 601 votes. 

1825 
John McReynolds, Democrat, had 1991 votes. 
Christian Brobst, Democrat, had 1071 votes. 

1826 
John McReynolds and William McBride were elected. 

1827 
John McReynolds and Christian Brobst were elected. 

1828 
John McReynolds and John liobison were elected. 

In 1829 Columbia county was made a separate district with one 
member. 

1829 
John Robison was elected. 



214 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

IS.SO 
Uzal Hopkins was elected. 

1 S8 1 
Uzal Hopkins Avas elected. 

ih:32 

Isaac Kline was elected. 

1 888 
Isaac Kline was elected. 

1 884 
John F. Den- was electetl. 

1885 
Jolni V. Deir was elected. 

In 1836 Colninbia county was a separate district with one mem- 
ber. 

1880 
Evan O. Jackson was elected. 

1837 
Jolui Bowman, Whig, was elected. 

1888 
William Colt, l^emocrat, liad 2807 votes and was elected. 

183<) 
William Colt had 1602 votes. 
Geo. H. Willets had 794 votes. 

1840 
Daniel Snyder had 2787 votes. 
John C. Lessig had 914 votes. 

1841 
Daniel Snyder was elected. 

1842 
Daniel Snyder was elected. 

In 1843 Columbia county was a se})arate district with one mem- 
ber. 

1848 
Daniel Snyder had 1^87 votes niul was elected. 



HIS TOR Y OF COL U3IBIA CO UN TY. 2 1 5 

1844 
Thomas A. Fiinston had 2075 votes. 
E. G. llickotts liad 1443 votes. 
Jos. Brobst had 1196 votes. 
Thomas A. Fiinstoii was elected. 

1 84') 
Thomas A. Fmiston had 2a76 votes and Avas elected. 
David Clark had 2029 votes. 

1846 
Stewart l*earce, Democrat, had 1667 votes. 
Isaac Low, Whig, had 1443 votes. 
Stewart Pearce was elected. 

1847 
Stewai t Pearce, Democrat, had 2829 votes. 
George W. Lott, Whig, liad 1502 votes. 
Stewart Pearce was elected. 

1848 
Stewart Pearce, Democrat, had 2900 votes. 
Jonas Flayman, Whig, had 2106 votes. 
Stewart Pearce was elected. 

1849 
Benjamin 1'. Fortner, Whig, had 2113 votes. 
John jVIc Reynolds, Democrat, had 1732 votes. 
Benjamin P. Fortner was elected. 

In is.")i» Columbia :ind Montour were a representative district 
with one member. 

1850 
McReynolds, Democrat. C. B. Bowman, Whig. 

Columbia 2036 419 

Montour 402 1823 

McKeynold's majority 196. 

1851 
M. E. Jackson, Democrat. Jonas Hayman, Whig. 

Colundiia 1490 1337 

Montour 1354 856 

Jackson's majority 651. 



21() HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

1852 
Geo. Scott, Doinocrat. M. E. Jnckson, Doniocrat. 

(.\>lumbi:i 2400 548 

^lontoiir 401 1703 

Geo. Scott's majority 55G. 

1853 
Geo. Scott. Joseph R. Pattou. 

Columbia 2346 713 

Montour 735 oDO 

(.100. Scott's majority KiGD. 

1 854 

Jas. (i. INIaxwcll, W. G. Hurley, John Bilhneyer. 

Columbia 22!)9 25 4 

Montour 1014 

1 855 

John G. Monlgoniery, Democrat. John Stalcy, Whig. 
Columbia 1005 1032 

Montour 894 483 

2491) 1515 

Montgomery's majority 984. 

1856 

Peter Ent, Democrat. John Sharpless, Whig. 
Columbia 2405 1412 

Montour 1141 715 



3546 2127 

Peter Ent's majority 1419. 

In 1857 the representative district was Columbia, Montour, Sul- 
livan and W^yoming, with two members. 

1857 

Peter Ent, John V. Smith, D. II. B. Brower, Henry Metcalf. 
Columbia 2364 2355 1070 1091 

Montour 1069 1070 572 574 

Sullivan 524 354 126 368 

Wyoming 1174 1179 832 828 



HLSTORY OF COLUMBIA C0UN2Y. 



217 



G. D. j!u;kKon, 



ColumV>ia 
Montour 
Sullivan 
Wyoming 



] :>{){) 
611 
989 



G. D. Jackson, 



Columbia 
Montour 
Sullivan 
Wyoming 



2040 

1215 

1009 

GOo 



II. R. Kline 



Columbia 
Montour 
Sullivan 
Wyoming 



Columbia 
Montour 
Sullivan 
Wyoming 



2040 
1 1 r>2 

12o5 

Tate 

2571 

1174 

545 

1017 



G. D. Jack Hon 
Columbia 2913 
Montour 1248 
Sullivan 035 

Wyoming 1364 

G. D. Jackson, 
Columbia 3344 
Montour 1458 

Sullivan 720 

Wyoming 1441 



J. C 



1858 

OakeH, 

1965 

724 

517 

982 

1 859 
Oakes, 
1746 
1101 
950 
516 
1800 
Osterbout 
2590 
1151 
535 
1254 
1861 
Tutton 
2600 
1187 
546 
1087 
1862 
. C. Ellis 
2914 
1244 
624 
13G3 
1863 
Ellis, 
3344 
1459 
713 
1441 



Iline, 

1 363 

811 

13 



Masters, 

1162 

658 

651 

347 

Strawbridge 

1786 

1027 

376 

1049 

Lazarus 

1904 

937 

396 

1398 



Blaker. 
1286 



6 
55 

Mo user. 
760 
314 
585 
195 

Harding. 

1757 

1018 

379 

1225 

Jennings. 

1892 
933 
398 

1492 



Sam'l Hays Jacob Kennedy. 

1375 1375 

778 762 

267 267 

1140 1130 



M 



Whitmoyer, S. Bondman. 

1770 1771 

1092 1090 

344 341 

1343 1343 



In 1864 Columbia and Montour were made a representative 
district witb one member. 



218 HISTOKY OJ^ COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

1 8(M 
W. II. .laooby, L. S. StiucMUiUi, l>;iii'l. Snyder. 



l\)luinl)ia 


2921 


287 128 


Montour 


1 •l'^^ 


42 

1 865 


^^ 


"illianison 11. ,1 


U'oby Charles W. Kcknian 


(\>hinibi:i 


2999 


l-)83 


MontiMir 


IbKi 


841 
18()6 


'V 


lonias C'lnili'ant 


rlacob Moser 


Vohuwh'vx 


3592 




INlontour 


lo44 


1110 
1 8()7 


T 


los. ChaM'ant 


J. n. Vanderslice 


Coliiiubi:i 


;>4 48 


1(>94 


INlontour 


lo8(> 


999 
1 868 




Goo. Si-ott, 


Capt. 0. G. Jackson. 


Colnnibia 


4()o0 


20(59 


Montour 


1 ()88 


1 1 93 




Geo. Sc 


ott's majority 2471. 
1869 




Scott, 


Zellers. 


Cohiinbia 


30(52 


1827 


Montour 


1573 


1044 
1870 




lvu})ert. 


Chalfaut, Abbott. 


Cohunbia 


1 94.-) 


24o0 622 


Montour 


123 


1580 627 



Tn 1S71 Golunibia county was made a separate district, with 
one member. 

1871 
lirockway liad 3332 votes. 

Kobisou had 1467 voles. 

1872 
Brockway liad 3781 votes. 
Creveliiii;- had 2096 votes. 



TTT STORY OF COLUMBTA COUNTY. 210 

1H73 
Brock way had 2652 votes. 
Buckalew John M. had 1021 votes. 

1874 

Under the Constitution of 1S73, and by the act of 10th May, 
187 4, Coliitnbia county was authorized to elect two members. 
The vote was : 

E. J. McHenry, 3014 votes. 

S. P. Ryan, 2!)40 votes. 

John McAnall, 1133 votes. 

Hon S. P. Ryan, died April 12, 1876. 

1876 
E. J. McHenry had 43.55 votes. 
Brown had 4131 votes. 
Smitli had 1085 votes. 
Jcjliii Eggert liad 2014 votes. 

1878 • 
T. J. Vanderslice had 3258 votes. 
Jos. B. Knittle had 3081 votes. 
A. Phillips had 1467 votes. 
W. H. Abbott had 1472 votes. 

1880 
J. 1j. Knittle, JJemocrat, had 4402 votes. 
T. J. Vanderslice, Democrat had 3823 votes. 
G. A. Jiiickingham, Republican, had 2248 votes. 
Eli Barton, Itepublican Greenbacker, had 1152 votes. 
C. M. Blaker, Greenbacker, had 133 votes. 

1882 
William Bryson, Democrat, had 4052 votes. 
Thos. J. Vanderslice, Democrat, had 3004 votes. 
Mahlon Hamlin, Independent Democrat, had 1526 votes. 
E. M. Tewksbury, Democratic Prohibitionist, had 227 votes. 
G. W. Supplee, Republican, had 1748 votes. 
E. B. (luie, Republican, had 1482 votes. 
Eli l^arton, (ireenbackcr, ha<l 256 votes. 



220 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



SEnsr^=^TOi^iua.L. 



By the bill orcctiiig Cohmibia oounty we were put into the 
district coinposod of tho counties of Luzerne, Susquehanna 
and T^nion, witli two Senators, and were then and until the elec- 
tion under the hill of 1815 rei)resented by Thomas Murray, jr_ 
and William Koss. We bore a part in the election of the Sena- 
tors in 1814. 

1814 
Thos. Murray, jr. was elected. 

In 1815 our Senatorial District was made the Nintli, Northum- 
berland, Columbia, ll^nion, Luzerne and Susquehanna, with two 
Senators. 

181G 
(I5ut one Senator elected.) 
Charles Frazer had 2846 votes in district. 
Adam Light had '2''^'c>o votes in district. 
Cornelius Courtright had 1341 votes in district. 
John Baldy had 78 votes in district. 

1818 
Simon Snyder was elected. 

1819 
Special election to fill vacancy occasioned by death of Simon 
Snyder. 

Robert Willett had 1732 votes in district. 
Samuel Hepburn liad 944 votes in district. 

1820 

Redmond Conynghani had 5152 votes in district, and was elec 
ted. 

In 1822 our Senatorial District was made the tenth, Luzerne 
and Columbia, with one Senator. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 221 

1824 
R. Moore, N. Beach. 

Robert Moore was elected. 

1827 
Robert Moore was elected. 

In 1829 the same Senatorial District was continued. 

1830 
Jacob Drumheller wa.s elected. 

1833 
Uzal Hopkins was elected. 

In 1 836 we were made the Ninth Senatorial District, Columbia 
and Schuylkill with one Senator. 

1S37 
Charles Frailcy was elected. 

1840 
Headley, Joseph Brobst. 

Samuel F. Headley was elected. 

In 1 843 we were made the Thirteenth Senatorial District, Col- 
umbia and Luzerne with one Senator. 

1844 
Ross, Beaumont, Davis. 

Columbia 2243 1748 634 

Luzerne 2467 2796 787 

William S. Ross' majority 166. 





1847 




V. Best, 


W. G. Hurley, 


Gideon Frothingham. 


Columbia 2763 


1639 




Luzerne 3126 


1952 


29 



In 18o0 wo comjiosed the Sixteenth Senatorial District, Colum- 
bia, l-,uzerne and Montour with one Senator. 



222 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

1850 
Buckalew V. Best 

Columbia 2201 272 

Luzerne 3642 2379 

Montour 405 1813 

C. R. Buckalew's majority 1784 

1853 



C. K. Buckalew 


E. L. Dana 


Scattering 


Columbia 2403 


670 




Luzerne 3851 


2579 


83 


Montour 433 


1147 





Buckalew's majority, 2208. 

1856 
Geo. P. Steele 
Columbia 2585 

Luzerne • 5276 

Montour 1180 

Steele's majority, 2220. 



Washington Lee 
1242 
4791 

688 



In 1857 we were the Thirteenth Senatorial District, composed 
of the counties of Columbia, Montour, Northumberland and Sny- 
der, with one Senator. 

1857 



Buckalew 
Columbia 2405 
IMontour 1009 

North'land 2807 
Snyder 970 

C. R. Buckalew's majority 4643 
Mr. Buckalew resigned after servinp- one session. 



Keller 
Columbia 1902 
Montour 738 

North'land 2360 
Snyder 1170 



1858 



Bound 

1037 

538 

11 

1022 



Gctulius 

1438 

770 

1626 

1200 



Reuben Keller's majority 1185 



HItiTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 223 

1860 

Keller Bound 

Colunibia 2487 1910 

Montour 1080 1075 

Nortli'hind 2556 2633 

Snyder 1133 1694 

1863 

Montgomery Willetts 

Columbia 3339 1784 

]\[ontour 1459 1096 

North'! and 3383 2585 

Snyder 1328 1755 

D. B. Montgomery's majority 2289. 

In 1864 we were made the Fifteenth District, comprising the 
counties of Columbia, Montour, Northumberland and Sullivan, 
with one Senator. 

1866 

Jackson Frick 

Columbia 3594 1939 
M out our 

North'land 3830 3350 

Sullivan 414 778 

Geo. D. Jackson was elected. 









1869 






v> 


uckalew 


Whitmoyer 


Chalfant 


Columbia 




3445 


1805 


254 


Montour 




247 


937 


1432 


Noi-tiriaml 




3740 


3357 


395 


SiiHi\ an 




758 


394 


12 



Charles K. Buckalew over Whitmoyer 1697. 
" over Chalfant 6097. 

In 1871 we were made tlie Fifteenth Senatorial District com- 
prising the counties of Columbia. Montour, Lycoming and Sulli- 
van with OTie Senator 

1872 

Chalfant Ransom 

Columbia 3878 2003 

Montour 1701 1305 

Lvcoming 4964 4588 

Sullivan 767 394 
Chalfant's majority 3020. 



224 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



Tlie change in tlie Constitution required a change in districting 
the State for Senators, and in 1874 we were made the Twenty 
Fourth District but Avith the same counties, and one Senator. 

1875 





Allen 








Lyon 


C*>himbia 


38G4 








1534 


Lycoming 


r)283 








2919 


Montour 


1422 








898 


Sullivan 


746 


Allen's majority 

1876 
Allen, 


5599. 


Steck. 


365 


Columbia 




4412 




2058 




Montour 




1729 




1184 




Lycoming 




5557 




4667 




Sullivan 




908 




502 
8411 






12606 






jority 


8411 








Allen's ma 


4,195 








1878 








Jackson, 


Beaver, 


Herdic, 


Smith. 




Columbia 


3240 


1271 


1153 


95 




Lycoming 


4855 


3238 


2024 


37 




Montour 


1241 


885 


490 






Sullivan 


718 


336 


333 







10054 5730 4000 132 

Jackson's majority over Beaver, 4,323 and 322 over Beaver 
and Herdic combined. 

1880 
A vacancy having occurred by the death of Senator George D. 
Jackson on November 23, 1879, an election was held with the fol- 
lowing result. 

McTTenry, Andrews. 

Columbia 4637 2139 

Montour 1832 1250 

Lycoming 6386 5013 

Sullivan 1052 685 



13907 
McHenry's majority 4870. 



9037 



Hll^TORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



225 



Columbia 
Montour 
Lycoming 
Sullivan 



1882 
W. W. Hart. 
3958 
1723 
4510 
779 



10,970 









226 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



The district by the bill erecting the county was as follows : — 
"That the said county of Columbia shall form part of the district 
composed of the counties of Northumberland, Union, Lycoming, 
Luzerne, Bradford, Potter, Susquehanna and Tioga for the elec- 
tion of members of Congress. It was the Tenth, with two mem- 
bers. 

1814 

William Wilson \ 

and ^Elected Oct. 11th, 1814. 

Jared Irwin \ 
Mr. Irwin died March 1, 1818. 

1816 
Wm. Wilson had 6106 votes in disti-ict. 
David Scott had 5920 votes in district. 

1817 

Special election to fill vacancy occasioned by David Scott's ac- 
ceptance of office of President Judge of 12th Judicial District. 
John Murray was elected. 

1818 
John Murray had 7423 votes in district. 
Geo. Dennison had 7229 votes in district. 

1820 

Geo. Dennison had 9545 votes in district. 

Wm. Cox Ellis had 6528 votes in district. 

Mr. Dennison died in Wilkes Barre in 1831. 

Mr. Wm. Cox Ellis died in Muncy Nov. 13, 1871 aged 85 years. 

1821 
Special election to fill vacancy occasioned by resignation of 
Wm. Cox Ellis. 

Thomas Murray, jr. was elected. 



HISTOBY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 227 

By the apportionment of 1822 we were put into a disti'ict num- 
bered the Ninth, as follows : The counties of Columbia, Union, 
Northumberland, Luzerne, Susquehanna, Bradford, Lycoming, 
Potter, Tioga and McKean, and elected three members. 

1822 
Wm. Cox Ellis, Samuel McKean and Geoi'ge Kreamer were 
elected. 

1824 
Samuel McKean, George Kreamer and Espy Vanhorn, were elec- 
ted. 

VOTK Ol' COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

George Kreamer, 1307 

Samuel McKean 1358 

Wm. Cox Ellis 1030 

Espy Van Horn 400 

1826 
Es})y Vanhorn, Samuel McKean and George Ki-eamer were 
elected. 

Mr. Kreamer died in L^nion county September 11, 1854. 
Mr. Van Horn died at Williamsport July 25, 1829. 
Mr. McKean died in McKean county June 23, 1840. 

1828 
Philander Stephens had 12,003 votes in district. 
James Ford had 11,163 votes in district. 
Alem Marr had 10,855 votes in district. 
John Murray had 2944 votes in district. 
Geo. M. Hollenback had 1632 votes in district. 
Chauncey Alford had 2583 votes in district. 

1830 
Lewis Dewart, Pliilander Stephens and James Ford were elec- 
ted. 

Mr. Ford died at Lawrenceville in August 1859. 
Mr. Stephens died at Si)ringtield July 8, 1 842. 

In 1832 our congressional district was made the Fifteenth, Col 
iimbia and Luzerne, with one member. 

1832 
Andrew Beaumont was elected. 



228 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

1834. 
Andrew Beaumont was elected. 
He died at Wilkes-Barre, October 30, 1853. 



1836 




David Petriken was elected. 




1838 




David Petriken, 


William G. Hurley. 


Columbia 2146 


1480 


Luzerne 3010 


2463 



Dr. Petriken died at Catawissa, January 3, 1849. 

1840 
B. A. Bidlack, E. W. Sturdevant. 

Cohimbia 2433 1295 

Luzerne 

In 1843 our congressional district was made the Eleventh, 
Columbia, Luzerne and Wyoming, with one member. 

1843 
Benjamin A. Bidlack had 2200 votes in district. 
George F. Willits had 1108 votes in district. 
Mr. Bidlack died Charge d' Affaires at Bogota, in New Gran- 
ada, February 29, 1849. 





1844 






Owen D. Leib 


, Chester Butler, 


George Mack 


Columbia 1773 


1579 




1302 


Luzerne 2952 


2702 




465 


Wyoming 771 


^778 
1846 




10 


Owen D. Leib, 


Chester Butler, 


Gideon Frothingham 


Columbia 1641 


1562 






Luzerne 1191 


2045 




32 


Wyoming 616 


727 







Dr. Leib died at Catawissa June 17, 1848. 



HISTOMY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 229 

1848 

Hendi-ick B. Wright, C. Butler, Samuel P. Collings. 

Columbia 2556 2005 504 

Luzerne 2343 2929 1434 

Wyoming 717 778 280 

2168 



H. M. Fuller. 

932 

2948 

619 





5616 


1850 


5712 




H. B. Wright, 






Columbia 


1589 






Luzerne 


3247 






Wyoming 


848 







Wright's majority 1 1 85. 



1851 

To fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Hon. Chester 
Butler, who died in Philadelphia, October 5, 1850. 

J. Brisbin, E. L. Dana. 



Columbia 


832 


586 


Luzerne 


1427 


1838 


Montour 


724 


408 


Wyoming 


642 

Brisbin's majority 342. 


451 



In 1852 the district was mimbered the twelfth, and was com- 
posed of the counties of Columbia, Luzerne, Montour and Wyo- 
ming. Our representatives under that arrangement were as fol- 
lows: 

1852 

Fuller 

1219 

4102 

1224 

805 

Hendrick B. Wright's majority 173 





Wright 


Columbia 


1776 


Luzerne 


3858 


Montour 


850 


Wyoming 


1039 



230 



HISTORY OF C0Lr3[BIA COUNTY. 



1854 



Columbia 
Lnzenie 
Montom- 
Wyoming 



Wrioht, 

2034 

3549 

794 

710 



Fullor 

1483 

5475 

888 

1269 



Columbia 


2640 


Luzerne 


5509 


Montour 


1035 


Wvoming 


1258 



Henry M. Fuller's majority 2028 
Henry M. Fuller died, December 26th. I860, in Philadelphiju 

1856 
Montyomery Smith 

1234 

4676 

856 

891 

John G. INIontg-omery's majority 2785 
John G. Montgomery died in Danville on tlie 24th day of April 
1857, of the disease contracted at the National Hotel. He had 
not yet taken his seat in Congress. Paul Leidy was elected to till 
the vacancy. 

1857 

Smitli B. Thompson 

1108 

3678 

644 

864 

Paul Leidy 's majority 3532 

1858 

McReynolds Scranton 

1442 1907 

3662 6193 

584 990 

898 933 
Geo. W. Scranton's majority 3837 





Leidy 


Columbia 


2400 


Luzerne 


5170 


Montour 


1056 


Wyoming 


1200 



Columbia 
Luzerne 
Montour 
Wyoming 



1860 
Randall Scranton 

Columbia 2476 1953 

Luzerne 6119 7458 

Montour 1134 1052 

Wyoming 1295 1256 

Geo. W. Scranton's majority 695 
George W. Scranton died March 24, 1861. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



231 



1861 
In June 1861 a special election was held to fill the vacancy left 
by the death of Mr. Scranton. The candidates were both Demo- 
crats. 

IT. B. Wright D. K. Randall 

Colunil)ia 1949 1373 

Luzerne 6059 2211 

Montour 933 393 

Wyoming 1047 763 

H. B. Wright's majority 5248. 

In 1861 a bill was passed putting us in the twelfth district corn- 
composed of the counties of Bradford, Montour, Columbia, Sulli- 
van, Wyoming and all of Northumberland except Lower Mahanoy 
township. But the party in power becoming frightened lest the 
Democrats should carry the district, in 1862 re-arranged the 
apportionment, making the district, the counties of Bradford, 
Wyoming, Sullivan, Montour, and Columbia; under which the 
following was our representation. 

1862 

Tracy Clark 

Columbia 2820 1467 

Bradford 3575 4035 

Moutour 1183 807 

Sullivan 609 281 

Wyoming 1333 1113 
Henry W. Tracy's majority 1817. 

1864 

Piollett Mercur 

Columbia 2905 1449 

Bradford 2618 5798 

Montour 1308 912 

Sullivan 622 319 

Wyoming 1270 1162 
U. Mercur's majority 1001. 

1866 

Elwell Mercur 

Bradford 3185 7078 

Columbia 3644 1907 

Montour 1550 1114 

Sullivan 762 435 

Wyoming 1512 1406 

Ulysses Mercur's majority 1287 



232 



MISTOBY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 







1868 






Piollett 




Mercur 


Bradford 


4019 




7480 


Columbia 


4066 




12070 


Montour 


]684 




1190 


Sullivan 


828 




476 


Wyoming 


1815 




1507 




Mercur' 


s majority 311. 
1870 






Brockway 




Mercur 


Bradford 


3775 




6824 


Columbia 


3464 




1710 


Montour 


1381 




910 


Sullivan 


781 




354 


Wyoming 


1592 




1319 



Mercur's majority 124. 

1872 

Rhodes' Strawbridge 

Bradford 4355 7534 

Columbia 3786 2111 

Montour 1592 1435 

Sullivan . 765 418 

Wyoming 1745 1581 
Strawbridge's majority 836. 

Hon. Ulysses Mercur having been elected to the Supreme Bench 
his seat in Congress became vacant on the first Monday of Decem- 
ber 1872; and a special election was ordered to fill the vacancy 
from the first Monday of December 1872, to the fourth of March 
1873. The election occurred 24th December 1872. 





Piollet 


Bradford 


2260 


Columbia 


1225 


Montour 


406 


Sullivan 


270 


Wyoming 


840 



Bunnell 

3441 

831 

394 

185 

1148 



Bunnell's majority 999. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



233 



In 1878 a bill was passed putting us in the eleventh district 
composed of the counties of Montour, Columbia, Carbon, Monroe, 
Pike, and the townships of Nescopeck, Black Creek, Sugarloaf, 
Butler, Hazel, Foster, Bear creek, Bucks, Roaringbrook, Salem, 
Hollenback, Huntingdon, Fairmount, Springbi-ook, and that part 
of the city of Scranton south of Roaringbrook creek, and east of 
Lackawanna river, and the boroughs of Dunmore, New Columbus, 
Goldsboro, White Haven, Jeddo, and Hazleton. 

1874 





Collins 








Butler 




Columbia 


2964 








1121 




Carbon 


2288 








2158 




Montour 


1464 








925 




Monroe 


2009 








431 




Pike 


1160 








84 




Luzerne 


3052 








1127 






Collins' majority "i 


•091. 










1876 












Collins 








Waller 




Columbia 


1151 








2271 




Montour 


1697 








1202 




Luzerne 


4807 








3039 




Cswbon 


3100 








2842 




Monroe 


3192 








719 




Pike 


1601 

18548 








99 






10172 






< 


Jollins' majo] 


•ity 


8376. 










1878 












Klotz, 


Albright, 




Orvis, 


Brockway 


Columbia 


1083 


1523 




1250 




1950 


Montour 


910 


784 




477 




433 


Carbon 


2051 


2319 




700 




128 


Monroe 


2230 


655 




353 




237 


Pike 


596 


463 




180 




586 


Luzerne 


1293 


1924 




1267 




618 


Lackawanna 18 


448 




739 




689 



Totals 8211 



8116 



5066 



4641 



234 



HIS TOBY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



1880 







Klotz, Scott, 


Montour 




1867 1228 


Columbia 




4500 2120 


Luzerne, par 


t of 


4011 3114 


Lackawanna 


part of 1238 707 


Carbon 




3523 2819 


Monroe 




3326 940 


Pike 




1347 537 




19812 11465 






Klotz's majority 8347. 






1882 






Storm, 


Montour 




1690 


Columbia 




4166 


Luzerne part of 


3615 


Lackawanna 


part 


of 1276 


Carbon 




3093 


Monroe 




2842 


Pike- 




1128 

17810 
John B. Storm's majority 8005 



Robison. 

98 

384 

37 

7 

52 

1 



579 



Smith. 

1178 

1806 ■ 

2698 

501 

2674 

614 

329 



9805 






HIISTOEY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 235 



I^A.TILjTT.^TI'^Z- IRECOI^nD. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



The military record upon which Ave are about to enter has 
given me more trouble than any other portion of this work. The 
desire to have it full and correct, to get the names of all the per- 
sons in the service, to attach them properly with their official 
rank, has required unusual care. And yet I cannot be certain that 
omissions and erroi's have not occurred. In the dire confusion of 
the period an error or omission in the weekly newspaper was 
either not observed, or not thought necessary to be corrected. 
Many of our people, seduced by larger bounties, entered the service 
to the credit of other counties, and for that reason all trace of 
them was lost, or owing in many cases to similarity of names, un- 
certainly recovered. In all such cases I have done my best to 
separate and claim those belonging to our county. And so pa- 
tiently and laboriously the lists of names have been made up. In 
two or three instances my attention has been called to inaccura- 
cies, which have been adjusted. All the works I have examined 
disagree more or less, and in most cases the facts were beyond 
my ascertainment, and I followed what seemed at the time to be 
the most trustworthy authority. Bates' History, of course, was 
the great store house of inforniation. From contemporary publi- 
cations I have given the lists of drafted men of our county, both 
State and Federal, and I feel that in many respects, this chapter 
is unusually full and correct, though it may not be })erfect. 

My design is to put in a cheap, accessible and permanent form 
all the information attainable on the subject, together with all the 
names of our soldiers, so that in every house a record of pati'iotic 
action and gallant service may be had and preserved. 



236 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 
MILITARY RECORD. 



Mr. Lincoln was inaugurated as President of the United States 
March 4, 186L Fort Sumpter in Charleston Harbour was tired 
on April 12th, and on the loth, the President issued a call for 
75,000 men. Calls and orders were subsequently issued under 
date of May 3d, July 22nd, and July 25th, for the aggregate of 
500,000 men. On the 2d of July, 1862, there was a call for 500,- 
000 and on the 4th of August one for 300,000, supposed to be the 
number needed to fill the last preceding call. 

On the 5th of September, 1 862, the Rebels invaded Maryland, 
and a levy en masse in Pennsylvania was called. On the 15th of 
September a large number of "emergency men" left Bloomsburg. 
On the 17th, the battle of Antietara was 'fought. On the 18th, 
the^rebel army evacuated Sharpsburg and recrossed the Potomac. 
On the 22nd, more "emergency men" left Bloomsburg. 

On the 1 5th of June, 1 863, a proclamation was made for the 
militia. On the 15th of October there was a call for 300,000 men; 
and on the 1st of February 1864, the President ordered a draft 
for 500,000 to be made on the 10th of March. On the 14th of 
March there was a call for 200,000 men ; on the 18th of July one 
for 500,000, and on the 19th of December for 300,000. 

Besides these, there was a lot of "Ninety Days Militia," and 
other irregular musters, all of which will be found under the prop- 
er head or section, in this chapter. 

These various calls were filled by enlistments, volunteering and 
drafts. We have made diligent and careful examination amongst 



HLSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 237 

all sources of information accessible, and have given, we believe 
the name of eveiy man mustered into the service from Columbia 
county, and so credited ; together with the Company, Regiment 
and battles in which they were engaged. The same fullness of 
detail in relation to the troops furnished by Montour county will 
be also found in this volume. 

There were four drafts made in Columbia county — one by the 
State authorities for tlie militia ; one on September 17th, 1863, to 
fill previous calls ; one on the 3rd of June, 1864, and one on 
the 14th of April, KSGo. 

Gen. Lee having surrendered April 9th, these last were releas- 
ed. The last battle of the war was fought May 12, 1865, and the 
surrender of Kirby Smith, the last army organization, was on the 
26th of May. 

During the war there were for Pennsylvania two grand emer- 
gencies. The first in September, 1862, which Avas relieved by 
McClellan's victory at Antietam. At that time Sept. 11th, Gov- 
ernor Curtin called for 50,000 men, and Columbia county re. 
sponded by sending four companies, and Montour by two com- 
panies. The second emergency was in June 1863, on the 15th of 
which month the President called for 100,000 men. Of the num- 
ber required, Columbia county sent five companies and Montour 
two. 

Many citizens of Columbia count)', owing to larger local boun- 
ties, entered into organizations outside the county. Some of them 
I have been able to follow; doubtless however there are a number 
whose names and fate I have not discovered. Among the com- 
panies mustered originally in our county, there were quite possibly, 
infilling up the depletions of battle and sickness, some new recruits 
from other counties, though in nearly all cnses officers detailed for 
the pin-i)ose came back here to fill the ranks with the neighbors 
and frien<ls of the fallen or disabled heroes. 

During the war, as is well known, great complaint was made 
that we, in Columbia county and in the Congressional district, had 
been unfairly dealt with by the enrolling officers. Strenuous efforts 
were made to have the number of enrolled men corrected. Little 
or no heed, was paid to our complaints. After great trouble a re- 
vised enrollment was obtained and the justice of representations 
was manifested. 



238 JUS 70 in' OF C0ZZ'3iniA COUNTY. 

Envollinont in 13th District 31 Dec, IHO-t 1 1,280 

r ruler 300,000 call. Quota 2,301 

Corrected enroll luent 4,003 

Quota sliould be 825 

So that tlie AVar Depart iiu'ut was at tempt inu" to (h-a\v from tlie 
district nearly three times as many men as we were honestly 
obliged to furnish. But there was neither redress nor abatenuMit 
— neither credit for the overplus already sent into the field, nor 
a reduction of the nund)er to be furnished, when the egregious 
outrage was certified to them. We stood powerless under military 
rule, and were only save(l from still furtluT injustice by the action 
of our Senator and Represent at ive in t\)ngress. For the past 
there was no redress, but in "An Act to amend the sevi'ral acts 
enrolling ami calling out the National forces," JNIr. l>uckalew in- 
troduced the following as the 13th Section: 

"That where any revised etn-ollnient in any Congressional or 
draft district, has been obtained or made prior to any actual draw- 
ing of names from the enrollment lists, the quota of such district 
may be adjusted and apportioned to such revised enrollment, in- 
stead of being applied to or based up(n> the enrollment as it may 
have stood before revision." 

But notwithstanding the correcticm of the enrolbnent, and in 
8j»ite of the Act of Congress, the War Department refused to do 
us justice, and drafted from the district one third more men than 
they were entitled to call. 'I'he following letter from lion. Mr 
Tracy will explain the action : 

Wasuinijton, D. C, March 15, 1865. 

John G. Fukezk, Esq — Dear Sir: The Provost Marshal Gen- 
eral of tlie U. S., after sending up an agent to investigate the en- 
rollment in our district, and receiving his report, has removed 
Capt. Manville, the Provost Marshal, and has ordered the draft to 
proceed upon the basis of an enrollment of (5,000 ; which is a re- 
duction of nearly one halt' from the enrt)llment before any adjust- 
ment, and must materially reduce our (piota. 

I am yours trulv, 

H. W. Traoy 

In the draft lists which we propose to print, many errors, dup- 
licates, ami names of men then dead will be found. But for all 
these we were required to furnish our quota; for the young and 
the old the maimed and the dead, Columbia county was held to 
answer. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 239 



ENROIJ-MENT OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



We give two lists of enrollmentH. They give us the military 
strength of the county at the date they were taken. But they 
are V)oth subject to the corrections mentioned above. They are 
both in 1862 — one including minors and the other not. They 
constituted the basis of all our quotas and drafts : our quota in 
September, 1862, was 1447, of which we had in service 595. 

IN SKRVKJE. 

87 
31 
12 

7 
21 
25 
93 
45 
21 
18 
30 
21 

5 
42 

9 

2 
13 
15 

2 
34 
10 
11 
62 
11 

Total 4587 626 



TowNsuirs. 


KNnOIJ.KO 


Bloom 


451 


liorough Berwick 


117 


Briarcreek 


221 


Beaver 


161 


Benton 


166 


Centre 


254 


Catawissa 


257 


Conyngham 


361 


Frankliji 


111 


Fishingcreek 


258 


Greenwood 


262 


Hemlock 


184 


Jackson 


80 


Locust 


275 


Madison 


175 


Montour 


87 


Main 


107 


Mount Pleasant 


123 


MitHin 


168 


Orange 


161 


Pine 


115 


Roaringcreek 


67 


Scott 


285 


Sugarloaf 


141 



240 IllSTOliY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



> 






»! 



S S ^ w; f^ 

TOWNSHIPS. S G O / ^ S? ^ 

5 £ ^ HO a 3 

o S !^ • '^ ^ 

w 2 5 « G 



Klooiu 366 l.SS 91 47 

Uorwick 101 30 24 13 

Hriaivroek 174 0() 12 "54 

Hoavor 150 06 7 H) 

Hoiiton 148 24 21 33 

Conyughmu 318 120 30 30 

Coutro 214 SI 25 56 

Catawissa 208 7!) 66 13 

Franklin 78 30 22 S 

Fishingorook 215 81 17 64 

Groonwood 210 83 31 52 

llomlook 145 54 20 31 

Jaokson 60 21 5 16 

Loc-ust 226 87 44 43 

]\h>ntour 77 28 4 24 

Mt. rioasnnt 108 41 15 26 

Main 87 33 13 20 

MilHin 147 54 1 53 

Madison 164 ^^2 10 52 

Oranoo 124 46 34 12 

Pine^ 95 36 17 19 

Roaringcreek 52 20 15 5 

Soott 244 92 71 31 

Sugarloaf 129 48 10 38 

4844 1447 595 852 



IIIsrOIiY <>I^ COLUM/ifA (JOUNTY. 241 



CONSCIKNTIOIIH HCIUIl'I.E KXK.MI'T.S. 



Tlic naincH of tlioHo pcrHonH who wore exempt from the perfor- 
mance of military <liity hoeaiiH*' of rtoiisoioitioiiH scniphiM were 
furriiHhed l)V tli(; (liflVrciil, hoartls. Ours were the following: 
Parvin iMasterH, .Josiah H(?a<;o(;k, FraticlH Eves, 
Elli-; KveH, Aaron Kester, C W. Kves, 
Buth.-r Ivlj^ar, Algernon S. KcHter, Lemuel OarriHon, 
Daviil Masters, Wm. fSehechterly, S. il. J>on^Khore, 
K. S. Tinjj^lcy, Hiram K(!Hter, \'>. V. Kci^liard, 
B. !•'. Kest(!r, .John Milh-r, -^ Jacoh Kcstcr, 
Philip Oeasy, J. VV. Kcstcr, T>afayc1t(' ("reaHy, 
FranciH P^ves, .John W. Hai^fMihueh, Kzra EveH, 
H. L. (it^arhart, Moi-ris Masters, Isaat; lleacock, 
Shadraeit Eves, Jesse Ileaeocjk, Wm. ileese, 
George Eves 






STAI KMKN r 0|- NIMIIKK OI VOM NTKKKS CAI.I.KI* lUOM KACII STATE. 

''i''hc Secretary of War, in (;ompIianee witli a resolution of the 
House of liepresentatives, has furnisyied a statement of the num- 
ber <jf volunteers (lalled for V)y the Presirlent at various periods. 

The first call was April 15,1801 for 75,000; calls of May and July 
1801, for 500,000: call of July 2, 1802 for 500,000 ; call of August 
4, 1802, for :iOO,000; calls of Oct. 15, 1803, and Feb. 1804, for 
500,000 ; call of March 14, 1804, for 200,000 ; call of July 18, 1804, 
for 500,000; call of December 19, 1804, for 300,000 ; namely: 



HTATKS A 


<;«;iiix;atk 


Ac.cnv.c.xTK lUAncvA) to the 

TIIUKK V'KAUS' STANOAUO. 


Maine 


71,745 


56,595 


New Hampshire 


34,005 


30,827 


Vermont 


35,240 


29,052 


Massachusetts 


151,785 


123,844 


Kliode Tslanrl 


2.;,711 


17,878 


Coune(;ticut 


57,270 


50,514 


New York 


455.508 


380,980 


New Jersey 


70,51 1 


55,785 


Pennsylvania 


300,326 


207,558 


Delaware 


13,051 


10,303 


Maryland 


49,730 


40,692 


West Virginia 


30,003 


27,653 


District of Columbi 


a 10,872 


11,500 



242 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



STATES 


AC.GUIX.ATE 


AtUiUKC! 


VTE KEDIX'KI) TO T 






TIIUEE 


years' STANDARD 


Ohio 


317,183 




289,97() 


liuliiina 


195,147 




152,288 


Illinois 


258,217 




212,694 


Mit'hi<x:ui 


90,119 




80,865 


Wisconsin 


9()J18 




78,985 


Minnesota 


25,084 




19,675 


Iowa 


75,860 




68,182 


Missouri 


108,778 




86,192 


Kentucky 


78,540 




70,848 


Kansas 


20,097 




18,654 



Total 2,658,062 2,129,041 

These short nionioranda will sutlicc to \n\{ the reader in |»osses- 

sion of all the facts tiecessary to connect our lot'al history with 

the irreat evcTits of the war. 



KMK.RGENCn" MBN 1862. 



The second battle of Bull Iluu was fought under (un. John 
Pope, August 30, 1862, and the enemy immediately after tlieir 
victory began moving towards Pennsylvania. On the 4th of Sep- 
tember Gov. Curtin issued a proclamation calling on tlie ]»eople 
to prepare for defense. The rebel army was in Maryland by the 
10th, and McClellan was called upon by the President, to head 
our shattered and discomtited troops. He met the enemy at South 
Mountain on the 14th of September, and drove him ba^-k through 
its passes; and following on, on the 16th and 17th fought the de- 
cisive battle of Antietam, which saved the State from invasit)n and 
bloodshed. In the meantime however, to prevent the threatened 
incursion, the militia of the State tui'ned mit en masftc and on the 
17th of September, there were under arms and moving toward the 
Southern border, about 50,000 men. Gen. McClelhin thanked 
Gov. Curtin for his promptness in giving tlie moral supj)ort of the 
State to the Army of the Potomac in the great crisis. In this 
emergency Columbia county sent three companies and Montour 
county two, a fourth going from Columbia county on the 22nd 
of September. 



HISTORY OF (JOLTJMBIA COUNTY. 



243 



THIUTEENTl I UKf J I M KNT. 



Or^.ani/('<l September 12-17, lHf;2 — Discharged September 25- 
20, 1802. 

Field and fitaff: ('oloncl, .lumcH Jolirmon ; Lt. Col., .John F. 
MeariH ; Major, Samuel II. Newman; Adjt., James W. Chemberlin; 
Quartermaster, I. W. McK<-lvy; Surfj^eoii, Williuni M. It(?ber; 
Asst. Surgeon, Frederick W. Vandorsloot ; (/liaidain, Benj. G. 
Welsh ; Sergt. Major B. S. Powers ; (2uartHrmaster Sergt. L. F. 
Fuller; Commissary Sergt., Benjamin Mussleman ; Hospital Stew- 
ard, Benjamin Pursell. 

Company A. — Ca})tain, Jolui A. Winner; Ist. Lieutenant, W. A. 
M. Grier; 2d Lt.. Jno. (?. Fcrrine; Sergeants, John G. Hammer 
Simon Lyon, Klias Kneir, Thomas C. Ilullihen, Wm. Piii-sell i Cor- 
])orals, Robert Adams, jr., Wm. J. l{:uiis< y, I'>. K. Vastine, John 
W. "^J'liatcher, Cieorge Irwin, Saniiicj Earp, Jolm Weikheiser, Sam- 
uel Ilarmari ; Musician, John II. Hunt. 

I'KIVATKS. 

W. W. Hayes 
Peter Baldy jr. 
Wtii. II. Jenkins 
Wm. 11. Crcarliart, 



John Adams 
Ilezekiah Ilolbert 
Andrew II. Best 
Hervey J. Kase, 



Daniel H. B. l^rower, Charles II. GibVw, 
WilV)ur (t. Brower, Frank Gibbs. 
Sam'l L. But terworth, Samuel M. GriHiii, 
William Bryant, Isaac X. Grier, 

Nelson Carr, Herbert (Jaskins, 

Robert M. Cathcart, Michel Ilaiipt, 
James M. Criswell, Lamar Ilahn, 
Charles W. Childs, Henry Walton, 
Willianv H. (\>ol, William Wand, 
William Cummings, Samuel Ware, 
Stephen Cuthbert, Samuel VVelliver, 



Wm. Dean, 
Wm. Dent, 
Wesley Deshay, 
Jos A. Doran, 
Christian Ernst, 
Edward Evans, 



Peter Werklieiser, 



Charles S. Baker 
Bichai'd Jenkins 
Peter F. Bourgenot 
Wm. McLain, 
Moses Netter, 
"^riieodorc! Palmer, 
West Perry, 
Isaac Pursel 
lieuV»en S. Reild, 
Aaron I). Uockafeller, 
A. M. Russel, 
Warren liidgeway, 
John C. Shaver, 
Joseph Sechler jr. 
Henry C. Snyder, 
(^yrus F. Styers, 



Duncan C. Ilartman, Lewis Tittle, 

Charles Kaufman, Samuel Y. Thompson, 

Alfred Kneas, Ste})hen C. Vansant, 

Fred Kreps, Jolm L. Vastine, 

Henry Koclier, Thomas J. Vastine, 



244 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



Josiah Frantz, 
Sara'l B. Flick, 
Evan Fisher jr. 
Alex. M. Gearhart, 
Edmund Gearhart, 
Samuel J. Pardee, 



Charles Liraberger, 
Samuel Lyon, 
Wm. C. Lyon, 
John V. Martin, 
Franklin Miller, 
Geo. B. O'Conner, 



William E. Walton, 
Reuben Werkheiser, 
Samuel Werkheiser, 
B. C. Welsh, chaplain, 
Josiah Wolf, 
Robert Wilson, 



-From Montour county. 



Company B. — Captain, William S. Potts ; 1st Lieutenant, 
Nicholas D. Harmau ; 2d Lieutenant, Mahlon Hamlin ; Sergeants, 
Geo. S. Gilbert, Lewis Hayhurst, Albert Schmick, Samuel B. 
Dieraer; Corporals, Nelson P. John, George Davis, Clinton W. 
Harder, Theodore Schmick ; Musician, Norman W. Walter. 

PRIVATES. 

John W. P\iller, Valentine Metz, 

John Guinn, Clemon Osman, 

Mayberry G. Hughes,George Reifsnyder, 
Thomas Kartman, Stephen B. Rahn, 
Nelson C. Hartman, Jeremiah Fahringer, 
Marvin T. Hartman, George Roup, 
George R. ILi.y hurst, Charles Strausser, 
Edward Hart, George W. Soult, 

Lewis Kietfer, Joseph Walter, 

Daniel Kostenbader, Alfred Yetter, 

William G. Yetter, 



William Berlinger, 
George W. Clark, 
C. A. Crosthwaite, 
Elijah C. Cleaver, 
John Care, 
William Eyer, 
Brittain A. Fortnei", 
August Frantz, 
Jer. S. Fahringer, 



Amos Fahringer, 

Peter Fenstermacher,William Knittle, 

Lloyd Zarr. 

— From Columbia county. 



Company D. — Captain, Robert F. Clark ; 1st Lieutenant, David 
Lowenberg ; 2d Lieutenant, Charles S. Fowler; Sergeants, Hiram 
W. Thornton, Thomas Winner, Peter Billmeyer, James A. Jami- 
son, Levi L. Tate ; Corporals, Leonard B. Rupert, Thomas J. Bar- 
ton, Elisha B. Beidleman, George W. Edgar, Henry C Barton, 
Fi eas Brown, Thomas W. Edgar, Henry B. Wells ; Musician, 
William H. Abbott. 

PRIVATES. 

Cyrus A. Eilenberger,Henry W. Mellick, 
John L. Evans, John McCormac, 

Robert East, Franklin McBride, 

And. J. Evans, Wm. P. McBride, 



Philip Angle, 
Eli Barton, 
D. A. Beckley, 
William Bahme, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



245 



Benj. F. Bi'ooks, Robert Fowler, 

James B. Case, C. S. Fisher, 

Watson Case, George Fleckinger, 

John Cadniau, Henry Kesty, 
Alfred M. Cad\valader,Peter Kinney, 

James Carr, Richard B. Menagh, 

Ebenezer S. Case, Philip S. Mover, 

Geo. Carey, Cyi-iis Miller, 

E. Rodman Drinker, George Moyer, 



Clinton Mellick, 

James Plill, 

Henry J. Hess, 

Peter Jacoby, 

W. H. Jacoby, 

Uriah Johnson, 

Wm. Kramer, 

Hiram Reese, 

Leonard V>. Shipman, Wesley Wirt, 

Henry Shiptou, Daniel A. Walter, 

Albert Hendershott, Joseph L. Shannon, Amos Wanich, 
W illiam Hagenbuch, Bernard Stohner, Wilson Wanich, 
John G. Wooley. 

— From Colnmbia county. 



Fred'k. C. Ever, 
John Fry, 
Geo. Frederick, 
John F. Fox, 
Miles Fry, 
Henry C. Grotz, 
Geo. W, Garrison, 
Geo. Green, 
George Hughes, 
John Hummel, 



Kester McMichael, 
Foster McCoy, 
Chas. H. Noll, 
John Penman, 
Peter S. Rishel, 
James Rodgers, 
Eli Roup, 
Lewis A. Rank, 
John Risewick, 
George Ruckle. 
Henry I. Slater, 
John Shaffer, 
W. H. Shuman, 
Matthias Shaffer, 
Joseph Townsend, 
David P. Thomas, 
B. H. Vannata, 



Company K. — Captain, William Young; 1st Lieutenant, Al 
fred Melon : 2d Lieutenant, Alfred Patton ; Sergeants, Morrison 
B. Munson, A. Jerome Harder, Geo. W. Ramsey, Alex Hofner ; 
Corporals, Alfred Yarricks, Hugh P. Liphart, Lewis Byerly, Wm. 
Miller; Musician, Beverly W. Mussleman (promoted to Com- 
Sergt), John Geist. 

PRIVATES. 

John W. Krebs, 
Samuel Kelly, 
James Best, 
Victor Lotier, 
C. W. Bodine, 
David W. Moore, 
Murtin Cornelison, 
Wm. P. Pursel, 



Oaklej- V. Amerman, 
David James, 
George Lunger, 
W. H. Beyerly, 
Samuel Moore, 
John Bedow 
Franklin Myers, 
John Dean, 



Samuel Amerman, 
John C. Alexander, 
W. H. Leighow, 
Sylvester Blockridge, 
C. D. Millard, 
Jos. H. Cauipbell, 
James Martz, 
Leonard Dinunick, 



246 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



John T. Patton, 
Wm. D. Everhart, 
Francis Rockafeller, 
J. S. Hall, 
William Treas, 



Joseph E. Dougherty, Lewis Rodinhefer, 
Wm. Riffle, C. C. Herr, 

John Hale, David M. Springer, 

Geo. L. Sanders, W. W. PTorner, 

Duncan W. Heller, Geo. W. Watts, 
James M. Aramerman. 



— From Montour county. 



On the same time and occasion the additional men from Colum- 
bia county were organized, and attached to the twenty-first regi- 
ment and became 

Company G. — Captain, Hiram R. Kline ; 1st Lieutenant, Jacob 
D. Mellick ; 2d Lieutenant, Charles W. Forrester ; Sergeants, Wm- 
M. Ent, Wni. G. Thomas, Jacob N. Harman, Abraham M. White, 
Wm. H. Stackhouse ; Corporals, Elisha C. Ager, James M. War- 
din, Thomas Williams, Wesley W. Sutliff, Charles F. Suit, BiL 
lington Ruckle, Wm. C. Barnes, Samuel H. Smith ; Musicians, 
John M. Snyder, John F. Harman. 

PRIVATKS. 

Samuel Achenbach, Richard M. Johnson, John Roup, 
Cyrus B. Apjjleman, Samuel M. Keeler, Clemuel Ruckle 
John S. Bachmau, Jeremiah B. Kisner, James R. Ruch, 

Benj. F. Kline, John Sarley, 

Sanderson Lazarus, Joseph Sanborn, 

John Leonard, 

Benj. F. Lunger, 

Wm. R. Mather, 

Hiram S. Marr, 



Samuel L. Bettle, 
Darius Buscoder, 

(Benscoter) 
Daniel Boise, 
John Bredbender, 
Bergen A. Browe, 
Henry C. Conner, 
Lewis Crawford, 
John Edgar, 
Wm. J. Eves, 



Nathan B. Santee, 
Adam A. Schuyler, 
Jeremiah S. Seesholtz, 
Chas. Stackhouse, 



Samuel Montgomery,John M. Stackhouse, 
Jeremiah H. Mears, Samuel Shoemaker, 



Fred Muffley, 
Benj. F. Pursel, 



Wm. Fenstermacher, Llewellyn Prosser, 



Wm. Fisher, 

M. B. Hughes, 

Benj. F. Jacoby, 

Mason C. Johnson, 

Wesley Zaner. 

— From Columbia county 



Jeremiah B. Rice, 
Wm. Remley, 



Albert Searles, 
Milton M. Traugh, 
Wm. Warrick 

(Wanick) 
Silas E. Walton, 



Geo. W. Rittenhouse,Charles R. Woodin, 
Hartley N. Ror, Samuel K. White, 



HISTORY 01 COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



247 



COLUMBIA COUNTY KESERVES. 

This company of "Emergency Men," left Bloomsburg on the 
22d of Seittember 1862. I have not been able to find that they 
were ever mustered into the service, or placed in any regiment. 
Dr. P. John, Capt. Achd Patterson, T. McD Price, 

I. McKamey, 1 Lieut. Samuel Musgrave, 
S. J. Pealer, 2 Lieut. C. O'Brien, 
M. C. Vance, 1 Sergt.D. J. Patterson, 
M. C. McCollum,2 Ser.C. L Krickbaum, 

Jesse B. Hayman, 3 SWm. H. Krickbaum, H. N. Ammerman, 
R. S. Rich, 4 Sergt. C. Bittenbender, Ira Hess, 

E. M. Wardin, 1 Corp.Ira Doty, 

F. P. Masters, 2 Corp.E. P. McCollum, 
D. W. Bangs, 3 Corp.J. B. Lutz, 



Alfred Creveling, 
Sylvester Pursel, 
Thos. Hughes, 
A. P. Ale, 



H. W. Gilbert, 
W. J. Robbins, 
E. B. Brower, 
J. L. Parker, 
J. C. Redline, 
W. W. Clayton, 
Josiah Heacock, 
A. A. Harvey, 
Henry Kicli, 
Solomon Lewis, 
P. F. Ashleman, 
John l\eeee, 
David Doty, 
Patrick Dillon, 



John Bellas, 

Wm. Green ley, 

R. R. Pealer, 

Jesse Shoemaker, 

Elisha C. Barton, 

John C. Patterson, 

N. B. Reece, 

Elias Hicks, 

Alfred Johnson, 

J. J. Brower, 

J. E. Sands, 

T. J. Thornton, 

L. T. Sharpless, 

W. T. Andrews, 
o 



Benj. W. Hess, 
Michael Wenner, 
A. Crawford, 
Thomas Hill, 
John Hoffer, 
E. P. Bender, 
W. W. Eveland, 
J. Depue, 
Wm. Henry, 
Samuel Achenbach, 
Silas Conner, 
Andrew Parks, 
Samuel Farver, 
Wesley Eveland, 
J. Fleckenstine, 
Benj. F. Hicks, 



EMERGENCY MEN 1863. 



The emergency of 1862 ended with the defeat of the rebels by 
McClellan at Antietam in September, 1862. But in December 
1862 our troops were beaten at Fredericksburg under Burnsides ; 
and in May, 1863, still more disastrously under Hooker, at Chan- 
cellorsville ; and in the month of June, 1863 the rebels prepared 
to rei)eat their invasion of Pennsylvania. On the loth of June a 
rebel brigade entered Cliambersburg, and other forces followed. 
On the 12th of June Gov. Curtin had issued his proclamation, and 



248 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



by tlu' ITtli a largo force of men was encaiiiped in and around 
irarrisburg. From that date to tlie last of the month, there was a 
nuistering of forces and a gathering of troops and material on 
both sides, and on the first days of July, 1863, the tendency of the 
rebel army was towards Gettysburg. And there on the 1st, 2d 
and .'?d days of July, tlie fierce and contested and much discussed 
battle of Gettysburg was fought. The rebels were beaten, and 
before the middle of the month of Jnly, had recrossed tlu> Poto- 
nxac, and the "emergency" was over, 

In this call for men the following persons went from Ci»lund)ia 
and Montour. They were mustered into service in June and dis- 
charged in August. 

rWKNrY-FIKST UKGIMENT 

Mustered in June ll)-24, 18G3— Discharged July 27-28, 1863. 
Field and Staff — Colonel. James Chamberlin ; Lieut Col. John 
Mci^leery ; Major, Wm. II. Jessup; Adjt., Jacob Mellick ; Quar- 
termaster, Thompson G. Evans ; Surgeon, Geo. Lotz ; Asst. Sur- 
geon, Henry C. Roberts; Sergt. Major, Albert E. Barnes; Quar- 
termaster Sergt. Sanniel H. Orwig ; Conuuissary Sergt. Thonnis 
J. Slei)py; Hospital Steward, Wm. S. Moyer. 

Company C — Captain, Robert F. Clark; 1st Lieutenant, Kd 
C\ Green; 2d Lieutenant, Thos. W^enner; Sergeants, Andrew 
Madison, Isaac McKamey, VV. II. Abbott, Isaiah W. Masteller, 
Isaiah Hagenbuch; Corporals, Emanuel Garrison, Eli Barton, 
(too. K. Green, ITarman M. Johnson, Peter S. llishel, Geo. W. 
Hoffman, Wm. W. McCoUum, John Penman, Musician, Willits C. 
Gearhart. 

riiivvTics. 

Sanniel Harp, 

David Hartman, 

Ira Hess, 

Alvin A. Harvey, 

Josiah Heacock, 



Francis Albertson, 
Geo. W. Andrews, 
Daniel Baker, 
Jos. K. Bogart, 
Sanmel Bogart, 
Isaac S. Brittain, 
Franklin Brocliius, 
Oscar Buckalew, 
Oscar B. Case, 



Iviclnirdson Parker, 
John Peiifer, 
Jolin J. Uisewick, 
IxMij. F. Sterner, 
Wm. Shoemaker, 



Albert F HendershottPeter F. Shoeman, 



Tobias Henry, 
Benj. F. Hicks, 
Samuel Howard, 



Michael Chemberlin, Isaiah I. Jamison, 
Sylvester Crawford, Eleazar Jones, 



Moses Stiff, 
Ilezekiah B. Thomas, 
Josiah Townsend, 
James Turby, 
Charles Trump, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA C0UN7Y. 



249 



Clark Crt'veliiig, 



KiclllU'll ,I(;hllS011, 

SainiK'l Dodge, Eli as I licks, 

Ira Doty, David H. Ivliiie, 

Francis P. Drinker, Eli Kuiikle, 



Wni. P^ilwards, 
John W. Evans, 
John W. P2yer, 
Thos. Fil/-<;('i-ald, 
Ashiir K. Follmcr, 
Elias K Fiiiniaii, 
Chas. li. (ireeii, 
Geo. li. (Jroul, 
Cyrus Criiber, 



Thomas Vamiutta, 
John B. Vaiihoni, 
C. Van Ilernboldt, 
John J. VVa(4onseller, 
Philip C. Whiteiiight, 
Benj. F. Whitenight, 
C. K. Woodin, 
Jacob Wei'kliciscr, 
Hervey B. Walter, 
Nathan Walj), 
Alnion Woodworth, 



Alonzo Lockhart, 

Theodore May, 

James A. Merrill, 

James K. Mills, 

Isaac iNIordan, 

Wm. P. Mc Bride, 

Nels(jn McCaity, 

Matthew McColluni, John Watkins, 

John L. Parker, Jacob Waiiipole, 

— From Columbia county 

Conqyany IL — Captain, Uzal H. Eiit ; 1st Lieutenant, Jos. D. 
Hampton : 2d Lieutenant, Jesse Tate ; Sei-geants, James C. Hink- 
son, John H. Bates, C. H. Smith, Mason B. Hughes, John L Hait- 
inan, Reed R. Vargason ; Corjjorals, Jos. S. Hayraan, Marvin J. 
Kline, Jos. \^. Aiman, Charles MufHey; Musicians, Chas. H. Alla- 
bach, John Fortner. 

rUlVATKS. 

Furguson Eveland, 
James P^oster, 
Theodore Fedder, 
Henry Floyd, 
James J. Fowler, 
Jesse Griswold, 



Geo. \V. Anderson 
W. F. Bodine, 
Geo. K. Bidleman, 
Thos J. Brinton, 
B. H. Ji.ooks, 
Tavlor L. Jiowman 



Jeremiah Comsti^ck, Geo. W. Hayman, 
Wesley Crawford, Hersey Hower, 



Enoch Cadman, 
Lewis C. Crofford, 
Caleb C. Coburn, 
Wm. H. Connor, 



Benj. G. Hess, 
Frederick Hicks, 
Noel B. Lee, 
Thonnis Meredith, 



Redmon<l C. Drunun^Jolin B. Mears, 
William Yantz, Isaac F. Yost, 

— From ColnmV>ia county. 

o 



Isaiah N. Mears, 
Isaac MufHey, 
Joseph Nice, 
Geo. O'Malia, 
Benj. Payden, 
H'^man A. Prentiss, 
Simon D. Pealer, 
Francis A. Pealer, 
Charles N. Shaffer, 
Absalom Tonkin, 
Chas. M. Vanderslice, 
Owen D. Webster, 
Sidney C. Williams, 



IN THK THIUTIKTII RF.UI.MKNT WERE 

Company E. — Captain, Josiah W. Williams ; 1st Lieutenant, 
David Hollingshead; 2d Lieutenant, Wm. J. Brady; Sergeants 



250 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



Charles C. Ixill, 
Zachiiriah Beach, 
Samuel IJiieher, 
John J>reiseh, 



John Davis, 
Wash Dyer, 



Lloyd J. W. B. Fistler, Alvin K. Cleaver, Scott Hite, James B. 
Kostenbader, John Ludwig ; Corporals, Joseph Walter, Geo. W. 
Rett, Allen B. Fortner, Wni. B. Whiteside, JNI. M. llendershott, 
Alex B. Quiini, Henry M. Yocuui, Samuel Beaver. 

rUIVATKS. 

Albert Kisher, Theodore Miner, 

William Gearhart, Gideon B. Mutchler, 

Thonuis E. Plarder, Frederiek Miller, 
(promoted to Sergt.Clemnu)n Osmun, 

Henry Bredbenner, Major June 27, '63) Geo. W. Reifsnyder, 

Wm. Brobst, Isaac Hagerty, Ira Rodarmel, 

Martin V. Briggs, David Hagerty, Marshal S. Rhawn, 

Lorenzo N. Briggs, Alex Ilite, Charles Rhodes, 

Jesse Cleaver, Lionel Hopkins, Jose])h Schlee, 

Wesley (^ooley, Simon Huntsberger, Daniel Shoemaker, 

Jacob Cofenhaver, Jacob Johnson, Josiah VV. Smith, 

Jj. D. Kase, David Stewart, 

Jacob Kitchen, Edward E. Watkins, 
Charles Dougherty, Theodore L. Kramer, James Wartman, 

Lloyd Fahringer, Harvey Laniberton, Daniel Wary, 

Jeremiah Fahringer, Archibald Lewis, M. W Wintersteen, 

Amos Fahringer, George Morgan, John D. Whiteside, 

Abel T. Fincher, Thomas jMalay, Tobias Weaver, 

— From Columbia county. 

o 

XHIRTY-FIl'TH RKGIjMKNT. 

Mustered in July 2, 1863 — Discharged August 7, 1863. 

Fidd and Staff.— Qo\o\\v\, Ileiuy H. INlcKean: Lieutenant Col- 
onel, Edward C. Scheitfelin : Major, Sanniel Knorr; Adjutant, 
Henry H. Roe ; Quartermaster, Hugh Young ; Surgeon, Renssa- 
laer Ottman : Assistant Surgeon, W. W. Webb; Chaplain, Wm. 
H. Dill ; Sergeant, ]Major, Wni. H. Humphries; Quarter JNIaster 
Sergeant, John G. Keeler ; Conmiissary Sergeant, Clark E. Davis; 
Hospital Stewards, Lemuel A. Rdigway, John C Lacy, jr. 

Company H was raised by the personal exertion of our towns- 
man David Lowenberg, Esq., and after they were sworn into the 
service, by a vote of the company they unanimously adopted the 
name of the '*Lowenberg Guards," and were as follows : 

Company H. — Captain, J. Boyd Robison ; 1st Lieutenai,'. John 



ULSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 251 

B. GuiklH; 2d Lieutciiiint, George L. Low; Sergeants, Reuben L. 
Rich, Henry W. ReerH, John F. Decker, Tolnus Hinaid, Parvin 
Eves ; Corporals, Henry J. Robbins, Thomas 13. Miller, John M. 
Sanks, Samuel Musgrave, Francis Knorr, John Edgar, Charles 
Nesbitt, Francis M. Girton. 

I'UIVATK.S. 

Wm. Baker, James H. Ilildebrand, Samuel Rimby, 

Wash IJittenhender, J)avid Ileiser, John C. Richart, 

Henry C-roiii), Alexander Hazlett, Henry Rich, 

John I. Case, Henry J. Johnson, Michael Shoemaker, 

Joseph Davis, Eli M. Knorr, John F. Smith, 

Jasper Deinott, John W. Kennedy, Richard Shannon, 

Francis M. Drum, Al>salom J^ewis, William Shoemaker, 

David Edwai'ds, Jacob K. Latshaw, Thos. E. Sands, 

Michiiel (Jruher, Jonathan Lemon, Daniel Shannon, 

Ad:im Gensil, Jolm Lemon, Edward Stewart, 

Ethen Hampton, Heniy Long, Jacob Stern, 

Allen Harvey, James R. Mills, Josiah Stiles, 

George Heacock, Jeremiah Millard, John Staley, 

John W. Hunter, h'lederick MufHey, ILirmon Smith, 

Enninuel Hill, Abraham W. Monroe, Wm. J. Terode, 

Davi<l K. Hower, J<din Mordan, Amos Whitenight, 

William Hill, Andrew 13. Pines, John G. Wooley, 

(Jeo. Hokendaffer, Harvey Rhoads, John A. Wise, 
— From Columbia county. 



Companij I. — Captain, Wm. A. Barton ; 1st Lieutenant, John 
N. Hughes: 2d Lieutenant, James F. Trum]> ; Sergeants, John F. 
Eck, Orion B. Mcllick, Oscai- B. Millard, John Betz, Tilghman 
Faux ; Corporals, Clark Price, John S. liachmari. Napoleon B. 
Reece, Kimlter C. Ent, Samuel H. Trumj), Robert McTowler ; 
Musicians, Chai-les F. Doan, (Jeoi-ge W. Monroe. 

I'KIVATES. 

Philip Angle, Joseph lierdcott, Wm H. Dill, 

Comfort E. Butler, James ii. Case, Prom(jted to Chaplain 

Priscus K. Boml)<)y, (ieorge \V^. Creveling, July 9, 1H63. 

Alfred (i. Burlingame.Isaac ('reveling, Ge<j. W. E<lgar, 

Charles A Jiooiie, Peter Coons, Thos. W. P2dgar, 

Simon O. Berger, Patrick Dailey, Joseph L. Evans, 

William Briggs, (Jeo. A. Frederick, Charles S. Fowler, 



2r^-2 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



Win. Fenstermacher, Win. ILigenbuch, 
S;nnuel W. Garrison, Daniel ITannuoiul, 



Henry Girton, 
Robert S. Howell, 
Geo. W. Garrison, 
Thomas L. Hess, 
Geo. C. Hnglies, 
Joseph Heckman, 
Isaiah Hall, 
Henry Zeigler, 



Will. II. Jessuj), 
Iveul>en Johns, 
W. H. Kiiouse, 
Win. Lake, 
J ohn S. Lenhart, 
Daniel Mowrey, 
Cyrus B. Miller, 
Charles W. Zaner, 



Samuel McKainey, 
Oscar D. Price, 
(leo. S. Patterson, 
John Pugh, 
Piiilip J. Piles, 
Henry Trembly, 
Thos. B Trowbridge, 
Henry Waiiich, 
Silas E. Walton, 



-From Columbia county. 



F( ) \IV\- V\ RST KK( i IM KXT. 

F'u'hl and Staf. — Colonel, Edward li. Mayer ; Lieutenant Col- 
onel, Alexander J. Frick ; Major, John H. Oliver; Adjutant, 
Stejthen D. Soiile; Quarterniaster, Abtam B. Longaker ; Surgeon, 
Pobert S. Simiiigton ; Assistant Surgeon, Theodore C. V eager; 
Chaphiin, John Thomas ; Sergeant Major, Frank W. Watson; 
(Quartermaster Sergeant, Gould P. Parisli ; Commissary Ser- 
geant, Ivussel A. Thayer, Hospital Steward, Frank Barnes. 

Company E. — Captain, Alexander J. Frick ({>roinoted to Lieu- 
tenant Colonel July 5, 1863), George W. Ileay ; 1st Lieutenant, 
John W. W. Klase ; 2d i.ieutenant, Erastus Hill; Sergeants, Shel- 
don T. Gibbs, Jacob F. Kedtield, John Keim, Samuel G. Quick, 
Will. Henrie ; Cori)orals, E. Dallas Smith, Ogden H. Ostrander, 
Charles Small, John A. Elliott, George Wallace, John J. Roder- 
ick, Alexander M. Russel, William M. Watts; Musicians, Augustus 
Woods, Benjamin J. C^ook. 

PRIVATES. 

Samuel Amermaii, Wm. G. Brower, Win. Evan, 

James M. Amermaii, Elisha W. Conkling, Wm. D. Evans, 
Latimore Amerman, Hawthorne Clare, Wm. P. Edmonds, 
George Auten, Isaac Crewitt, 

Wm. Beckham, jr. Edward Ciithbert, 

John Dodson, 

Joseph A. Doran, 

Wm. Davis, 

Hiram S. Eggert, 

Evan S. Edward, 



Charles S. Baker. 
George Berdaniel, 
John W. Bailey, 
Tlios. Brown, 
Joliii Bunker, 



Moses R. Furman, 
Alvin Fowler, 
Ziba Gerringer, 
Geo. W. Gray, 
Samuel Hays, 
Chas. S. Hinkley, 
Win. H. Hardin, 



HISTORY OF (JOTAJMBIA COUNTY. 



253 



Wm. Hullihcn, 
Wm. R. Hahn, 
Wm. Iloff, 
Win. F. Horner, 
Wellington Howe, 
Evan Jordan, 
Lewis li. Jones, 
H. Wm. Johnson, 
Frank Johnson, 
Samuel Kester, 
Wm. D. Wilson, 
Uriah G. Kust, 
John H. lounger, jr. 
Wm. Leighow, 
John Levers, 



Wm. A. Marr, 
Dewitt C. Millard, 
Mathias Muiray, 
Ednujnd Milner, 
Samuel N. Miller, 
Benj. F. Mayers, 
Wm. Milner, jr. 
Wm. Moyer, 
Daniel Paugh, 
StaiKlish I^hillips, 
Wm. D. Rogers, 
JacoV) H. Ruch, 
John Ivichard, 
Wm. Randall, 
Wm. M. Smith, 



David Litehenthaler, Robert M. Slack, 
Thos. Loudon, John B. Snyder, 

Henry H. Leisenring,Wm. H. Snyder, 
— From Montour county. 

o 



David M. Springer, 
Wm. Shawda, 
Samuel Y. Thom])son, 
Sam'l. M. Trumbower, 
Robert Teple, 
John Thomas, 
(Promoted to Chap- 
lain July 12, 1863) 
Geo. W. Van Gilder, 
Samuel Van kirk, 
Wm. Vought, 
Wm. Williams, 1st, 
Wm. Williams, 2d. 
Robt. G. Williams, 
Burton G. Waples, 
Charles Williams, 
William A. Young, 



FIFTY Tlimi) REGIMENT. 

Company Z>. — Captain, Thomas Chalfant; 1st. Lieutenant, 
Mahlon K. Manley; 2d Lieutenant, John S. Ware; Sergeants, 
Benneville K. Vastine, Samuel Antrim, James H. Burns, Simon 
Vought, John C. ICUis ; Corporals, Geo. D. Butler, James Mc- 
Williams, Wm. Dean, Peter Zeigler, Alexander Share, Samuel M. 
Wuite, Benj. F. Hagenbuch, Daniel Linn. 

PRIVATES. 

Jesse C. Araerman, Patrick Brazil, Matthew Gafny, 

(Promoted to Sergeant James C. Baylor, El wood Garrett, 

Major July 8, 1863) Joseph VL. Campbell, W. H. Gearhart, 
John Amerman, John Carlan, John Gilroy, 

James Ash worth, Martin H. Cuthbert, Matthew Handy, 
Hiram H. Amerman, Stephen Cuthbert, Samuel Herr, 



John Boudman, 
Jacob Byerly, 
Lewis Byerly, 
Jos. Brigham, 
Nicholas Baker, 



Josei)h Coopersmith, John Harvey, 
Michael Callan, Alex. Huntingdon, 

Michael Dalton, Henry Heist, 

Jackson Diehl, Henry Hockey, 

Daniel Fry, David James, 



254 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



P]j>hraiin C Kostor, 
Charles lA'ighow, 
Win. Linn, 
Jos. Ta'vots. 
John L.'twson, 
Engonc Li'nh;ut, 
Conviid Ijoctlniler, 
Michael INIurphy 



Jacob T\riit«'hler, J. Jones Snyder, 

John McCadey, Walter Scott, 

Sylvester McNully, Geo. D. Scott, 



Denis O'Neil, 
David Parks, 
H.irkley Perry, 
Max Pi'rcy, 
John Peifer, 



Peter M. Messenger, Charles Peiffer, 
John Mowrer, Morgan Price, 

Philip Miller, Charles Pedtield, 

Jos. ]\[o\vrer, John Keedi'r, 

— From Montmir connty. 

o 



John Sechler, 
Levi Sechler, 
Caleb Snyder, 
Jacob Straub, 
Matthias IT. Sniitli, 
George Tillson, 
Win. TT. Winter, 
James D. Ware, 
James Younu'. 



THK nUAKlKD MIl.rriA OK COT.UMIUA COUNTY. 



The following is a list of the drafted Militia of each townshiji 
in CVilumbia connty. The townships of Catawissa, Pine and Bor- 
ough of Berwick having fnniishcd their cpiota by vohinteering, 
were exein]>t from draft. 



A. M. Ixnpert, 
James Hen wood, 
Henry S. Arthur, 
M. CAbbott, 
Philip Shoemaker, 
Henry W. Heller, 
John Girton, 
Denison Brink, 
Eli Roup, 
Eli Barton, 
Thos. W. Gunton, 
Henry Bodine, 
Jesse Shoemaker, 
G. W. Correll, 
John Foster, 

W^m. Girton, 
Eckard Smith, 
Wm. Evans, 



Samuel Stead, 
Wm. Edgar, 
Benjamin Bomboy, 
Josc])!) Witts, 



lu.ooM rowN'suir 
Jacob (Jii'st, 
David Evans, 
Isaiah Nuss, 
Samuel Gross, 

Joseph L. Shannon, Samuel Yetter, 
Solomon Smith, Philip S. Moyer, 

Abraham TT. Thomas, Wm. Coleman, 
I'rederick C. P^yer, Samuel McNinch, 
W^n. F. Hagenbuch, Henry Fans, 
John Giest, Wm. IT. Jacoby, 

Jacob Sechler, Thos. J. Barton, 

Andrew MeCabe, Ethan A. Scott, 
Ilobert Edgar. 
Oliver C. Ivahler, 
Wm. E. Sterner, 

HUIARCKKKK TOAATSISHIP 

David Kline, 
Wm. (Mewell, 
Conrad Markle, 



Samuel H. Searles, 
Wellington Reiswick, 
Augustus B. Raub. 



Eli as Yost, 
Emanuel Smith, 
Stephen Michael, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



255 



Isaiah Mel lick, 
John H. Martz, 
(ico. Fowler, 
Silas E. Moyer, 
Ellas Kop]iis, 
Will. Iliitplesteol, 
Ne'li. Kitteiihouse, 
(too. Bovver, 
Jacob WeiKe, 
Morris Hittcnhoiise, 
Samuel K(l<ly, 
Samuel Dieterick, 
Owen Suit, 
I^evi IJiiiard. 

Solomon Slicker, 
Joseph Sinj^ley, 
Fred Hosier, 
John Defiance, 
Henry Miller, 
Levi Fisher. 
Nathan Eruin, 
Jacob Longaberger, 
Amos Yeager, 
Joseph Louden, 
W. M. Herring, 
Nathan Longaberger 
l*hilip Detiance, 
Moses Slicker, 

Philip A. Kline, 
Merice R. Smith, 
Parvin Masters, 
Jolm Swartout, 
W. K. Krickbaum, 
Peter Laubach, 
Jared Gauff, 
Geo. W. Clinger, 
Eli McHenry, 



(4eorge Arty, 
Joseph Blank, 
Henry Laymon, 
Albert Ox, 
Wm. PI. Stahl, 
J. P. Gordiner, 
Jacob R. Mosteller, 
Wm. Lynn, 
James Meean, 
David Shaffer jr., 
.James Sponenberg, 
Augustus B. Clewell, 
Thomas Adams, 

HKAVKli TOWNSIill". 

Frederick I louts, 
Joseph Nabs, 
Henry Swank, 
John Longenberger, 
John Naus 
Wm. Michael, 
Levi McAfee, 
John Delyas, 
M. F. Hosier, 
Isaac Schell, 
Jacob Hoffman, 
,John Mensinger. 
I'atrick Tinch, 

BKN TON Tf)WNSIIIP. 

Peter Ashelman, 
John W. Beishline, 
Russel Shiiltz, 
Joel Keefer, 
Elias Shultz, 
Earl Boston, 
Wheeler Shultz, 



Alex. Bingham, 
Reese M Eck, 
John Ilai'inan, 
Stephen Creasy, 
Madiz Bomboy, 
Roney (Jordetdieizer, 
William Wald, 
Sampson Fold, 
Milton M. Traugh, 
Job Grass ly. 
Miles Maitiney, 
Wm. Bower, 
Jolm Harris, 



David Link, 
J)avid Nabe, 
Reuben Sherman, 
Jonah Johnson, 
Josiah Rittenhouse, 
Samuel Herring, 
Aaron Johnson, jr. 
Michael Moorand, 
Eli Ervin, 
Jacob Bernberger, 
Uriah McAfee, 
Phili)) Moorand, 
John Longaberger, jr. 



Oscar Conner, 
Ilendric W. Bangs, 
Phenias Remley, 
Geo. M. Hartman, 
Hiram Seigfried, 
John J. Karns, 
Peter B. Shultz, 



Philip F. Krickbaum,Nathan B. Tubbs, 
Elias Ash, David S. Laubach, 



256 



III STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



Geo. Snyder, 
Michael Sclmbuly, 
John Grady, 
llobt. Gorrell, 
David Bruens, 
John Hughes, 
Daniel Jones, 
Michael Mulligan, 
John Campbell. 
Patrick (Tologham, 
John McDowell, 
Michael ShuUer, 
Tom Durkin, 
Franklin Shappell, 
Tom Nolle, 
Jacob Shultzj 
Wm. Duefaw, 
H. Warmich, 
Simon Clirist, 
Wm. Anterson, 

John Nnngesser, 
Sanniel Knorr, 
James Wardin, 
Thonnis Fry, 
John Remly, 
Isaac Arewine, 
Fred Nuss. 
Phoe, 



CONYNGIIAir TOAVNSIIU' 

Wm. Bairt, 
E. L. Bitterly, 
Reuben Wasser, 
John J. Wagoner, 
Peter Umlawf, 
Jacob Roderan, 
Dennis Manly, 
Jim Crawford, 
Tom Butler, 
Pat Manehau, 
John Yost, 
Jacob Wagner, 
Henry Zinnnerman, 
Hugh Hart, 
Chas. Sharp, 
Peter Carlely, 
Tom M. Cook, 
Pat Shoshay, 
Timothy Carney, 
Pat Agen, 

CENTRE TOWNSniP. 

Charles Goodman, 
Wm. Kinly, 
Samuel C. Kelchner, 
Henry Sidell, 
Daniel Shaffer, 
James K. Fisher, 
John Miller, 
Samuel Witmoyer, 
Silas Harmon, 



Imanuel Hill, 

Freeman H. Deterick,Theo. McD. Price, 

Tilghani D. Straus, John Stiner, 



Wm. Remly, 
Geo. H. Boone, 
Hiram Hetler, 
Jesse J. Frederick, 
Adam Hill, 



Daniel Dauberd, 
Mordecai M. Hicks, 
Eli as Young, 
Richard Ru{)ert, 
John Workeiser, 



John Bloss, 
James Ryan, 
Andrew Mull, 
Tom McCook, 
Walter Dugal, 
John Wilebrant, 
John IjclHer, 
Owen Gane, 
Pat Wills, 
Joseph \\'^arlem, 
Jacob Oridauf, 
Tom Butler, 
Tom \\'elsh, 
Michael Whittier, 
Frank Warnick, 
Pat Fye, 
Wm. l^ranchitz, 
Dan (Jrum, 
Toni INIeury, 
Ellis V^alentine, 

Josepli Witmeyer, 
Mahlon B. Hicks, 
Michael Hogan, 
Daniel B. Witmoyer, 
George Conner, 
Elisha Hagenbuch, 
Daniel Howei", 
Charles Bornick, 
John C\iw, 
W^m. Durline, 
Samuel Martz, 
Adam W. C. Kelb, 
George Younger, 
Matthew Hogan, 
John Faux, 
Frederick Michael, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



257 



Aaron Nusb, 
Samuel Hilbum, 



Daniel Lowry, Jacob Spenser, 

Nathan Miller, Frederick Hagenbuch 

FISHINGCREEK TOWNSHIP. 



Augustus M. Weaver,Hiram Pealer, 
Daniel Yaple, Joseph C. Ruiiyan, 



Levi Bishline, 
Isaac McHenry, 
William Hess, 
Abraham Kline, 
William Santee, 
George Heath, 
Jo8e})h Thomas, 
Samuel F. Pealer, 
Elisha B. Emery, 
Reuben Savage, 
John M. Buckalew, 
Paul Wolfe, 
Monroe Markle, 
Stephen Dresher, 
William M. Stoker, 

William Miller, 
Christian L. Artly. 

Richard Kitchen, 
Wm. Burgess, 
Abm. Seybert, 
Harrison Deterick, 
Wilson M. Eves, 
Charles Hower, 
Joseph Hayraan, 
Perry D. Blair, 
Samuel McHenry, 
John Lemon, 
Joseph D. Fulmer, 
U. J. Campbell, 
Joseph C. Parker, 
A. B. Brown, 
W. E. Heacock, 



Jeremiah Yaple, 
Jackson Ale, 
Charles F. Kindig, 
John J. AUiger, 
Alias Ash, 
Conrad Hipplesteel, 
Ira D. Kline, 
Hiram Labour, 
Stott McHenry, 



Wm. M. Laudenbach, 
A. P. Unangst, 
Silas McHenry, 
Jacob Farver, 
Hiram McHenry, 
Eli Robbins, 
Wm. Unangst, 
Elias P. Bender, 
John J. Fuller, 
Wm. McGill Woods, 
Reuben Boston, 



William Hagenbuch, George Pealer, 



Christian J. Ash, 
John Dietereck, 
Moses McHenry, 
Washington Bellis, 
Thomas Yaple, 

FRANKLIN TO^VNSIIIP. 

Joseph Beaver, 



Alexander Kramer, 
Marma W. Simonton, 
Alfred ¥. Creveling, 
John McHenry. 



Thomas F. Harder, 



GREENWOOD TOAVNSHIP. 



Wm. Davis, 
George B. Thomas, 
Jacob Ha)Tiian, 
Cornelius Rees, 
Alber Shields, 
David M. Kester, 
Jacob F. Deterick, 
Joseph W. Rees, 
Isaac Kline, 
John Thomas, 
George Ikeler, 
Jackson Shannon, 
Elijah J. Ikeler, 
Wm. Fox, 
Harvey G. Smith, 



Elwood J. Heacock, 
Algernon S. Kester, 
Levi Pilkington, 
John J. Robbins, 
C. W. Kline, 
Joseph S. Kline, 
Virgil Robbins, 
Jos. W. Huntzinger, 
Clinton Robbins, 
Andrew J. Crawford, 
Daniel R. Pursel, 
Philip Knouse, 
Jacob S. Boone, 
Jacob Mussleman, 
Charles Forsythe. 



258 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



Daniel Holder, 
James W. Ecke, 
James Powell, 
Henry Whitenight, 
Ed. G. Smith, 
Wm. Hartman, jr, 
Jacob Miller, 
James D. Piirsel, 
Ludwijj S. Hartman. 

Silas W. McHenry, 
Wm. Young, 
Samuel Hess, 
Martin Getz, 
Hugh Shultz, 
Sanmel F. Hess, 
Elijah Yocum. 

John Beaver, 



IIEMI-OCK TOWNSHIP. 

Levi Wright, 
Amos Townsend, 
John Harman, jr. 
Elias Gigger, 
Charles Sage, 
Michael Whitenight, 
John Miller, 
Joseph Evans, 

JACKSON TOWNSHIP. 

Charles C. Mastellar, 
George Remly, 
Jesse Rhone, 
Andrew J. Derr, 
Joseph F. Derr, 
Calvin Derr, 

LOCUST TOWNSHIP. 

Chas. S. G. Arning, 



Sebastian Kechelries,Dan Bellmon, 



Wright Hughes, 
Peter Beaver, 
Wm. Pifer, 
Dan Longaberger, 
John Erwin, 
Samuel Loan, 
Lewis Rinebold, 
Martin V. B. Kline, 
Nicholas Backer, 
Jackson George, 
Daniel B. Stephens, 
D. K. Lockard. 

Chas Fetser, 
Frank Miller, 
Emanuel Conner, 
Chas. Reader, 
Tom Weaver, 



John Mussleman, 
William P. Jones, 
George L. Shoemaker, 
John C. Miller, 
Eli Ohl, 
John Eyer, 
Henry Shaffer. 
Thomas Russel, 



Stephen McHenry, 
Wilson Albertson, 
Geo. G. Maiming, 
John H. Fritz, 
W. W. Roberts, 
Thos. S. Hess, 



John Krisher, 
Dan Stine, 
Christian Mensch, 
Wm. Beleg, 
Wm. Winn, 
John Swenk, 
Dan Leiby, 
John Mensch, 
Stephen Yohe, 
Emanuel Ashton, 
Henry V. Yeager, 

MONTOUR TOWNSHIP. 

Wm. Low, 
John G. Quick, 
Josiah Edwai-ds, 
Wm Linn, 
Lloyd Paxton, 



Cyrus Shaffer, 
Joshua Womer, 
Chas. Williams, 
Wm. Yeager, 
Israel Whary, 
Chas. Miller, 
Wm. H. Reinbold, 
Wesley Perry, 
Ben Beaver, 
John Mirnen, 
Wm. Roat, 
David Adams, 
Henry Hoffman, 



David Mai-tial, 
James Farnsworth, 
Josiah Brown, 
Jesse Somers, 
Silas Conner, 



IlISTOMY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 



259 



Jackson Leiby, 
James Foster, 
Dan Gigger, jr. 



Wm. P. Shuman, 
Win. Swislior, 



Martin Kline, 
Joseph Decker, 
Michael Ranch, 

MAIN TOWNSHIP. 

David Shuman, 
Lewis F'elger, 
Leniuel Bredbenner, Wm. Longaberger, 



Dan Miller, 
II. W. Brown, 
Gideon Nuss. 



Dan Vanderslice, 
Amos Gru1)er, 
Amos Wanick, 
Sam Hartman, 
Tom Jones, 
Geo. Steinmiller, 
Eri J. Ikeler, 
Aaron K ester, 
David Brees, 



Chas. Fisher, 
Peter Fisher, 
Christian ITarinan, 



Jonathan Fry, 
Caleb Dies, 
Dan Lazarus. 



Benjamin Nuss, 
Abraham Shuman, 
Samuel Dalious, 
Aaron Miller, 
Daniel Harmony, 
Francis Fleminu". 



MOUNT PI.E.VSANT TOWNSHII'. 

Lemuel Shoemaker, Joe R. Vanderslice, 
Henry W. Mellick, Henry Wilkins, 
Andrew Shoemaker, Russel Appleman, 



Sam Piefer, 

Wm. Piatt, 

Sam K. Smith, 

Peter C. Eokrote, 

ReuV)en Frey, 

Wm. Pettit, 

Isaac Lutz, 

Dan H. Iluttenstine, E. W. Kirkondall, 



All)ert Miller, 
Andrew J. Ikeler, 
Henry Mel ick, 
Philip Stroup, 
John Osmun, 
Geo. W. Jacoby, 

MIFFUX TOWNSHir. 

John H. Davis, 

Plnlip Stuly, jr. 
Jacob Fox, 
Reuben Hons, 
Geo. Mowery, 
Stephen Hetler, 
Aaron Hess, 



Isaac Andrews, 
J. J. Hess, 
Sam Micliael. 
Tom Aten, 
John Creasy, 
Sam Andrews, 
Joe Frederick, 
John Kirkendall. 



Andrew C. McArty, 
John Mordin, 
John Hippensteel, 
Chas. Shaffer, 
Mathias Kindt, 
John S. Patterson. 



E. D. Kirkendall, 
A. W. Hess, 

Michael B. Hetler, 
David Brown, 
Peter J. Lantz, 
Obediah Swank, 
Henry C. Hooffnagle, 
Kenry Hetler, 
Samuel Lutz, 
John Michael, jr. 



Elias Dererick, 

Geo. Spade, 

H. Schweppenheiser, David Mensch, 

Jonathan Spade, Stephen Dieterick, 

Wm. F. Keller, John R. Yohe, 

J. Zimmerman, Isaac E. Feets, 

Martin Keller, Adam Miller, 



260 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



Robert Fruit, 
S. S. Runyan, 
Daniel Mencal, 
Jacob Kramer, 
Mahleii R. Roads, 
Francis Eves, 
Wm. Wintei'steen, 



MADISON TOWNSHIP. 

Edward Stout, 
Henry Dildine, 
Jacob Girton, 
Charles Johnson, 
Wesley Demott, 
Henry Wagner, 
Parvin Swisher, 



Geo. H. Whitenight, Nelson Welliver, 



John Straupt, 
David Ross, 
O. P. Runyan, 
James Mills, 
Cyrus Demott, 
H. Clay Mills, 
David A. Watson, 
Wm. Masteller, 

Wesley W. Sutliff, 
Win. M. Keeler, 



John W. Girton, 
Daniel S. Bechtel, 
Alexander Carr, 
Thomas Gingles, 
George Runyan, 
Adam Coderman, 
William Graham, 
N. B. Welliver, 

ORANGE TOWNSHIP. 

William Fisher, 
Aaron Patterson, 



S. M. D. Montgomery, Jacob Seigf ried, 

SUGARLOAF TOWNSHIP, 

Michael Bishline, 
Benj. F. Patterson, 



Peter Masteller, 
Alex Hess, 
Gearhart Nuss, 
Franklin Nagle, 
Wm. Cole, 
Shadrach Hess, 
Philip Hess, 
Cornelius Shultz, 
Emanuel Dills, 
Joseph E. Harp, 

Oscar P. Ent, 
Daniel G. Ent, 
Wm. Fausey, 
Theo. Howel, 
Daniel L. Everhart, 
W. H. Shuman, 



John Gates, 
Ezra Stephens, 
Uriah Golder, 
Josiah R. Fritz, 
James Swart, 
James Penington, 
Samuel Hess, 
Robert Montgomery. 

SCOTT TOWNSHIP. 

Samuel Hagenbuch, 
George Heckman, 
Harvey J. Creveling, 
Sylvester J. Fox, 
George Carr, 
F. P. Kelly, 



Samuel Brugler, 
Isaac Whipple, 
Uriah Welliver, 
Richard F. Stout, 
James Kindlen, 
Joel Moser, 
Silas Welliver, 
Samuel S. Lowry, 
John Stetler, 
Michael Haup, 
Nicholas Barber, 
Silas W. Barber, 
Wm. Fairman, 
Felix Ritter, 
John Fruit, 
Geo. H. Welliver. 

Emanuel Johnson, 
B. F. Patterson, 
William Ingold. 

A. J. Fritz, 
James Peterman, 
Jefferson Fritz, 
Newton Harrington, 
George Hess, 
Hiram Fritz, 
John Cole, 
Rodman Betterly, 
Edward Roberts, 



Geo. W. McEwen, 
James K. McMicKel, 

Charles Schug, ^ 
Wm. G. Girton, 
Ebenezer Case 
James Carr, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



261 



Daniel Mordin, 
Hiram S. Marr, 
George Zeigler, 
Wm. E. Shannon, 
John Turner, 
Henry Oman, 



Wm. Master, 
Jacob Clossen, 
Lewis Hess, 
Theo. McDowell, 
Wm. P. Creveling, 
Harvey Jones, 



Wm. Abbott, 
Jacob Hartzel, 
Franklin Slayman, 
Robert S. Ent, 
Valentine Kressler, 
Joseph Crawford. 



DRAFT — SEPTEMBER 17, 1863. 



BEOOM TOWNSHIP- 



The following is a list of the men drafted at Troy, Penn'a., on 
the above date. We give the number of lirst-class enrolled, and 
the number drafted : 

•194. NO. nRAITBD 58. 

Jas. M. Thornton, 
Albert Surles, 
John A. Beach, 
Henry Fornwalt, 
B. H. Vannatta, 
Rudolph H. Ringler, 
Henry Wells, 
Herman Smith, 



Benj. F. Brooks, 
Peter S. Rishel, 
T. J. Mayhew, (col) 
Tobias Henry, 
Miles Fry, 
John Deily, 
Samuel A. Writter, 
H. W. Thornton, 
Chas. A. Moyer, 
Daniel Leacock, 
Jacob F. Fox, 
Samuel Shaffer, 
A. B. Evastnus, 
John Gilroy, 
Wm. Staley, 
Michael M. Snvder, 
Thos. H. Cullen, 



P^rank P. Drinker, 
James Rogers, 
Josiah Ralston, 
Joseph Weaver, 
Wm. W. Keifer, 
John Coleman, 
Jeremiah Cooper, 
Wm. Ritchie, 
Jer. S. F'aliringer, 
Geo. W. Rathbun, 
James Burt, 
Jonathan R. Diram, 
Henry Kesty, 
Jacob Shaffer, 



Wm. Hug'ies, 
John Brobst, 
Harris J. Sheep, 
Geo. W. Gormer, 
Philip C. Whitenight, 
Geo. Mover, 



Isaiah W. McKelvy, Nelson McCarty, 



Abraham Perry, 
Henry J. Krumm, 



Sam'l. S. Miller, (col) Wm. Surles, 
Thos. Hawkins, (col) Jesse C. Tate, 
Robt. C. Fruit. 

MONTOUR TOWNSHIP 51 . 



NO. 



Moses Enley, 
George Linn, 
Evan Davis, 
Richard Francis, 
Andrew P. Koth, 



Jesse Wertman, 
Wesley Fleming, 
Alfred Irwine, 
James Irwine, 
Emanuel Lazarus, 



Wm. Price, 
Isaac Crawford, 
Henry Shipton, 
C. G'Parkley, 

1>RAFTEI) 15. 

John Clarke, 
Noah Mouser, 
Reuben Rouch, 
Edward .Stosser» 
E. L. Spencer, 



262 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 



FISHINGCRKEK TOMTISHir 1 2r). 



Micluiol Wonner, 
Daniel Wenner, 
Wesley Evans, 
Wm. Edgar, 
Mathias Kvanior, 
Silas McHenry. 
Emanuel Edgar, 
George Lazarus, 
John Depo, 
Daniel Golder, 
Hiram Karns, 
H. N. Ammerman, 
Elias M. Laubach, 



Henry Sitler, 
Wm. M. Stoker, 
Samuel Thomas, 
AVm. Santee. 
Klisha Emory, 
Elias S. Stoker, 
Jackson McHenry, 
John Bender, 
Fred Hartman, 
Peter J. Weaver, 
Isaac Lauderbach, 
John J. Fuller, 
Elisha Trimmer. 



NO. nRAFTEI) 38. 

Wilson McMichael, 
Harnian H. I^abor, 
Alexander Yajtle; 
Ezra Chapin, 
Wm. B. Kester, 
Charles Eyer, 
Daniel Pealer, 
Elias Wenner, 
Uriah INIcHenry, 
Wm. Eyer, 
Elisha K. Robbins, 
John Trexler, 



GREENWOOD TOWNSHIP 1 1 2. 



Edwin John, 
John E. Heacock, 
Wm. McEwen, 
Daniel Patterson, 
Alfred Kline, 
Hugh Fairman, 
Wm. Patterson, 
T. M. Potts, 
E. H. Parker, 
Geo. B. Thomas, 
Jackson Robbins, 



Jesse Hayman, 
Paxton Kline, 
Abraham E. Kline, 
John Cromley, 

B. F. Battin," 

C. R. Watts, 
Wm. R. Mather, 
John S. Mather, 
Abm. Seybert, 
Peter H. Girton, 
Hiram Albertson, 



NO. DRAFTED 34. 

John C. Richart, 
Allen Harvey, 
Abm. Driblepiece, 
James Y. Gillespie, 
Thomas Mather, 
Avery G. Smith, 
John Robbins, 
Wm. F McEwen, 
Alfred Heacock, 
J. G. Girton, 
Perry D. Black, 



Henry Humphries. 

riNE TOWNSHIP 47. NO. DRAFTED 14. 

Thomas Young, Ira J. Richart, Philip Hartman, 

Shadrack Eves, Elias Watts, 

Robert Potter, John Fans, 

Thos. Y. Stackhouse, John Johnson, 
v. Wintersteen, Emanuel Bogart. 

BRIARCREEK TOWNSHIP 83. 

Levi Sitler, Peter Bachman, 

Wm. Ringrose, Charles Miller, 

W. Yanderhoven, Wm, Linden. 

Silas E. Lynn, Josiah H. Martz, 

Peter Eckroth, Ira Eaveland, 



Montgomery Cox, 
Elijah Shoemaker, 
Elias Coruelison, 

NO. DRAFTED 2o. 

Emanuel Smith, 
J. 11. Haldebrand, 
Joseph Lamon, 
Gideon Fehnel, 
John Betz, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



263 



Daniel Kelchner, 

Silas E ]Moyev, 
David Shatter, 
Ili'iiry Laiuon. 

John Peifer, 
Martin Hutchison, 
Albert Millard, 
Samuel Snihh, 
Jeremiah Kelkner, 
Reuben House, 
Isaiah Frederici, 
John Wolf, 

MADISON 

Jacob Stouffer, 
R. C. Johnson, 
Morris E. Masters, 
Alfi-ed Pegg, 
Thos. Ball, 
Daniel Welliver, 
John Shetler, 
David N. Welliver, 
David Haines, 

BENTON 

Hiram F. Everett, 
Miner K. Smith, 
Dennison Cole, 
Joel Keitter, 
Russel Karnes, 
Samuel Hartman, 
John W. Kline, 

CENTRE 

John W. Clarke, 
Peter M. Boone, 
Josiah H. Nagle, 
Levi Remly, 
Samuel Neyhard, 
Thos. W. Fry, 
Freeman Sitler, 



Nelsoh Stackhouse, 
Xathan Sitler, 
Henry Melon, 



David Knouse, 
Wm. A. Lynn, 
Levi Shatter, 



rowNsmi' — 81 
Isaac Lutz, 
Charles Kux, 
Albert Brown, 
Suuiuel Michael, 
John H. Davis, 
Harvey Hess, 
Uriah Spade, 
John Michael, 

TowNsiur — 89. 



NO. DRAFTED 24. 

John F. Creasy, 
R. Zimmerman, 
Henry Fulk, 
Adam Smith, 
Wm. Rote, 
John Bond, 
Silas Mensinger, 
Stephen Kirkendall. 

DRAFTED 27. 



Nicholas ¥. Barber, 
Jacob Zeisloft, 
Joseph R. Kisner, 
James Richards, 
Ezra Eves, 
Thos. Jingles, 
John Kramer, 
Russel W. Stout, 
John D. Ellis, 



Geo. W. Whitenight, 
Charles Johnson, 
Cyrus Day, 
Wm. Allen, 
Theo. H. Runyan, 
Wm. S. Lomison, 
Andrew S. Allen, 
Frederick Kramer, 
Jas. W. Eves, (single) 



TOWNSIIII' 68. NO. DRAFTED 2L 

John F. Conner, Josiah H. Kline, 



Elias Mc Henry, 
Abijah Hess, 
Phineas Sitler, 
John Keiffer, 
Peter Ashleman, 
James Conner, 

TOWNSHIP — 89. 

Isaac Grover, 



Samuel P. Krickbaum, 
Thomas S. Smith, 
Caleb O'Bryan, 
Silas Karnes, 
Joel E. Roberts, 
George Poust, 

NO. DRAFTED 27. 

Wesley Hess, 



Charles Kelchner, Hugh Wenner, 
A. C. Hagenbuch, Emanuel Sitler, 
Morris B. Freas, Wm. Deitrich, 

Thos. W. Hagenbuch, J esse Hoffman, 
Daniel Baker, Wm. Hidlay, jr. 

Thos. Cain, Mordecai Millard, 



20 1 JIISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

llonry Sidle, Lyman Croup, .Tolin Noyhani, 

John A. Hill, ,Iohn Do Long, ,l:u'ob W. Lohinan. 

soorr TOWNSHIP — 152. no. DRAtn-En 45. 

Jackson A. Tobias, Klias Mills, Cico. S. Patlorson, 

Goo. W. .Tohnson, Goorgo Hrino, Kobt Ent, 

Daniel A. Creasy, Joseph L. Evans, .lolin W. Shannon, 

Win. G. Girton, Wni. L. C^weling, Thos. JMorodith, 

Philip Anglo, .Tohn Kline; Robert Hatlerst>n, 

Kobert S. Howell, Abn\. M. White, John Turner, 

Harvey Jones, Wesley Crawford, John W. lleiser, 

Patrick Daly, H. G. Creveling, Butler Edgar, 

U/.al II. Enl. KiinberC. Ent, Jolin Miller, 

Jos. H. Vansickle, Geo. F. Unangst, Valentine Kressier, 

Eli Hartnian, Joseph Bucook, Heuben Sitler, 

C^lark Masteller, Nelson S. Tingley, Mason C. Johnson, 

John Hartnian, Kobt. M. C. Fowler, Charles S. Fisher, 

John Wliitenight, John Brown, John A. White, 

James Lees, Lloyd Kressler, Norman S. Pursel, 

l.OOL'ST TOWNSUie 11(5. NO. OKVl'TKO 3o. 

Abraham Koop, Wm. Thomas, Wni. George, 

Wni. (loarhart, Jolin Eveland. Henry K. Bare, 

Keuben Kahringer, John H. Howell, Peter IL lA>ng, 

Jacob Mellick. Francis Kern, Jacob Helwig, 

Go. rge Boyer, Wm. Tyson, Bonneville Wary, 

John Billeg, Jacob L. Artly, Wm. M. K. Wilson, 

Natlian Kostenbader, Wobb Thomas, George Leiby, 

John Oliver, John B. Boup, Samuel Price. 

Amos Yeager, Wm. Helwig, Chas. H. Gable, 

James Brofee, Jonathan Kisliel, Geo. W. Kreisher, 

Alfred Marks, John Holdren, David Helwig, 

Henry H. Koads, Daniel K. Lockard, 

UKRWICK lJOROU(;il — 85. NO. ORAITEO 19. 

Tl\omas Stackhouse, John McINrichaol, Emanuel Frantz, 

Ira A. Coleman, Wm. J. Knorr, Abia Phillips. 

Walter Hinkly. Wm. Kogers, Wm. Kunkle, 

Edward B. Hull. George Thompson, Daniel Keedy, 

Elisha Kisner, Hoin-y L. Freas, Henry Hockman, 

Jeremiah S. Sanders, James A. Pollinger, LowoUyn Prosser, 
Geo. W. Meixell, 



niHTORY OF COLUMBIA COUN'JY. 



JG5 



SUOAKI.OAK TOWNSHIP 47. 



Klijali IIcriiH, 
MathiuH Fritz, 
Samuel IIckh, 
Eli Frit/., 
Frunk MastclUer, 



JortiaFi K. I^'ritz, 
Wrri. MaHtdler, 
Philip IlesH, 
Lowri(! Cole, 
Joliii Diltz. 



NO. I>HAF'rKI> 14. 

Wm. Kit(;li»;n, 
Elias S. Fritz, 
Jefise Herririgton, 
Shadrach HeHH, 



.MOLNT I'I.EASANT TOWN.SrilP — 53. 

Jacob li. Dildino, Martin KlirK;, 



Franklin Mill<;r, 
Jacob Fox, 



NO. OKAITKO 10. 

Micliaf;] Ilock, 
VVosley 1 little, 
B. F. Kester, 



iKaac K. Appleman, Wm. Owrnan, 



Win. JoliiiHon, 



Geo. W. Hock, 
John H. White, 
John C. Morden, 
Tho8. S. Lorow, 
Andrew J. M(;Carty. 

KOAKINOCKEKK TOWN.SHIl' 24. 

H. p. Cherin^ton, John M. Sanks, 
Charles Mensch, John Mowry. 

Isaac I^. Yocuin. 

KRANKMN TOWNSHir 47. NO 

Peter M. Beaver, (Jlinton Sterling, 

Samuel Shuler, Noah Critz, 

Marshal Hendershott,Wm. Teeple, 
Peter S. Ford, Jackson (Jl(;aver, 

Samuel Hoagland, Aaron Loreman. 

.MAIN TOWNHIHI' 34. N(J. 1>KAKTII> 1 ') 



W. W. Kline, 

NO. I>KA1TKI> 7. 

George Kreisher, 
David Gearhart, 

1)UA)T1,0 14. 

Wm. Iluber, 
David Reader, 
Wellington Clark, 
Benj. Zimmerman, 



David S. Brown, Daniel Miller, 

Wm. Kline, Daniol Kline, 

Erastus Shuman, Nathan Knajij), 
Charles Shiiman. 

<;oNYNf;nAM TowNSiiir. — 210. 

David Camp, Lendlin Hart, 

James Madden, Philip Nixon, 

Alexander W. Ilea, Jacob ChamV^ers, 

James (Jleary, Augustus liider, 

William James, Michael Sherlock, 

Martin Laughlin, John I'oe, 



Daniel Mos«'r, 
Patrick Horrity, 
Philip McBhyne, 



Wm. Hoagland, 
David Crisher, 
Richard Phillips, 



.John lintlcr (miner) Robert Lawless, 



Wm. Fisher, 
(ieorge riauster, 
Uriah Berninger, 

UUAITKO 05. 

Tobias Leisar, 
Charles Sharp, 
Wm. Nelly, 
Ference Cave, 
Mahlon Myers, 
Frederick Goble, 
George Clark, 
Uriah Til ley, 
Joseph Crider, 
Augustus Glessner, 



266 



inSTOET OF C0Lir3[BIA COUNTY. 



Michael How, 
Sivuiuel B. Long, 
Moses Snyder, 
John Meinsinger, 
David Evans, 
Henry Eckerling. 
Cliristian Soner, 
John Snyder, 
Patrick Fhmnegan, 



Andrew Mull, 

Wni. l->rennin, 

John Murphy. 

Stephen ]N[ainhew, 

l*atrick Quinn, 

Hugh Hart, 

I'eter Hrenin, 

Thonias Riley, 

Henry Williams, 
Mich C\MnuM\ laborerPatrick Keeling, 
Michael McMulty, Frank Warisicker, 
James Scott, John Fry, 

BEAVER TOWNSHir 100. NO. DRAFTED 33. 

Henry Hoffman, William Berry, John Deats, 

Aaron Dreisbach, Nathiin Erwine, Wasliington Fry, 

Daniel Longenberger,John HaAvk [single] Philip JMumy, 



Henry Fitz, 
Wm. Teffer, 
Janu's l>reninill, 
Thonuis Brennon, 
Wm. Summers, 
Geo. H. Moshier, 
Thos. Cununings, 
Christian Snow, 
John AUvar, 
Peter Hower, 
Absolom Womer. 



Wm. McFee, 

Joseph Singley, 
Henry Swank, 
John Henninger, 
John Hostler, 
Wm. McFee, 
Frank L. Shuman, 
Edward Scliell, 



Franklin Shell, 
Tlnunas Miller, 
James Prescott, 
George Dreisbach, 
David Erwine, 
Aaron Johnson, 
Levi Fraster, 



Daniel Singley, 

Thomas Dande, 

Charles Hotz, 

Henry Hinterliter, 

Josiah Johnson, 

Michael Mumy, 

Thos. Hoft'man, 

Reuben Henninger, Daniel Swank. 

CATAWISSA TCWNSIlll'— 97. NO. DRAFTED 29. 

David Strouse, Wm. Strouse, B. S. Reifsnyder, 

Geo. HoUenback, Lewis Hayhurst, Ephriam Kramer, 

Geo. Briesch, John Martz, Jacob Miller, 

Pinkerton DrumhellerPeter Fenstermacher,John Fit/gerald, 

Easick Kerns, Geo. R. Hayhurst, David Snyder, 

Wm. T. Shuman, Alexander Hide, 

Stephen B. Rahn, Walter Scott, 

Clinton W. Harder, Wm. Claywell, 

Edward G. Hart, Charles Gaumer, 

Daniel Cleywell, Thomas Barry, 

JACKSON TOWNSHIP — 37. NO. DRAFTED IL 

Chas. C. Mausteller, Daniel S. Young, Geo. W. Farver, 
George Getty, Thos. H. Robbins, Geo. Remely, 



Fleming Jacoby, 
Tobias D. Barninger, 
Wm. Richards, 
John H. Butz. 



HIISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



267 



p](l\v!vrfl Roberts, Ben j.- Savage, 
Franklin Hamlin, John Blacker, 

IIIO.MLOCK TOWNSHIP 1 29. 

Jului S. Xeyhart, George Ivy, 



Washington Knouse, 



David Shaffer, 

Henry C. Grotz, 

Ilirani Girton, 

Lafyette Faust, 

Wni. Apitlcnian, 

Michael Wliitenight, Knock P. Evans, 

Joseph Walters, 

Hiram Reese, 

John Appleman, 

Jacob Workheiser, 

Geo. W. Faust, 

OKANGE 

Jasper Kline, 
James B. Hannan, 



NO. DRAFTED 35. 

Hugh F. McBride, 
Emanuel Somers, 
Lewis Hartman, 
Sam. Workheiser, 
Daniel Yocum, 



Ralph Ivy, 

Win. Pursel, 

Amos B. Hartman. 

Boyd Girton, 

Sidney S. Shoemaker,George Hooper, 

Wm. Harris, 
Jackson Leidy, Mathew Tubby, 

Vivian Stephens, Isaac N. Leidy, 
Henry W. Wagner, Jacob Andes, 
Joseph K. McMichaelSanford Shoemaker, 
John C. Folk, 

TOWNSHIP 60. NO. DRAFTED 18. 

David E. Hayman, Thos. F. Schuyler, 
John Beagle, Joseph C. Hughes, 

Monross S. Hayhurst,Samuel A. Sharpless, A. C. Bidleman, 
Alfred H. Kisner, Orville A. McGargle, Robt. G. Paden, 
Franklin Keifer, Joseph A. Henrie, Charles AUabach, 

Thomas Ruckle, David R. Ap})leman, Sidney C Williams, 



DRAFT JUNE 3d, 1864. 



The following is a list of the men drafted at Troy, Penn'a., 
the above date. 



OH 



BLOOM TOWNSHIP — NO. 



E. R. Drinker, 
Oliver C. Kahler, 
John T. Williams, 
Albert F. Yost, 
Andrew M. Rupert, 
Samuel H. Surles, 
James Hen wood, 
Henry Rosenstock, 
Henry S. Arthur, 



DRAFTED 27. 

Thomas McGill, 
David Beers, 
Thomas McCormick, 
George Hassert, 



Lloyd T. Sharpless, 

Peter S. Harman, 

Ransom Hazle, 

Jacob Diehl, 

Ohas. H. HendershottJohn McCormick, 

Douglas Hughes, Oliver Palmer, 

Thomas Downes, Samuel Gehringer, 

Nelson Bruner, Enos Jacoby, 

Michael McCormick, John Coleman. 



268 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



BRIARCREEK TOWNSHIP — NO. DRAFTED 18. 

Wm. M. Klinetob, Neimah Ritteiihouse, William Thomas, 

Josiah Blank, Jacob Biedner, William Tillman, 

Clark Bower, Enes McAffee, Evan D. Adams, 

Eckard Smith, Jacob Fenstermacher,Ephraim Trowbridge, 
Samuel Rinard. 

BENTON TOWNSHIP — NO. DRAFTED 33. 

Thomas Seigfritz, John W. W^eaver, Conrad Miberham, 



Charles Keefer, 
Joel Albertson, 
Robert L. F. Cully, 
John Appleman, 
Henry Shultz, 
Jacob Knouse, 
John Hartman, 
A. Davis, 
George Alten, 
Harmon L. Stine, 



David P. Crossley, 
Edward McHenry, 
John Swartout, 
Daniel Kitchen, 
Charles Dodson, 
Peter Laubach, 
Benjamin Brink, 
Reuben J. Davis, 
Parvin Masters, 
Chester S. Dodson, 



Livingston Rhone, 
Thomas Appleman, 
Elisha Shultz, 
Isaac K. Krickbaura, 
Abraham Harman, 
Thomas Hartinan, 
Elias McHenry, 
Clark Brink, 
William S. Kase, 
Rohr McHenry. 



BEAVER TOWNSHIP NO. DRAFTED, 48. 



Levi Michael, 
Wm. Milton, 
Robert Watson, 
James Gallagher, 
Jacob Hoffman, 
Peter Eckrote, 
Samuel Mungster, 
Conrad Harman, 
Elias Erwine, 
William Michael, 
David Bidleman, 
Patrick Lynch, 
Aaron Johnson, 
David Fry, 
Elijah Miller, 
Wm. Naus, 



Peter Schilcher, 
John Wilson, 
Henry Baker, 
Jacob Lindermuth, 
Peter Shellhammer, 
Samuel Sherman, 
Josiah Johnson, 
John Hunsinger, 
Levi Feoster, 
J. Painter, 
Jacob Eggert, 
John Lonenberger, 
Peter Hawk, 
Reuben Shumaii, 
Gideon Hutisigner, 



Thomas Prescott, 
Daniel Hinderliter, 
Nathan Bredbenner, 
Wm. Wertz, 
Wm. Shuraan, 
Morgan Davis, 
Solomon Hunsigner, 
Joseph Berry, 
Andrew Knittle, 
Amos Yeager, 
Enos Ritten house, 
John Hinterliter, 
Moses Schlicher, 
A. J. Bretts, 
Stephen Lehr No 
Stephen Lehr. 



2, 



Paul Yry, 

HEMLOCK TOWNSHIP — NO. DRAFTED 18. 

Seth Shoemaker, Geo. L. Shoemaker, John P. Guild, 

Thomas A. Lewis, John C. Fox, Geo. W. Whitenight, 

Passeville Folk, John Havtman, Jefferson Reese, 



Hl;STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



269 



John H. Miller, Michael Grover, James T. Estop, 

Joel Folk, Martin Kinney, Isaac Kitchen, 

Abraham Stauffer, Samuel W. Girton, John Robbins. 

JACKSON TOWNSHIP NO. DRAtTED 21. 



Abra. Hidler, 
Ellis Young, 
David Bishline, 
Wm. Kester, 
Gotlieb Wagner, 
Daniel Young, 
Frederick Hees, 

Peter Miner, 
John Morgan, 
Isaac J. Fisher, 
Gera Hower. 
Joseph Thomas, 
Alex. Ernest, 
Bernard Ten f el, 
Calvin Achenbach, 
David Adams, 
Joseph Rhoads, 
Jacob Herner, 
Nicholas Englehart, 
John Yost, 
Jacob Carl, 
Lloyd F. Farringer, 
Jonathan Beaver, 
Wm. Ausnean, 
Sol. Strauser, 
Louis Reinbold. 

MADISON TOWNSmi' NO. DRAFTED 38. 



A. J. Kline, 
Hugh Shultz, 
Henry Wagner, 
Joseph Yorks, 
Michael Kesler, 
Calvin Derr, 
Ezekiel Cole, 

LOCUST TOWNSHIP — NO. 

Peter Kline, 
Geo. W. Yeager jr. 
C. P. Mears, 
Geo. Morgan, 
Chas. C. Eck, 
James J. Campbell, 
Peter Fettenuan, 
Benj. Fetterman, 
Reuben Leiby, 
George Eisenbach, 
Daniel Wary, 
Henry Klein, 
Sara Miller, 
Geo. Resdy, 
Wesley Pony, 
John A. Bitner, 
L. W. B. Fisher, 
Daniel Bilnean, 



Wm. Shoemaker, 
Geo. W. Manning, 
Theo. W. Smith, 
Joseph Derr, 
Elijah Yocum, 
Levi Keeler, 
W. W. Roberts. 

DRAFTED 55. 

Wm. Carl, 
Geo. H. Patterson, 
Michael Stein, 
James Berd, 
W. H. Reinbold, 
Wm. E. Walter, 
John H. Stokes, 
Nathan Kostenbader, 
John Morris, 
Wm. Yeager, 
Christian Small, 
Asa Deily, 
Adam Dimmick, 
Adam M. Johnson, 
John Watkins, 
Stephen Yohe, 
Jacob Stein jr. 
Jos. Sanders. 



Henry Thomas, 
Geo. W. Parmer, 
Isaac Wipple, 
John Haines, 
Robert F. Start, 
Wm. Mosteller, 
Joseph Moist, 



Edward Stuart, 
Joseph C. Smith, 
John Strong, 
Wm. Graham, 
Jackson Biddle, 
Philip Eves, 
George Ohl, 



Wesly Demott, 
Cyrus Demott, 
Thomas Boker, 
Wm. Townsend, 
Cyrus Richard, 
Jacob Straufer, 
David Ross, 



270 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



Daniel Merkle, 
Peter Sniitli, 
Geo. Deinott, 
Jacob Slioemaker, 
Stephen Ellis, 
Felix Hitter, 



Wni. W. Carahani, Wni. Wintersteen, 

Henry Wagner, Amos Cox, 

Cyrus Welliver, Phenias Wilken, 

Josiah Moist, Jacob Kramer, 

Samuel P. Demott, Andrew S. Allen, 
Abm. Swisher, 

CATAWISSA TOWNSHIl' NO. DRAFTED 32. 

Theodore Kreigh, Geo. W. John, Jacob Hoffman, 

Harvey Miller, 
Nathan Creasy, 
David Metz, 
James S. McNinch, 
Wellington Clayton. Wm. Miller, 
Solomon D. Rinard, Thomas Howlin, 
John Getkin, Thomas Hartman, 

Mark B Hughes, Ambrose Sharpless, 
Burton W. Fortner, Wm. ]\[cNeal, 
Jacob Haines, 

NO. DRAFTED 13. 



Edward B. Reed, 
Jacob Martz, 
Wm. H. Hartman, 
Jesse K. Sliarpless, 
Amos Gensil, 
Jacob Breech, 
James Stanley, 
Harvey Geiger, 
John Scott, 
Jacob H. Creasy, 

CENTRE TOWNSlUr 

Chas. Zinmierman, Wm. Durling, 

Shadrack McBride, John Horn, 

George K. Hess, Joseph Conner, 

David K. Sloan, Henry Shaffer, 
Jesse Freas, 

CONYNGHAIM TOWNSlllF NO. DRAFTED 91. 



Henry (Tuinn, 
Wm. J. Broombach, 
John A. Shuman, 
Peter S. Boiber, 



John L. Freas, 
Daniel Rinard, 
Henry Masteller, 
Isaac Arnwine, 



Henry Hechst, 
John Heapenny, 
Bernaixl Kelly, 
Henry INIaidenfort, 
Martin Costello, 
Michael Gloglau, 
Thomas Nixon, 
David Black, 
William Shuman, 
Josej>h B. Knittle, 
Henry Cyrong, 
Joseph Edwins, 
Geo. W. Mitchell 



Patrick Kinney, J. S. Beadle, 

Jinkins Bowem, John Gristol, 

Richard Keley, Elias Stobich, 

Anthony Cosgrove, Michael Zimvet, 



Daniel Lunger, 
Henry Heckman. 
Michael Brinnin, 
John Stall, 
George Womer, 
Thomas Baers, 
John Dolney, 
Thomas Farrel, 
Joseph Brian, 



Anthony Gallagher, 
Patrick Devine, 
(tco. W. Davis, 
Jacob Fisher, 
Frank Smelser, 
Michael Conner, 
Henry Foy, 
Uriah Tilley, 
Frederick Snyder, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA G0UN2Y. 



271 



Lewis Bloss, 
Piilrick Joice, 
Patrick Burke, 
James Scott, 
Abin. Williams, 
Peter Maley, 
John G. Han ley, 
James Monj^le, 
J. M. Finch, 
Thomas Burke, 
Lafayette Fetterman, 
John Stetsler, 
Peter Snow, 
Wm. Lills, 
Elias Barringer, 
Daniel F'etterman, 
Thomas Kilcoll, 
William Branchide, 



John Mull, jr. 
Stei)hen Thomas, 
Moses Morrison, 
James McDonald, 
Tobias Lisar, 
Peter Jiastin, 
Thomas (ik-nner, 
Thomas Collier, 
Michael McCole, 
John Koe, 
James Darrach, 
Jacob Harmaii, 
Daniel Kietter, 
Wm. Snyder, 
George Mastiii, 
Barney McGuire, 
John Fleming, 



Peter Huneloaf, 
Reuben Tilley, 
David Brown, 
John Langan, 
John I lor, 
Peter Huttensteine, 
John Butler, 
Michael Glessner, 
Patrick Demott, 
Moses Long, 
Frank D. Long, 
Peter Brenin, 
Wm. Hoagland, 
John Stuben, 
Anthony Kiley, 
John McDonald, 
Robert Humphrey, 



MOl'NT PLEASANT TOWNSHIP NO. DUAFTKO 36. 

Sanniel Jacoby, James Bittenbender, Joshua Hartzel, 

Isaac K. Appleman, Russel Appleman, Daniel Bonawitz, 
James J. Thomas, Sylvester Crawford, Alexander Rambo, 



Jackson M. Hower, 
Aaron Kister, 
Aaron Fox, 
Mathias Kindt, 
Samuel Marr, 
Emanuel Sitler, 
John B. Crawford, 
Thomas C. Kester, 



John Osman, 
Samuel Harp, 
G. Hartzel, 
Joseph Hildebaum, 
Robert Howell, 
S. R. Bittenbender, 
Alexander Zigler, 
David Stroup, 
Clemuel Shoemaker, 



Josejth Crawford, 

MAIN TOWNSHIP NO. DRAFTKO 18. 



Henry W. Mellick, 
Joseph Gilbert, 
Gabriel Everett, 
Henry Kitchen, 
Alfred Miller, 
Melchia Ruck^l, 
John Hippensteel, 
Robert S. Oman, 
Geo. L. Oman. 



William Ritter, 
William Angel, 
John Wesley, 
N. H. Brown, 
Jacob Bauman, 
Martin Nuss, 



Thomas Quinn, 
Tx)uis Filker, 
David B. Gitting, 
John G. Pifer, 
Solomon Deaiier, 
Francis Flemming, 



Jonas N. John. 
Samuel Schell, 
Franklin Shuraan, 
Reuben Shuman, 
Lewis W. Culp, 
Conrad Bredbender, 



272 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



MONTOUR TOWNSHIP NO. 1»RAFTK1> 6. 

Andrew P. Roth, Eiuanuel Summers, James F. Foster, 
Jackson Leiby, Franklin Miller, Isaac B. Schull. 

MIFFUN TOWNSHir NO. DRAFTKO 3. 

Philip Hess, David Eckrothe, Stephen H. Schwank. 

ORAKGE TOWNSHIP — NO. DRAFTED 39. 

James R. Handiwork, Nelson Crouse, Emanuel Appleman, 

Samuel Trump, Adam A. Schuyler, Abm. A. Kline, 

Jeremiah B. Kisner, John Fislier, 

Righter W. Bowman, (ieo. G. Lott, 

Isaac K Dildine, Charles Brewer, 

S. M. D. Montgomery,Benjamiu Paden, 

John Trumbore. Miles A. Williams, 

Samuel Johnson, Charles Jones, 

Peter Bogart, Henry Bowman, 

Alexander Herring. Aaron R. Patterson, Joseph C. Hughes, 

Archibald Patterson, Geo. W. Rittenhouse,Elwood W. Coleman, 

John M. White, Emanuel Snyder, Marion B. Hughes, 

Taylor Bowman, Charles Allabaoh, Clemuel R. Henrie. 

PINE TOWNSHIP NO. DRAFTED 20. 

Clark Whitmoyer, Wm. Hinney, Richard W. Lyons, 

Wesley Keller, W^m. Thompson, Isaac Sweeny, 

Jacob Gordner, 

Alvin Fowler, 

Montgomery Cox, 



Jeremiah Hess, 

Daniel Shultz, 
Henry Stiner, 
Jonathan Poust, 
McClure Drake, 
Robert B. Rickets, 
Samuel Achenbach, 



John Wintersteon, 
Wm. P. Fans, 
Geo. Crossley, 
Jacob Christian, 
Clemuel McHenry, 

ROARINGCREKK TOWNSHIP 



John Lore, 
Joseph Driblebis, 
Lafayette LTnger, 



Lafayette Applegate, John E. German, 
Pemberton Piatt. 

NO. DRAtTED 14. 



Phenis Thomas, 
Benneville Rhodes, 
Henry Y. Gable, 
John B. W^itner, 
Abraham Beaver, 



Robert S. Hampton, Owen Hoagland, 
Joseph Buck, Martin Wintersteen, 

Joseph Witner, John M. Trump, 

Benj. Levan, Wm. H. Eck, 

Sam'l L. Cherrington. 

FISHINGCREKK TOWNSHIP MO. DRAFTED 34. 

Geo. M. Howell, Joseph Kline, James Campbell, 

Enos Pealer, Peter Bogart, 

John W. Harrison, John Hile, 
Evan E. Bittenbeuder,Frauk Wolf, 
Jacob Kline, Reuben Savage, 



Wm. Hagenbuch, 
Emandus Bender, 
Hiram McHenry, 
Jacob O. Wilson, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 273 

John McHenry, Jiinu'S F Stoker, Samuel Pealer, 

Jjicob Slioeniaker, Abniliam TJiiangst, John F. Hutchison, 

Isaac McIIt'ury, Thomas M. Sutton, Wni. lloycr, 

Auf^ustus W. Weaver, Alexander Yaple, Charles Ash, 

I)avi<l Savai^c, Cah'h O'lirien, Samuel Shive, 

Aiitliony Ilunsinger, Mathias Aj)[)leman, Amos Dresher, 
Amos Savage, 

KXtANIvl,IN TOWNSmr NO. I>RAKrEI> 12. 

Joel Zarr, Jonathan Loreman, Hiram T. llower. 

Miner Ililes, John Loreman, Isaac Richards, 

Silas B. Hartman, John It. Urobst, Daniel Dunn, 

iiichai'd II. Biddle, William Sway/e, Israel Ashton, 

GREKNWOOI) TOVVNSIIII' NO. DK.\I.TKI» 18. 

Valentine (nirnet, Benj. Stackhouse, Francis M. Roe, 

John 1*. SmitI), VV'm. McK. Musgrave,Peter Ilayman, 

Sajnuel All)i'rtson, Reese Mc Henry, Geo. Gieenly, 

Jacob Watts, George Ikler, John Lemon, 

Joshua Davis, Jacob Shultz, Geo. F. Kindt, 

Richard J. Fves, A. i*. Heller, Erastus Hendershott, 

scorr TowNsiur — no. okai ri;i) 32. 

Patrick Daly, N F. C-ain, Geo. I. Transue, 

Abner H. Hiown, Robert Farst, Prisciis F. Bomboy, . 

George Gilbert, Jesse .Merrell, Flisha B. Pursel, 

David J. Quick, Geo. B. Kitchen, Daniel Johnson, 

William Masteller, Chaucey C. Trench, John Wolf, 

Theodore McDowell, Isaac J. Kester, Henry Gman, 

Charles Schug, Emanuel Ruckel, Daniel Mauron, 

Wm. A. Case, Esl)and S. Fowler, James Greenage, 

Cliarh's S. Fowler, John W. Hunter, Charles Merrel, 

John Turiu'r, (ieo. W. Edgar, John B. Vanhorn, 

I'riah >L Edgar, Phili}) Dieterick, 

sU(;aum)ak township — no. drafted 15. 

Jacob H. Fritz, Zeppamiah L. Kline, George Ellison, 

Alexander Hess, Jesse Fritz, Wm. Peterraan, 

Montgomery Cole, Mordecai Goodwin, Nathariiel H. Steward, 

Samuel H. Hess, John T. Brink, John Montgomery, 

Cornelius Girton, Stephen Larish, James Petennan, 



274 



HI STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



(n'ors^o IK'uth, 
.I:unes E. Jones, 
George Fullmer, 
Thomas Ya])le, 
\\. F. E.lgur, 
Will. Shugars, 
Daniel l^laiik, 
Aivhibakl llichart. 



A supplemental^ draft was made in Dec. 1864 to lill some va- 
cancies in townships under tlie jn-eA^ious calls. It was as follows : 

KISIIINGCKKEK TOWNSlIir — NO. DIIAKTKU 29 — NO. UlXjlJIUEl) 15. 

Hiram lless, Wesley Kline, Edward ITnangst, 

Evan Bittenbender, Jacob Slioeniaker, 

James Campbell, Abraham Golder, 

J. Deemer McHenry, Samuel Savage, 

James Paden, Michael Beishline, 

Daniel Winner, Wm. lloyer, 

John M. Buckalew, Elisha Evans, 

John Moomey, Christian J. Ash, 

<.\)rneiius Bellas, John Dreschei', 

E'rank ITuinmel, Richard B. Bright, 

riNK TOWNSIlir NO. DRAFTKl) 8 REQUIRED 4. 

John Johnson, Isaac Sweeney, IJobert Lvoih, 

Ira C. Pursel, Abel Ilartinan, Elisha Taylor, 

■<). P. Swisher, Tliomas jNIcl^ride, 

ouan<;e TOAVNsiiir — no. drafted 24 — required 15. 
Charles Kelcliner, Stephen H. Ilill, E. W. Coleman, 

Ai-chibald Patterson, Jacob Remley, 
Daniel G. Ent, Thomas D. Kline, 

Augustus Everhart, Charles W. Low, 
Emery Day, Calvin Herring, 

John Delong, John Graham, 

J. Sanderson Woods,! )avid M Ilayman, 
Jacob Roub, I. E. Patterson, 



Joseph C. Hughes, 
Abraham I\I. White, 
Simon P. Johnson, 
Wm. Fritz, 
Justice Ikeler, 
Clemuel \i. Ilenrie, 
Samuel K. White, 



JIADISON TOWNSIlir NO. DRAl'TED 20 —REQUIRED 10. 



Felix Ritter. 
Phineas Welliver, 
James Welliver, 
Abraham Young, 
Joseph Moist, 
Wilson Masters, 
M. A. Moore, 

IJENTON TOWNSHIV NO. DRAFTED 18 REQUIRED 9. 

Ephr'm P. McCollum,Russcl Shultz, Mathias Appleraan, 

Furnian Smith, John J. Karns, Jesse B. Shultz, 



Alinas Kline, 
Lawson Hughes, 
Jacob Zeisloft, 
8imon Cotner, 
S. S. Runyaii, 
i^harles Gibbons, 
Ashcr Ileitsman, 



Richard F. Stout, 
Watkius Prosser, 
John P. Runyan, 
Wm. Graham, 
Ezra Vandine, 
Issachar Titnian, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 275 

Oscar ('oiiiicr, Klias Asli, .lessee II. Fenningtoji, 

Jolui .[. IJiirik, LiviiigstuMo lilioiie, Thoiniis A))])]eMian, 

Moses IMc Henry, Charles N. Dodsoii, Jared Coll", 

Preserve Conner, Wni. S. Case, .Tolin Lemons. 

.lAtMvSON TOWNSIIIl- NO. UUAFTKl) 10 NO. UKt^H'IUlCn .5. 

John Edgar, Samuel Keller, \Vm. Brink, 

Henry (ietty, Joslnia Iless, Cliaiincy Strong, 

.Toll 11 L IIe>s, Isaac liCwis, (^eoi-ge Kemley, 
Aslier ^'orks, 

si (iAUI.OAK I'OWNMIII' N(t. DKAirKI) S HEt,>ri ItKD 4. 

Valentine Stout. Kli;is "N'oung, Andrew La ;l.acii, 

]M;irtin Miller, Clinton W. Lewis, Wm. Peterman, 

Clinton Hess, Ezekiel Frit/, 

o 

On Tuesday .January 1.5, 1865, the following di-afts for deficien- 
cies in the townships named, wire made at Troy. 

MA]»ISON. 

Jacob M. Beishline, Peter H. Shultz, Jacob Flick, 

Wilson W. Smith, .Jeremiah Stiles, Ashly Laylan, 

John Shoemaker, Joseph Wagner, Daniel Shultz, 

Silas .Johnson. Jos. I{. Pennington, .John Zeisloft, 

Calendar Clark, Wesley Dildine, George Gibbons, 
John Gei-ei", 

ORANGK. 

.lames S. I^azarus, Ba/.aleel Hayliurst, I). H. Megargel, 

lllram B'lwman, Emanuel Ij. .lohnson, .Jonathan Poust, 

Henry Stiner, Geo. U. M. Abbott, Thomas McHenry, 
Wm.TIeidhiy, 

FISIIINfJCKEEK 

Martin Albertson, Monroe Markle, (ieo. McBride, 

•Jolm Dietterick, 

.TACKSON. 

Theodore W. Smith, Thomas McHenry, Noah Bogart, 
Jacob I'^arver, 

StIGARI.O.VK 

Elinas Coll', Samuel Park, 

riNi:. 
John E. German, David Shoemakei-, 



•276 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA Cons' lY. 



On Friday the 14fch day of April, 180'), a draft wa> made at 

Troy to till the quota of Columbia county on tlie last call of the 
President. 

Bi.oor. 

Hiram Ileacock, J. J. R!)))bius, 

Washington Ruckle, E. li. Yordy, 

Samuel J. Kelchner, Hutchison Vaniiatta, 

Bernard H. Stohner, Jacob Stiner, David Lowenberg, 

Isaac S. Kuhn, Robert C. Fruit, Wm. Shoemaker, 

Michael Whitmoyer, David Winner. Jacob F. Vox, 
Clark M. Brown, Joseph Morris, 
Phineas Welsh, 



William Morgan, 
Allen Cadwallader, 
Robert Roan, 



H. Clay Hartman, 
Jacob Geist, 
John Rinker, 
Jacob Diehl, 
R. E. Wil-^on. 
Mills Chemberlin, 
Wm. Gilmore, 
Julius Greenbaum, 
T. J. Thornton, 
John Beagham, 
Samuel Garringer, 
John Rinard, 
Lucas N. Moyer, 



John AV. Shannon, 
James F. McBride, 



James B. McKelvy, Wm. Edgar, 
Henry Wanicli, Wm. Howell, 



Daniel Ingold, 
Henry Seager, 
W. H. Hannan, 
John W^esley, 
Andrew Madison, 
Solomon Heist, 
B. H. Vannatta, 
Oliver A. Jacoby, 
Clinton W. Xcal, 
David W. Fisher, 



Watson Furman, 
John Morris, 
Palemoii John, 
Samuel Hughes, 
Henry Garrison, 
Jonah Townsend, 
Peter Downs, 
John Cadman, 
Samuel M. Prentiss,. 
Henry Ariwine, 



Andrew B. Cathcart, Cliarles P. Sloan, 

IIKAVKU. 



David Hinterliter, 
John Hoflfman, 
Peter Kneclit. 
Peter Shellliouse, 
Jo'm Naus (Xaas) 
John Fry, 
Peter Fisher, 
Geo. Shuman, 
Henry Sherman, 
Andrew Sliuman, 
John Harrine, 
Joseph Keister, 
John Holtz, 



Andrew Huntsinger, Joel Swaiik, 

J no. Dalevson, Jno. Hawk, 

Samuel Hinterliter, Thomas Miller, 

Ste})hen Lehr, Isaac Harringer, 

Conrad Brcdbeuder, Daniel Mensinger,. 

Tilriian Rlttenhouse, Edmond Schell, 

John Dreisbach, Uriah McAffee, 



Henry Ilarninger, 
Peter Slicker, 
Aai-on Johnson, 
John Floats, jr. 
Fred Sherman, 
Enos Ritteidiouse, 



Wash Herring, 
N. Longenberger, 
Morton Johnson, 
Henry Miller, 
Jacob Baumbergery 
John Singlev, 



JIISTOIIY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



277 



Juliu lliuitzinger, 
<Jeo. VV. Hock, 
Sajnuel Moore, 
Jacob Cliiiginaii, 
Eli as Barriiiger, 
Joliii Slierrnaii, 
Henry Hosslci-, 
Jolui llmit/.iiiger, 
Nathan Jlons, 

John W. Fiilhner, 
John VV. Smith, 
Sanuiel M. Wilson, 
Septimus Hess, 
Samuel Shultz, 
Wm. Hartinan, 
Nathan A. Tiilths, 
John Kant/, 

Samuel J. Frederick, 
Peter S. Biler, 
Jacob S. Creasy, 
Jiall)hM. Lashell, 
Nathan Krunun, 
Geo. W. Clark, 
Lewis Keill'er, 
Percival Uhodes, 
Wm U. Yetter, 
Wm. John, 
Wm. H. Orange, 
Mayberry G. Hughe^ 
Thos. Cietkin, 
Daniel Zarr, 
Michael IJees, 
M. M. Brobst, 

Thomas McCormick, 
Wm. Lees, 
Patrick Eagen, 



Isaac Ousback, 
Stephen Michael, 
Lewis Yeager, 
M. Kittenhouse, 
.Ino. S. Mann, 
Triah ^rcAffee, 
Henry Ilinterliter, 
Daniel Slicarhart, 

HKNTON. 

E. Laubach, 

Silas Benjamiji, 

Silas F. Karns, 

IJiehard Stiles, 

Andrew Stine, 

Jacob M. Beishliue, Jonathan Steele, 



Henry Lehr, 
James Large, 
Wm. Baker, 
(tco. Dreisbach. 
P^reeman Barringer, 
Alfred Mann, 
Peter Fislier, 
Morton Dawes, 



Geo. Miller, 
E. Kii-kendall, 
Thomas Hartinan, 
John P. Ikeler, 
David Yocum, 



Kli Mcllenrv, 
Thomas B. Cole, 

tJATAWISSA. 

Daniel Gearhart, 
Samuel Yeager, 
John H. Guimi, 
Alem Fortnei", 
Levi Ash, 
Geo. Kichial, 



I'eter ]x Shultz, 
Clark Calendar, 

Jacob Breck, 
James 1*. Right, 
David Hower, 
Henry Jones, 
Theodore Kreigh, 
Hamilton Fisher, 



Peter B. Cami)bell, Benj. C. Ludwig, 
Britton W. Fortner, Wm. Eyer, 
Theodore Schmetz, J no. S. Mench, 



Nalhan Creasy. 
^Augustus Frantz, 
;,Wm. Mertine, 
Chas. Hartmun, 
Jacob Metz. 



Jno. Hibben. 
George Gwin, 
Amos Berger, 
AVm. Parr, 
Jacob Zinnnerman, 



Ambrose H. Sharpless,Ziba Barnes, 
Valentine Metz, Joseph Martz, 

CONYNGIIAM. 

John S. Longbinn, 
Paric Da Mott, 
Peter Lauban, 



Pat Herran, 
Nicholas Longbeein, 
Evan Jones, 



278 



H r STORY OF C0LU3IJBTA (WUNTY 



Geo. I\Ii'Nc"il, 
Michael Gorey, 
Win. Grant, 
Tlios. Heladd, 
Jno. Eiigle, 
Jno S. Kline, 
Goo. W. Davis, 
Thos. INIaluMi, 
James (Toniiinjj,s, 
IVIiehael Horn, 
Morton Hrennan, 
Jno. Thomas, 
Thos. Delton, 
Pat McOonm'll, 
Clinton Di'witt, 
Robert (iorrell, 
Daniel Jones, 

John Shult/., 
L. D. Mendeuhall, 
Henry Pesteier, 
Mordecai Hieks, 
Levi Creasy, 
Erastus VV. Baker, 
He/.ekiah Boone, 
Henry R. Remley, 
Chas. R. Boone, 
Jesse Hieks, 

AVi'llino-ton Clark, 
William Mensch, 
Jos. B. Belber, 
Geo. Zarr, 
Christian Artly, 
Jacob Knit tie, 
Benj. Zimmerman, 

John Karig, 
Joseph Buck, 



Patrick Mc(Jiiiley, 
Biirney Mc()uinn, 
Jno. JNlull, jr. 
Stei»hen Thomas, 
Sylvester HotVman, 
Patrick Kennedy, 
Peter Lnpert, 
Thos. Kilk-Ml!, 
Jos. D. J.,ong, 
Moses Long, 
Hugh Monday, 
John Laras, 
John Moyer, 
Henry Diesher, 
David Black, 
J. X. Frick, 
Jno. McDonnell, 

('KN'rUF,. 

Elijah Harinan, 
Sanuiel iSmitli, 
Wm. Webb, 
Ct. W. Dodson, 
Levi Hidlay, 
H. J. Knorr, 
T. MeD Price, 
Samuel Rinard, 
Jos. Weis, 

FRANKl.IX. 

John Artly, 
Henry Edmans, 
Hiram J. Reeder, 
John Cooner, 
John S. ]\IcWilliams, 
Geo. Hartman, 
D.ivid W. Keiflfer, 

UOAKINCCIJEKK. 

Emanuel K. Case, 
Michael Knittle, 



Jno. Shlosser, 
Jt>s. Steele, 
Jos. Snyder, 
Pat Lenchan, 
Frank D. Long, 
Jno. Skilling, 
Martin Nenss, 
AVm. Kiitc, 
John Met/inger, 
PCI i as Barringer, 
Ellis Valentine, 
Martin Briiinan, 
Jacob Stots, 
James McCollum, 
Danii'l Cnimm, 
George Reedy, 
Cnas Angle, 

Philij) Cain, 
Sanu el lx)i)ne, 
Geo. P. Stiner, 
T. W. Fry, 
Geo. Hidlay, 
Elias Brown, 
Chas. Zimmerman, 
Alfred l^ower, 
Jacob Miller, 



Shultz Knittle, 
Wm. i>:uninger, 
Washington Parr, 
Samuel Yetter, 
Jacob Bolder, 
David Huber, 



Samuel Leiby, 
Peter Strausser, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



279 



Elias Rarig, 
Geo. P>l<tss, 
John IIaiii))toii, 
Jacob Longaberger, 

Michael IJriltoii, 
Prjscus E. l^omboy, 
Beeder Mack, 
Pulaski Mellick, 
Jackson Garrison, 
Theodore McDowell, 

Jacob Cliristiati, 
John Lore, 
Fred Wagner, 
Abijah (i. Girton, 
Samuel Stackhouse, 

U. Franklin Derr, 
Jos. ('. I'arkcr, 
Samuel Patterson, 
Zebulon Shultz, 
Thos. lieese, 
Wm. P. Ikeler, 
Robert Musgrave, 
Wm. Davis, 
Peter Swisher, 
Israel W. (xirton, 
Jos. W. Eves, 
Sylvester Albertson, 
Augustus Wilson, 
Parvin Eves, 
Jesse lleacock, 

Frank lioberts, 
Rohr jMcIIenry, 
l^hilip Knouse, 
John Kt'ller, 



Phineas Thomas, 
Joseph Kline, 
John liloss, 

s( •< )rr. 
Daniel Hamlin, 
John B. Vanhorn, 
Th(nnas Merrill, 
David Whitmire, 
G. Fensterraaker, 

I'INK. 

Jolni \i. Eves, 
lienj. Lore, 
Wesley Long, 
Pemberton Piatt, 

(iUKKNWOOI). 

Jackson Iliimmel, 
Wilson Thomas, 
M. B Shultz, 
John Thomas, 

Trivelpiece, 

Jacob Ilayman, 
John Staddon, 
George Reese, 
John Thomas, 
John Moore Eves, 
Harrison Dietterick, 
Clinton Jlol)bins, 
Wm. U. Parker, 
Wm. ¥.. Patters<jn, 
W^m. J. Sands, 

JACKSON. 

Jonas Hess, 
Elijah Yocum, 
Jesse Rhone, 



John C. Hovver, 
(tco. Kreishei', 
Jacolj Erwin, 



Daniel Snyder, 
Aaron Neuss, 
Wm. E. Hower, 
Alfred P. Fowler, 
Geo. Ruckle, 



Jacob Gorden, 
Clenuiel Mc Henry, 
Isaac Irens, 
Mathias Crossley, 



James Dewitt. 
Geo. Derr, 
Wm. R. Mather,. 
Perry D. Black, 
(i. W. Washburn, 
Geo. lleacock, 
David Masters, 
Abrahain Titman, 
Thomas Wilson, 
Jacob Mussleman, 
Richard J. Eves, 
Thomas Davis, 
James L. Preston, 
John C. Lemons. 



Josiah Robbins, 
Jno. Young, 
Israel Heath, 



280 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



John Fox, 
Sylvester Richards, 
Purseval Fulk, 
Thomas Weaver, 
Daniel Wanich, 
Philip Hess, 
Peter Brugler, 
Reuben Werkheiser, 
Wm. P. Leidy, 
John Hartiuan, 

Fred JVIufler, 
P^-ed Payden, 
Lemuel White, 
Charles Conner, 
Geo. L. Johnson, 
John Fisher, 
Henry W. Kisner, 
Joshua Trumbore, 

Franklin Rarig. 
Jonathan Beaver, 
Jacob Ruch, 
Joseph Sanders, 
Isaac C. Myers, 
Henry Hoffman, 
John Lindermate, 
Joseph Breck, 
S. Schaeffer, 
Wm. Campbell, 
Adam M. Johnson, 
Ellis George, 
Simon Carroll, 
Jacob Lindermate, 
Israel Warry, 
John Miner, 
Brine Hongbener, 
David Fetterman, 



HEMLOCK. 

Mathias Whitenight, 
Reuben Rouch, 
John Coons, 
Henry Somers, 
Peter S. Brugler, 
Azima W^hitenight, 
John S. Shoemaker, 
James Rounsley, 
Charles Green, 

ORANGE. 

John S. Pettibone, 
Milton Trumbore, 
Alex. McHenry, 
Jerome Kisner, 
Oscar Achenbach, 
Emanuel Appleman, 
Henry Stewart, 

LOCUST. 

Jesse G. John, 
David Rhodes, 
Geo. Bittener, 
Michael Hongberger, 
Charles Bellig, 
Wm D. Paler, 
Jacob Long, 
Wm. Irwin, 
Adam Mensch, 
Wm. Lourman, 
George Wary, 
Hemy Yost, 
Solomon Rider, 
Wellington Hower, 
Wni Parker, 
Peter Rhodes, 
Wm. Shultz, 
Wm. Goodman, 



Hugh A. Hartman, 
Perry Whitenight, 
James D. Pnrsel, 
Willits Pursel, 
Harris Hartman, 
Gideon Stecker, 
Michael Gober, 
Geo. W. Foust, 
W. H. Shoemaker, 



Jeremiah Hess, 
Matthew B. Patterson, 
Abraham White, 
Isaac R. Dildine, 
Martin Kline, 
Miles DeLong, 
Ai'chibald Patterson, 



Jacob Yost, 
Geo. Isenbach, 
Wm. Bahm, 
Isaac J. Fisher, 
David Helwig, 
David Reeder, 
Wm. Wynn, 
David Levan, 
Lloyd P. Fox, 
Solomon Strausser, 
Jacob P. Kesliner, 
John C. Walters, 
Amandus Billeg, 
Peter Beaver, 
Wm. Smith, 
W. H. Reinbold, 
Gabel Warry, 
Daniel P. Levan, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNIY. 



281 



Wesley Perry, 
Win. Adains, 
Abram Rice, 
Wm. Fettermaii, 
John Artley, 

Kobt. Fruit, 
Joel Moser, 
Geo. Breece, 
Elisha B. Hartman, 
Francis Eves, 
Adam C'odennan, 
Wash Wei liver, 
Eli Wagner, 
Josejdi Moist, 
JacoV) Zeisloft, 
Conrad Ivranier, 
Wni. iNl as teller, 



Isaac Culp, 
Gabriel Everett, 
Philip Miller, 
John II. Vanderslice, 
Andrew J. McCarty, 
Aaron Kester, 
Kussel Apijlenian, 
John W. Kramer, 
Wm. Beers, 
Peter llippensteel, 
Amos R. Heacock, 
James Lemon, 
John Johnson, 



Solomon Yeager, 
Nathan Kostenbader 
Jacob Care, 
Harris H. Fox, 
Richard E. Watkins, 

MADISON. 

Jonathan Pogg, 
Joseph C. Smith, 
D.niel Welliver, 
John Roan, 
H. Clay Mills, 
John Demott, 
Wm. Kitchen, 
John Mosteller, 
Silas W. Bai-ber, 
A. R. Smith, 
Wesley Demott, 
Cyrus R. Johnson, 

MT. I'LKASANT. 

John II. Mordan, 
Lott Johnson, 
David F. Oman, 
Melchi Ruckle, 
Benj. Kester, 
Hu'am Thomas, 
John Barnes, 
David Musgrave, 
Henry Mellick, 
Emanuel Gilbert, 
Clinton JNIellick, 
Wm. W. Kline, 
Alfred Miller, 



David Leibig, 
,David Long. 
Andrew Scott, 
Adam Marks, 
Samuel Miller, 



Alex. Carr, 
Lemuel Kisner, 
James Kindline, 
John D. Essick, 
Wm. Graham, 
Abram Swisher, 
L^riah Welliver, 
Jno. Shultz, 
Jno. Kramer, 
Henry Biddle, 
Wilson J. Masters, 



Samuel Jacoby, 
Chas. Johnson, 
Philip Stroup, 
Jos. H. Kitchen, 
Hiram Kramer, 
Christian Eck, 
Joshua Hartzel, 
Robt. Howell, 
Geo. Steinmiller, 
Levi Thomas, 
Millard L. Thomas, 
Matthias Gilbert, 



Lewis Felker, 
G. M. Longenberger, 
Thos. Pleasants, 
Josiah Fleming, 



Jer. Longenberger, 
IT. J. Campbell, 
Wm. Erwin, 
John A Sluunan, 



Benj. Hawkae, 
David Bigilling, 
Nath. H. W. Brown, 



L>8i TTISTORY OF COLUMBTA COUXTY. 



Hezekiah Kelolnu'r, Win. (iitliiig, Geo. Robeuliolt, 

Philip llcss. Win. KoIc-Iuut, Daniel House, 

Samuel E. Smith, Wash Z. Michael, Stei)hen Hetter, 

Wm. Kilebaugh, Jos. K. Miller, E. Sch\ve|)[)enheiser, 

Jaeob Snyder, John ,1. ITartzel, John Kint, 

Wm. Fleas, Jer. Zimmmnan, Alfred Hess, 

Abr.im M. Arasteller, Thos. W. Hutchison, Ste|)hen Dietterick. 

Whitney Hess, VictDr Ronald. Lewis Creasy, 

FISniNCU'UKKK. 

Sanuiel Shives, Hiram McHenry, R^^nj- Oolder, 

Jacobs. Hishline, Leyi Winner, Monterville McHenry, 

Geo. M. Howell, Abrani W. P.itterson, Dennis Kline, 

I'hili]) Bellas, Thos. M. Station, Cyrus B. Fox, 

Keuben Hess, D. C. Sutliff, James McMichael, 

Geo. Gilbert, Alex. Jackson, Jacob Kline, 

,]as. J Campbell, Stot McHenry, Wm. Eyens, 

Elisha K. Kobbins, Perry Buckalew, Reuben Appleman. 

SrGAKIA).\F. 

Hiram Lunger, Hiram Lunger, Jer. Vansickle, 

Elijah Peterman. Jos. L. Harp, Amos Fritz, 

Geo. Case, Clinton Cole, Michael Beishline, 

Elijah Hess, Benjamin Peterman, Cyrus Larish, 

Peter Masteller, Richard Hess, Reuben Betterly, 

Sanniel Roberts, Abijah Hess, Elias Golden, 

John W Kline, 

JVotc. — The other townships had tilled their quotas by yolun- 
teering ; or for special reasons the draft was postponed. Li the 
foregoing lists nniny names are manifestly wrong, many dupli- 
cates, some of persons deceased, or long absent. The errors that 
are thus ai)parent must not be charged to the printer or the copy- 
ist. They are correctly copied from the furnished or printed lists, 
and giyen as per copy. To those who know the persons the cor- 
rection is easy, and it was thought best to permit that to be done 
by the reader, and to give the names as we found them. The 
careless incorrectness ^vas the cause of much trouble to our citi- 
zens, and these lists are a lasting monument of incompetency or 
worse. 



HLSTOEY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 283 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



dkaftp:d militia— nine months' service. 



178th KKCilMKNT. 

J. W. Cheniberlin, Major, promoted from private, Company A, 
Both Ivcgimeiit, P. V. November 21, 18G2, mustered out witli 
Regiment 27th July, 1863. 
Isaac Pursel, Quartermaster, promoted from 1st Lieutenant, Com- 
pany P", December 3, 1862, mustered out with Regiment, 27 
July, 1803. 

Williamson H. Jacoby, Quarter Master Sergeant — mustered 
November 24, 1862, promoted from ('ompany F, December 8, 
lH(t2, nuistered out with Regiment 27 July, 1863. 
William Fisher, Commissary Sergeant, mustered October 3, 1862, 
promoted from Sergeant, Company A, Dtcember 8, 1862, mus- 
tered out with Regiment 27 July, 1863. 
William F. (Jruver, Hospital Steward, mustered X'ovember 2, 1862, 
promoted from Corporal, Com[)any F. Uecembei- 3, 1862, mus- 
tered out with Regiment, 27 July 1863. 

The Regiment was recruited in Columbia, Montour, Lancaster 
and Lii/erne: companies A, II, and I were from Columbia 
county, and F and G mostly from Montour. The regiment 
was mustered iiito the service between October 30th and Novem- 
ber 4th, 1862, and was mustered out at Harrisburg July 27, 1863. 
The men not otlierwise designated, were mustered out with the 
Company. The Regiment moved to Washington December 6, 
and reached Yorktown on the 29th. In April it had a skirmish 
near Williamsburg, and was on the advance picket line until the 
23d of June. When the rebels moved into Pennsylvania, a dem- 
onstration towards Richmond was made by our troops, and the 
178th under Gen. Keys moved towards Bottoms Bridge on the 
Chickahominy. It had a brisk skirmish on the 2d July. It held 



284 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

the picket line until the 6th, wjis then returned to Williamsburg 
and hurried to Washington to reinforce the army of the Potomac. 
Hut the defeat at Gettysburg relieved it, and it was sent to Ilar- 
risburg and mustered out. 

CO:\IPANY A. 

John M. Buckalew, Ca})tain, nuistered out with company, 27 

July, 1863. 
Martin V. B. Kline, 1st Lieutenant, discharged on surgeon's 

certificate, January 22, 1863. 
,I()hn J. Karns. 1st Lieutenant, jjroinotcd from 2d Lieutenant 

May lo, 1863. 
Janu's S. Muchler, 2d Lieutenant, promoted from Sergeant, May 

15, 1863. 
Sanuiel Montgomery, 1st Sergeant. 

Sanuiel F. Peal- r, 1st Sergeant, discharged March 19, 1863. 
(t W. Shortz, Sergeant. 
Alfred L Creveling, Sergeant, promoted from Corporal, July 

1, 1863. 
Zebulon S. Stephens, Sergeant, promoted from Cor{)oral, July 

1, 1863. 
John 11. Keeler, Sergeant, promoted from private July 1, 1863. 
William Fisher, Sergeant, promoted to Commissary Sergeant, 

December 8, 1 862. 

Samuel Park, C-orporal. 

A. A. P. Unangst, Corporal, absent at hospital at nuister out. 
Henry Wagner, Corporal. 
Abraham B. Browe, Corporal. 
William Comstock, Corj)oral. 

Kli Ivobbins, Corporal, absent in hos]iital at nuister out. 
John W. Beishline, Musician. 
William J. Pobbins, Musician. 

Allegar, John Y., Private, absent in hospital at nuister out. 
Beishline Levi, Private. 
Beishline Michael, Private. 
Beiuler P^lias I'., '• 

Bangs Ilendrick W., -' 

Boston Reuben, discharged on surgeon's certificate November 
22, 1862. 



IlIISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 285 

Bitterly Redman, discharged on surgeon's certificate November 
22, 18(52. 

Bellas Geo. W., Private, discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November 22, 1SG2. 

Buss Joshua, T*rivate, died at Harrisburg, December 6, 1862. 

Cole Benjamin I), nnistered out with company July 27, 1863. 

Cole William, Private. 

Cole John, " 

Connor Oscar, " 

Dietrich Jolm, 

Dodson Chester rs., " 

Eveland Wesley E., " 

Eveland Fred K., 

Evans, John W., " 

Fans Henry, " 

Fuller, Joseph D., " 

Fritz Andrew J., Private, discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November 22, 1862. 

Fuller John J., Private, discharged on surgeon's certificate, No- 
vember 22, 1862. 

Getz Jolm, mustered out with company July 27, 1863. 

Getz Martin, . " 

Hess Benjamin W., " 

TIarp Joseph, " 

Hartman Jesse " 

Hartman Geo. W., " 

Hartman Minor, " 

Howard Charles, " 

Hoche Geo. W., 

Harrington Newton, l*rivate, discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November 22, 1862. 

Heath George, Private, dischaiged on surgeon's certificate No- 
vember 22, 1862. 

Kline Ira D., Privat-, mustered out with Company July 27, 1863. 

Killinger (ieo. W., Private. 

KufT Jarcd " 

Kindig Charles F., " 

Keeler, SannicI ^I., " 



i>s(; ///s7'()/n' or I'o/.r.y/u.i corx/v. 



Ki-iv'kl)auiu rhili|t. Prixato. disohai-oi'.l on sur^'oii s rortitioati^ 

NoviMubiM- '2-J. 1S(!l'. 
Kr'u'kl)ai:;n William. Prix ah', disi'harm'd on suriionn's i-crtilioato 

Novombor :?l\ ISii:?. 
Klino ,Ioso|»h S. rrivato, ilisi'hary;oil on sii'^oon's I'ortiiioalo No- 

MMiilu-r •-'■_*. 1S(;l>. 
l.auUaoh l>anii>l, nmstoivd out witli i'OiH|iauy -7 July, IS(k"!. 
l.audorbarh William, riivato, (iisi'li.aiiiotl on surjiootrs (.'ortitioaU' 

NoviMulu'v I'L*. IS(c'. 

Musslcm.an Jacob, l*ii\ato. absont.siok at mustrr out. 
MonliionuM-y 1\oIhm-1. l'ri\ali>. nuistoi-od out with comjiauy I'T July 

1 S(>;>. 

Moori> (.''hristian 1... rrivati'. 

Marklo Monro. 

MastoMor Im'O. W.. Privatr. .U'sorlOil Novombor lo. 1 St>'.'. 

MoP.oury Kli. Privato. ilosortod DooiMubor ;U), lS(il*. 

(>smon(l Ji>hn. Privnit'. nrastonnl oul with company 1*7 July, 18lio. 

Park (ha-in. Private. 

Palmer Severn 1>., 

Patterson Paniel S.. 

I'enninixtoii James M.. " 

KvMuley Pavid K , 

Kemle\ CJeoru'e, 

KobiM-ts \\in W.. 

Klione NVm. P , 

Punyon Joseph C".. Private. clisclKU;^e(l on surgeons eerlitieate 

November "Ji*. IS(>2. 
Stoneeker Henry. Pri\ ale. mustered out with con'^pany ^7 

July isi>;v 
Shult/. FJias. Private. 

Shult/.. Wheeler, 
Shidt/. Kussol. 
Shult/. Peter P., " 

Stevens K/.ra. 
Santee William, Prl\ ate, discharged on siirL^eons certiticilo 

November •_>!>. 1S(?l\ 

Shult/ Cornelius, Private, discharged on surgeon's eertitieate No- 
ven\bor 'J'J, \W2. 



I/Is'ronv OF (JOLirMIlfA aOTTNTY. 287 

SiitlidV- Wesley \\'., I'iiv;i1,<', <liH(;har«(e<l on Kiir;^e(*ii'H certificate 

.I;uiii;ii V 21. I H<;;5 
Srnilli .MiiKM- 15 , I'livate, descried Xoveinlter 21, 1 SG2. 
Tnl)l)S N;itli;iii. I'livale, uiiiHtered otil u il li eomjiaiiy July 27, lHf]3. 
Tliotniis J(»'~('|)li, I'rivatc. discliari^ed .jii Kiirj^ef)ii's cerlific^ate No- 

vciiiImt 22. 1^02 
Uiiatii^st W. II.. I'll v;ilc, mustered oiil willi coniiiany 27. July lHf)3. 
Wolfl'a.il, I'livate. 

Wo(h1s, Will Mc(;., " 
Wri^Iii Moses, " 

VV(!aver Aiic^iistiis VV., l'rivat<', dischar[^ed on surf^con's certificate 

N<»veinl>er 22, IH(;2. 
YoiMiLT Williairi, Private, riiuslered out witli cotiiitany July 27,1803. 
Yaple Djiiiiel, Private, 

Yount,' I^llis, Private, desi-rted .Xovendx-r 21, 1802. 
"Vajil"' 'riioiiias, J*rivato, descrte<l November 5, 1802. 
Ya]»le .{ereiiiiali, Private, died at Fortress Mrjnroe Dec<;niV)er 

30, 1802. 



rOMI'ANY !•. 

This <'<)m])any \v:is crerlifcd to Montour county, Vuit it will be ob- 
server! tfiat many of tin; men are from ('ObiinV)ia. It was nmster- 
ed in mainly Xovc^mber 2, 1802, and mustered out.Tuly 27, 1803, 
and unless ot}ier« iso disposed of, that is the record of each 
man named. 

John A Winnt-r, (.'attain, mustered out with cfimjtariy .Jidy 27, 
1803. 

Isaac I'ursell, 1st Lieutenant, juomoted to (^uaitermaster Decem- 
ber 3, 1803 

Abner II. Hiown, 1st Lieutenant, |)romot<;d from 2d Lieutenant 
Decend.er 24, 1802. 

Samuel A. Mills, 2d Lieutenant, jjromoted from 1st Sergeant De- 
cember 24, lS(i2. 

Elias W. Yoidy, Isi Sergeant, promoted from Sergeant January 1, 
1 803. 

Reese Flanigan, Sergeant. 

George A. Brown, " 

Emanuel Peters, " 

H. W. Musslenian, Sergeant, promoted from private, March 1, 1863. 



288 HIS TOBY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Daniel MoIIarn, Corporal. 

David P. Childs 

David P. Young " , 

Henry W. Snyder " ! 

Charles Sage, Corporal, abs.ent, sick at muster out. i 

Williiin A. Kittle, Corporal, promoted to Corporal December 28, t 

1 862. I 
William F. Gruver, Corporal, promoted to Hospital Steward De- I 

ceraber 3, 1862. f 

John K. Rishel, Corporal, died at Georgetown, Virginia, January . ; 

12, 1863. ' 

John H. Hunt. Musician. 
Arnwine George W, Private. 
Asliland Alexander, discharged on surgeon's certificate November 

21, 1862. 
Baylor I'eter, Private. 1 

Bogart ('yrus " | 

Bogart Joseph '' 

Burgi r Peter '• 

Burger \Vm. H '• 

Byerly Wm. II. deserted November 19, 1862, returned December, Ij 

10, 1862 
Bowman John, Private. 

Bodine Charles W. " 
Basel Lewis " 

Creveliiig Moore, deserted November 19, 1862, returned April 1 

1863, absent in hospital at muster out. 
Coxey Tliomas A. discharged on sui'geon's certiticate November 

21, 1862. 
Cooj)er Charles W, discharged on surgeon's certificate, January 

19. 1863. 
Cooper Albert, deserted November 13, 1862. 
Derr Fredench, Private. 

Dreiblepice Jacob " 

Dreiblei)ice James, " 

Elmes William, " 

Everett John, " 

Fox John, " 

Fox Samuel T, " 



HISTORY Ot COLUMBIA COUNTY. 289 

Fought Edward, Private. 

Flick Erastus, 

Fetter Cyrus, " 

Gaskins Herbert B., " 

Gotsclialk \V. W., died at Yorktown, Virginia, July 12, 1863, 
buried in National Cemetery, grave 115. 

Heinbach Peter, Jr., Private. 

Heinbach David " 

Johnson John, " 

Jones Daniel H., " 

Jacoby Williamson H., promoted to Quartermaster Sergeant De- 
cember 3, 1862. 

Karshner Daniel, Private. 

Karshner Peter, " 

Kuouse Washington, " 

Koons Samuel, " 

Kelly Stephen S., transferred to Company K, 163d Regiment, 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, November 24, 1862. 

Lawrence Thomas, Private. 

Lynn Wni. S., " 

Lazarus Daniel T., " 

Miller Wesley, " 

Miller Andrew, " 

Mensch Solomon, " 

Mover John D., " 

Morrell Sanuiel H., " 

Marshall David, " 

Marshall Daniel, 

Mellick Henry M., 

.Ah'llick Henry W., 

Mtirdon John R., " 

Musgrave Franklin, " 

Milhr William, died at Yorktown, Virginia, March 31, 1863. 

Mott Daniel, deserted, date unknown. 

McHenry Samuel, Private. 

Omaiis Geo. L., " 

Persing Ilif H., 

Rudy Jeremiah S. " 

Riffle James S., " 



290 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Roup Layfayette F., Private. 

Reppert George, " 

Runyon Samuel C, " \ 

Rmiyon Oliver P., " 

Runyan Sheppard, deserted November 12, 1862. 

Reushaw Robert, deserted November 15, 1862. 

Snyder Clayton, Private. 

Snyder Peter K., 

Spotts Jolm " 

Spotts William, " 

Shult Harrison, deserted November 19, 1862, returned December 
10, 1862. 

Stroup Phili]> A., Private. 

Smith Harvey, " 

Shearer Charles, discharged on Surgeon's certificate January 15, 
1 868. 

Snyder John S., deserted Novend)er 18, 1862. 

Sheetz Jolm, deserted November 19, 1862. 

Swisher Clement, deserted November 12, 1862. 

Thom})son Wm., Private. 

Thomas Joel, deserted November 18, 1862. 

Wintersteen H. Jr., Private. 

Walter Jackson, " 

Wise Elias 0., transferred to Company I, 163 Regiment Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers, November 23, 1862. 

Wintersteen John, deserted November 19, 1862. 

West Lewis D., deserted November 8, 1862. 

Yarich David P., discharged on Surgeon's certificate November 

22, 1862. 

o 

CH).-\irANY (5. 

This company was from Montour county, except a few names, 
and was mustered into service mainly November 4, 1862, and 
mustered out July 27, 1863, and unless otherwise accounted 
for, the men were mustered out with the company. 

William Y. Adams, Captain, mustered out July 27, 1863. 

Thomas Butler, 1st. Lieutenant. 

Stephen C. Vansant, 2d. Lieutenant. 

Charles D. Levan, 1st. Sergeant. 



IIItiTOR Y OF COL UMBIA CO UNTY. 29 1 

Joliii II. Leidy, Sergeant. 

John S. Mahaii, " 

Phineas llaldren, " 

James S. Headings, '• 

James W. Lowry. C()r})oral. 

Thomas P. Perry, " 

Henry D. Geiger, " 

George Haldron, '• 

Thomas M. Vansant, '" 

Daniel M. Adams, " 

Jacob J. Bardole, " 

Allien Peter V., Private. 

Ande Thomas H. " 

Albeck Jacob, deserted November 20, 1862. 

liutler John 8 , l*rivate 

Burch Peter, jr. " 

Bomboy Daniel, " 

Beers David, 

Biddle James I{, discharged on surgeon's certificate November ^'l^ 

1862. 
Bechtel Jacob, discharged on surgeon's certificate, November 14, 

] 862. 
Bechtel Daniel S, discharged on surgeon's certilicate, November 

14, 1862. 
Barber Silas W, discharged, date unknown. 
Barber Nicholas, deserted November 21, 1862. 
Cooper Abraham, Private. 
Confer William, " 

Cox William J, " 

Confer PliiHi>, dii-d at Yorktown, \'irginia, Februa'T 7, 1863. 
Carr Ale.xaiider, discharged on surgeon's certificate November 14, 

1862. 
Cox Amos, discharged November lo, 1862. 
Carr Andrew, jr., deserted November 4, 1862 
Cotner Daniel, absent without leave at muster out. 
Conway Jesse, deserted Noveml)er 1.), 1862. 
Dry Adam, Private. 

Derr Thomas, " 

Derr Iliram, " 



292 rrrsiTORr or ooLrr^nir.l coiryi y. 

Di'greoti Augustus Private. 

Dyor .Taoobr " i 

Kyov Johi\, '' I 

Evans David, deserted, date unkuo\vn. 

(xiuder Jacob, Private. 

Gordon Ernst, 

Grim John II. deserted November 18, lSfii>. 

Huttenstine J. I'rivate. 

Herner John, " 

Harries John '' 

Heiner William, discharged on surgeon's certiticate November 22, 

1S62. 
rrikert Samuel, deserted November '2'2. 18n2. 
Hartman Lewis, deserted November 21, 1862. 
Irvin \Vm.. Private. 

Kelly Jo!m 
Kester Jeremiah " 
Kersteller Leonard, "• 
Kline Isaac, " 

Kitchen John II. discharged on surgeon's certificate November 22, 

18(52. 
Kirkner Leonard, deserted November 21, 1862. 
La-hell Wm. S., Private. 

MathU'n James, " 

M;igonigal Thomas, " 

Murray Joseph K., " 

^lurtz John, " 

More George, '' 

Mi'ler Wnj. H, 
Planning AVm. L., 
Myers James I)., discharged on surgeon's certificate November 22, 

18(i2. 
Morris Edward M., deserted November 13. 1862. 
Mcv'racken James, Private. 
Mc^Iahan James, jr., discliarged on surgeon's certificate Novem- 

b.M- 22. 1862. 
Richard Hiram, Private. 

Ruse Corneliu-i, " 

Roads Mahlon, '' 



HIHTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 293 



(^fOi 



Stineman Frederich, Private. 

Starr John I)., " 

Smith Alexander, " 

8weitzer John, " 

Shiras liownian 1)., " 

8weitzer Wni. \V., " 

Strouse Win., " 

Shock KniaiiiK'l, discharnod November 21, 1802. 

Shires \Vm., dischirged November 17, 18G2. 

Stecker Moses L., discharged November 17, 1862. 

Shultz Itobt-rt M., deserted November 9, 18G2. 

Swisher IJiiri^es, deserted Novembei- 20, 1862. 

Smitli David, dcsei-tcd Xovembir 6, 1862. 

Thomas liunj. F , Private. 

Tayhjr C^yrus, 

Thomas Jolin, '' 

Tinchdl Andrew, discliai-ged on surgeon's ceititicate May 2, 1863. 

Tanner Ileni'y, jr., deserted November lo, 1862. 

Vaiisickle Jolin A., Piivate. 

Weisnar Wm., " 

Wykoff Wm. v., 

AVellever Andrew J., " 

Wanicli Amos, " 

Warner Christian, tlied at Newport News, ^'irginia, December 16, 

1862. 
Weisner Augustus, discharged on surgeon's certificate, November 

22, 1862. 
Wertman Ileniy L., discharged on surgeon's certificate November 

13, 1863. 
Young George W., deserted November 2.j, 1862. 



OOMrANV II. 

Tiie comjtany was nnistered into service mainly on the 28th of 
October 1862 ; and was mustered out at llarrisburg July 27, 
lS6;i. If not otherwise stated ihe men were mustered out with 
the Company. 

Theodore McD. Price, Captain. 

Wm. II. Evans, 1st Lieutenant, discharged May 6, 1863. 



i>;n ffrsT07?y or coLrjnuA corxrv. 

Frank A. Howard. 1st l.iop.UMiniU. [ironu>(o*l 1'roiii iM l.ii'iiti'iiant 

M.iy 1"), is(;;>. 

Miihloii 1>. llicks. proiuotiMl to 1st Scvgo:mt ,I;iiui;u-y i;>. I Sd;?, to 

2(1 I/u'iitiMiMut. Juiu' 6, 18()3. 
Win. II. Stalil. 1st Sorui'iiiit. promotod from Corporal Jiilv 1, 

iS(>;v 

August B. ClowrlK ISi'rg'i'anl. iiromotod from Corporal .laiiuarv 1. 
1 86;i. 

Ilonry IT. Mart/., Sorgoaut 

Win. Girton, Sergeant. 

Jacob Weiss, Sergeant. i)ronioted from private July 1. 18GM. 

Wm. Remley, Sergeant, discharged on surgeons certiticate Feb- 
ruary 27, ISGo. 

Isaac Lutz. Sergeant, deserted Xovember 24, 1862. 

Richard Ivupert, Cori)oral. 

James D. Evans 

George P. Stiner 

AVm. A. Lynn. Corporal, deserted November 10, 1S()2. 

Enos L. Bower, Musician. 

Elijah Bower. ^lusician. 

Andrews Sanuiel. Frivate. discliargcd on surgeon's certiticate 
November S, 1862. 

Andrews Isaac, discliarged on surgeon's certificate November 22, 
1S62. 

Boon Benjamin Private. 

Bomboy Armanis '' 

Boon George H. " 

Blank Josiah 

Bi'ck Wasliington 

Brobst William " 

Brown David jr.. discharged on surgeon's certificate November 
12, 1862. 

Bower Wm. F.. deserted November 2o, 1862. 

Clewell Wm. H. Private 

Deitriek Hervey J. '* 

Durliii Wm., dischaiged on surgeon's certificate November 22, 
1862. 

Deitriek Harrison II.. deserted November 8, 1862. 

Krwiae Wilson, Private. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 295 

Fiilk !^:iins(»ii, Private. 

Fre<leiick Jesse J., discharged on surgeon's certilicate November 

12, rso2. 

Fraiii Pliiliii, deserted November 8, 18G2. 

Fink David, deserted Novendjer 8, 18G2. 

Ganbier .Jonathan li., discharged on surgeon's certificate, Novem- 
ber 8, J 802. 

Grassley Job. deserted November 19, 1862. 

Gordenhisei- Itona, deserted Noveinber 9, 1862. 

Hippenstccl Wm. Private. 

Hetler Hiram II. '' 

Hetler Pefer 

Hill A(him 

Hoppis Elias " 

Herring Sanmel, discharged on surgeon's certificate November 
22, 1802. 

Herman Jolm, discliarged on surgeon's certificate November 22, 
1862. 

Hoffman Jacob, deserted November 9, 1802. 

Herring William, deserted Noveml^er 12, 1802. 

Harman Silas, deserted November 23, 1862. 

Hunsinger J W., deserted November 8, 1862. 

Jones William M. Private. 

Johnsr)!! Aaron 11 " 

Johnson Josiah H., deserted November 8, 1862. 

Kitchen Ricdiard, Private. 

Kramer George, " 

Kanady William, " 

Knorr Phineas, " 

Kelchner Samuel C, discharged November, 1862. 

Lant/ Peter J., absent in hospital at muster out. 

Longenberger N., Private. 

Lowery David, died July 8, 1863. 

Lynn Henry, deserted November 20, 1862. 

Longenberger John, deserted November 15, 1862. 

Laylon Aspy, deserted November lo, 1862. 

Martz Samuel, Private. 

Masteller Henry, '' 

Mowei-y George, " 



29(i HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 

Miller Jiicol), Private. 

Markle Conrad, " 

Mills James, " 

Mummy Michael, deserted November 9, 1862. 

Meiisiiiger Samuel, deserted November 9, 1862. 

Mummy Philip, deserted November 23, 1 862. 

Moyer Silas E., deserted November 23, 1862. 

Nuss Aaron, Private. 

Price John, •' 

Roniick Charles, " 

RitU'uhouse Josiah, deserted November 8, 1862. 

Rinad Levi, deserted November 10, 1862. 

Shellhannner Jacob, Private. 

Shannon William, " 

Sponeyberger S., " 

Sponeyberger P., " 

Suit Owen, " 

Sherman Reuben, " 

Shaffer Daniel, absent in hospital at muster out. 

Strohmoyer John P., Private, 

Suit Charles F., 

Schlabach Wm. H., 

Smith Emanuel, deserted November 10, 1862. 

Sitler Freeman, deserted November 23, 1862. 

Slasser Solomon, deserted November 23, 1862. 

Wells John, Private. 

Witmire Daniel B., '• 

Witmire Samuel, " 

Witmire Joseph. " 

Walp William, discharged November 1862. 

Yohe William, Private. 

Yost Elias, " 

Yinger George, 

Y^ohe James, deserted October 30, 1862. 



COMl'ANY I. 



The company was mustered in mainly from the 1st to the 5th of 
November 1862, and nnistered out 27 July 1863, and all the 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNIY. 297 

men not otherwise disposed of were mustered out with thecom- 

piiny. 
William 11. .Shuman, Captain. 

William H. Reinbold, 1st. Lieutenant, discharged May .5, 1863. 
Robert S. Ent, 1st. Lieutenant, promoted from 1st Sergeant, June 

6, 1863. 
Daniel G. Ent, 2d Lieutenant discharged on surgeon's certificate 

April 29, 1863. 
Albert McDowell, 2d Lieutenant, promoted from private to Ser- 
geant December 16, 1862, to 2d Lieutenant May 15, 1863. 
P^ranklin P. Kelley, 1st Sergeant, promoted from private July 1, 

1863. 
Thomas F. Harder, Sergeant, promoted from Corporal July 1, 1863- 
Daniel B. Stevens, Sergeant, absent in hospital at muster out. 
Jacob H. Yohe, Sergeant, promoted from private July 1, 1863, 
Daniel L. Everhart, Sergeant. 

Uriah J. Campbell, Sergeant, discharged December 2, 1862. 
Ebenezer S. Case, Corporal. 

John Krwin, promoted to Corporal December 16, 1862. 
George W. Jacoby, promoted to Corporal December 2, 1 862. 
Alfred F. Slayman, Corporal. 
William Abbott, 
Samuel P. Levan, " 

William E. Shannon 

Thomas H. Hamilton deserted December 10, 1862. 
Adams David, Private. 

Ashton Emanuel, " 

Arnierling C. S. G., " 

Beaver Joseph B., " 

Boon Emanuel, '* 

Backer Nicholas. " 

Beaver Benjamin, " 

Beaver John, " 

B.-aver Peter, 
Bredbenner S., discharged on surgeon's cei-tificate November 22, 

1862. 
Billeg William, discharged on surgeon's certificate November 22, 

1862. 
Creasy John P., Private. 



29S ITTSTOUY or COLUMBTA COVXTY. 

Cornier Henry, l*riva(e. 

Crawford Jackson, 

Can- George, deserted November 22, 18()2. 

Drake Benjainin, Trivate. 

Derr Jolm, " 

Deir .Joseph, " 

l)ailous Jolm, '• 

Dailoiis Samuel, " 

Krnst, Frederick, '• 

Eves William M., discharged on surgeon's cerlificate Xovember 

22, 181)2. 
Ftustaniaker II, Private. 

Forsylhe Charles, 
Fausey William, discharged on surgeon's certiticate Novend»er22 

1 8()l>. 
(ietling InMijamin, Private, 

(irover Stephen, " 

(iirtou W'm (r , discharged on surgeon's certiticate ]Srovend)er 22, 

1 802. 
Ciensell Joseph, transferred to Ulman's lndej)endent ]>attery, 2 

December, 1862. 
TTowell Theodore, Private. 
Iluttenstine D. M., " 

Hagenbuch W. K., 
llunuuel John J., " 

Harmon Benjamin, " 

Hart/ell Jacob, '" 

Harmony Daiuel, " 

Hill dames. 
Hock Michael, 
dones Hervey, discharged on surgeon's certiticate November 22, 

1 862. 
Kindt Mathias, Private. 

Kline Abraham " 

Knouse Philip, " 

Kreischer Jerre 

Kline George C, absent, sick at muster out. 
Kneclit Daniel \V., Private. 
Kline Martin, deserted November 2o, 1862. 



I 



HI.STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 200 

Lou- Willi.'im, Priviite. 

Loiigenberger J. B., deserted November 22, 1862. 

Longeiiberger John, deserted November 22, 1862. 

Meiich Christian, Private. 

Miller Fnuiklin, " 

Mosteller Wm., « 

Miller Charles, discharged on surgeon's certificate, November 22, 
1 s(;l> 

Menere John, discharged on surgeon's certificate November 22, 
1862. 

Mack Sedgwick R , transferred to Ulman's Inde|)endent Battery, 
December 2, 1862. 

Milk r Henry L., deserted November 21, 1862. 

McMichael Josej)h K., discharged on surgeon's certificate Novem- 
ber 22. 1862. 

Nuss Benjamin, deserted November 26, 1862. 

Nuss Gi(ieon, deserted November 26, 1862. 

Potter John, Private. 

Price Jonas, " 

Patrick James, '' 

Potter Lemuel, " 

Russell Thomas, 

Rider Daniel, " 

Reinbold Lewis, '* 

Reinliart John, deserted November 4, 1862. 

Stine Michael, absent, sick at muster out. 

Shannon Jared Y., Private. 

Seigfried Iliram, " 

Schug Charles, discharged on surgeon's certificate November 22, 
1862. 

Steely Philip, deserted November 26, 1862. 

Seigfreid Jacob, deserted November 20, 1862. 

Turner Jolin, deserted December 5, 1862, returned April 1, 1863, 

nnistered out with company. 

Wardin James M., absent, sick at muster out. 

Woomer Joshua, Private. 

Whare(VVharey) Israel " 

Williams Charles, discharired on sur<reon's certificate November 
22, 1862. 



300 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Yohe Elish.'i, Priviite. 

Yohe Stephen " 

Yeager Henry V., '• 

Ziniiiieriuaii .lerre, lU'serted, date unknown. 



171st REGIMENT. 

Wesley Wirt, C'onunissary Sergvant, mustered into servii-e Octo- 
ber 28, 18G2, mustered out witli regiment August 8, 18(U. 

lIiMiry S. Artlnir. (Vmpany A, 1st Sergeant November 2, 18G2, 
mustered out witli eom]>any August 8, 1863. 

Thomas J. Barton, C\nn})any A, Sergeant, November 1, 1862, 
mustered out with company August 8, 1863. 

Leonard K. Bomboy, eomjiany A, musician, November 2, 1862^ 
nnistered out with company August 8, 1863. 

Henry S. Bodine, eomi)any A, private, November 2, 1862, mus- 
tered out with company August 8, 1863. 

C A Eik'nberger, cH)mpany A, private, November 2, 1862, mus- 
tered out witli comj)any August 8, 1863. 

Uriah Gohler. company A, private, November 2, 1862, mustered 
out with eomjiany August 8, 1863. 

Kichard Hess, com{)any B, private, November 2, 1862, nnistered 
out with company August 7, 1863. 

Lewis Hess, com})any B, ])rivate, November 2, 1862, mustered out 
with company August 7, 1863. 

Samuel Y. Hess, company B. private, November 2, 1862, nnistered 
out with company August 7, 1863. 

George W. Hittle, company B, private, November 2, 1862, mus- 
tered out with cotin)any August 7, 1863. 

Jolm Heighmiller, comitany B, i)rivate, November 2, 1862, mus- 
tered out with comany, August 7, 1863. 

Knoch Ikeler, company B, private, N«)vember 2, 1862, mustered 
out with comjiany August 7, 1863. 

Cyrus Demott, company G, private, December 6, 1862, mustered 

out with comjiany, August 8, 1863. 



HIiSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 301 

The regiment left Camp Curtin on November 27, and proceed- 
ed by Wusliington Jind Norfolk to Suifolk, Virginia. December 
28, it jiroceeded to Newbern, North Carolina, and went into win- 
ter quarters. In March they re}»ulsed Gen Hill who had appear- 
ed before Newbern. Hill mnved towards Washington and 
erected breastworks at Hill s point. The 171st was detailed to 
storm them, but were witli<li.nvii Su]»se(piently it was in a dem- 
onstration towards lliclimond, in favor of Meade at Gettysburg, 
and then took a ])Osition in a ))ass in the South Mountain which 
it held until the rebfl ictrcat. It then marched to Frederick; 
thence to Harrisbuig, where it was mustered out. 

There may be other Columbia county men in this regiment, but 
I cannot distinguish tlicm, and must rely upon those given for 
information as to naiues (unitted. If they are furnished tliis 
record will become more and more perfect. 



^^^^f 



r 




302 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



MONTOUR COUNTY— THREE MONTHS' SERVICE. 



11th REGIMENT 



COMPANY H. 



Mustered in April 26, 1861. 

Williiun McClure, Captain. Elliot James, 

Samuel Hibler, 1st Lieutenant. Frick Augustus G., 
Thomas Maxwell, 2d Lieutenant.Farren William J., 

John Doyle 1st Sergeant. Fairchild George, 

Jonathan Waters, 2d Sergeant. Fields Robert, 

Lawson Carroll, 3d Sergeant. Goodrich Maxwell, 

Seth Freeze, 4th Sergeant. Goodrich William C, 

William Roberts, 1st. Corporal. Galligan Thomas, 

Jerome A. Harder, 2d Corporal. Gibbs Moses M , 

Wm. E. Seesholtz, 3d Corporal. Gibbons Moses, 



Philip Renn, 4th Corporal. 
Frank Lewis, Musician. 
Charles Munma, Musician. 
Aggry Henry, 
Arter William O., 
Boushlpger Federick, 
Beaumont Charles, 
Burn John, 
Burns James, 
Cuthbert Edward, 
Cuthbert Wm. 1^., 
Crossley Daniel P., 
Clave John, 
Cain James, 
Clark John, 
Coup Peter M., 
Clark Jesse C, 



Green Patrick, 
Harper Samuel, 
Harris Frederich, 
Howell Thomas, 
Jenkins Charles, 
McAdle James, 
McCann James, 
Milner William, 
Moore James G., 
Oakes Peter M., 
Petrusky Herman, 
Paugh John, 
Quick John G., 
Rishel Daniel, 
Ridgeway Edwin O., 
Reid John C, 
Reily Martin, 



HUSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 303 

Deshay William, Kay Adam, 

Davis Thomas C, Rollan Patrick, 

Day Andrew, Robinson John, 

Devers James, Rodgers Chai'les, 

Devers Isaiah, Roberts Caleb, 

Everdale George, Riddle Richard, 

Kulp Elias, Stoddart Thomas, 

Kelly \Villi;uii, Suppinger Amos. 

Lee John, Sherr Adolph, 

Mellen Isaac, Toole Thomas, 

Mellen William II., Taylor Martin, 

Murray Mathias, Weidle Joseph, 

McCarty Clarence, Watkins Edwin, 

McGuire Andrew, Yarrick Peter, 

McGor William, 

After being armed and equipped, Captain McClurc was stationed 
at Elkton, Maryland. Thence June 18th to Chambersburg, thence 
in a few days to Hagerstown. Ordered by forced march to Wil- 
liamsport to repeal an attack, but the enemy had retired. On a 
forward movement from Williaraspoit, they encountered Stone- 
wall Jackson and beat him, at Falling Waters, and had the com- 
pliments of Gen. Patterson. The regiment volunteered for the 
three years service, but was mostly, on re-muster, filled with new 
men. 



14th RE(iIMKNT. 



COMPANY C. 

Mustered in April 26, 1861. 

Oscar Ephlin, Captain. Jenkins John R., 

John A. Winner, Ist Lieutenant. Johnson Joseph H., 
Clinton W. Pursel, 2nd Lieut. Jones Edward, 
Henry M. Trumbower, Sergeant.Jones Matthew, 
Arthur Amandus, 2d Sergeant. Jordon John, 
Freeze Mc Williams, 3d Sergeant. Kelly Patrick, 
John C. Perrin, 4th Sergeant. Kelly Martin, 
Jacob Miller, 1st Corporal. Kesler Michael, 



304 HlSTOIiY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Geo. ^V^. VaiigiUlor, 2d Corporal. Luudiin Thomas, 

Adolphus Bookheister 3d Cor-Lewis John O., 

poral. Mencer John, 
Hoose Fhuiigan, 4tl\ Corporiil. Mowor Cluirlos, 

llt'iiry Met/., IMusioiivn. McNiiich Samuel. 

William Milliner, Miisieian. Markel William, 

Aleorn John, Miller Jaeob C, 

Alward John, Ogden Andrew B., 

Blue Sanuiel, Pursel .lolin, 

Browu Benton B., Philli])s James M., 

Barnharl William, Kobbe Ji»seph, 

Boush Montii'onuMy, Rank Ellis II., 

Billmeyer William, Koderiek Edward W., 

(.'aldwell Sanuiel W., Kusli Stephen I., 

Davis Lewis L., Kollin Harris G., 

Danks George, Small Charles, 

Davis Kichai-d, Stall Sanmel, 

Deiss Reese, Snyder John C, 

Everheart Nathaniel, Spade Hiram M., 

Fields Elijali, Sigler Robert, 

Fenstermacher Joseph II.. Tlu)mas James, 

Foin John A., Thomas William J. 

Ciaskins Harbit, Terry Charles, 

Ilandly William, Tusman Casper, 

Iluutingdun John, Thorp James, 

-loui's James, Thacher Edward, 

llouser James, Wise JMark W., 

Howe John T., Watts William M., 

Hopkins Richard, Williams Daniel, 

Handshaw Peter, Woods Jol\n, 

llouser John J., Young AVilliam, 

Johnson Stei>hen, Patton AltVed B., 

Exeejiting marehiug and drill the 14th did not see nmeh service. 
Although several marches were made for the purpose, they never 
succeeded in encountering the enemy. They Avere with Gen. Pat- 
terson on the Potomac. Upon being nmstered out, a large number 
of the men took service in other regiments recruiting for the 
war. 



Ill STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 305 

16th RKGIMENT. 
COMPANY C. 

Ill April 1861, the following citizens mainly of Berwick, went 
to JI;irri8V>urg to enter the service. They were mustered in April 
20, 1861, for three months ; but at once agreed to re-enlist at the 
ex|<ir!iti(Mi of that time, which most of them did. Their Captain 
wat< Dorsheimer, and the regiment was a part of the 4th Brigade, 
First Division ; and subsequently of the Fifth Division and held 
the h'ft of the line at Bull Run. Was in the second forward 
movLinont towards Martinsburg, thence to Bunker Hill, thence by 
forced march to Harper's Ferry, thence by Smithfield, menaced 
by Stuart's cavalry, to Charlestown in Virginia, thence at close of 
term of service to Harrisburg, where they were mustered out 
July 30, 1861, 



S. F. Sliwartz, 
M. J. Goodman, 
N. G. Williams, 
Jacob ]^>fl■, 
Thomas Stackhouse, 
Harrison Swank, 
A. 1). Seely, 
James Smith, 
A. Lockart, 
Robert Webster, 
William CampV>ell, 
Lafayette Myers, 
J. F. Chemberlin, 



A. S. Kensey, 
Fernando Lake, 
W. C. Thompson, 
E. C. Bahl, 
W. H. Crandall, 
A. C. Thompson, 
J. W. Gilroy, 
J. A. Yount, 
J. V. Hertz, 
Lyman H. Fowler, 
Cyrus RoVjbins, 
Wesley R. Price. 



100 DAYS SEBVICE. 



193d. REdlMKNT. 



COMPANY B. 



The Company was from Montour county, was mustered into 
the service July 17, 1864, and mustered out Novembers, 1864. 

On the day of the organization of the regiment it moved for 
Baltimore, and went into camp there at Mankinds woods. About 



806 JUS TORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

September 1st. it moved to Camp Carroll, a mile southwest of tlie 

city on the line of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. Detaohments 

of the regiment were used for provost duty, escorts, and other 

similar service ; but were not in any battle or skirmish. Fnless 

otherwise marked, all the men were regularly nmstered out with 

the company. 

John A. Winner, Captain. 

James Foster, 1st. Lieutenant. 

Isaac D. Crewitt, 2d. Lieutenant. 

David K. Shutt, 1st. Sergeant. 

John Keim, Sergeant. 

Jacob Ixiokmiller, Sergeant. 

James M. Elliott, Sergeant. 

Henry Kneibler, Sergeant. 

Hiram Echert, Corporal. 

William Hordner, Corporal. 

David Aten, Corporal. 

Charles S. Baker, Corporal. 

Melville 11. Ditt. Corporal. 

David Lochenthaler, Corporal. 

Janies Bullauiore, Corporal. 

James R. Wilds, Cori)oral. 

Augustus Woods, Musician. 

Sanuiel Morgan. Musician. 

Ashtoti Alexander, Private. 

Alexander Park, 

Brent William, 

Bright Edward R., 

Bookmiller John. 

Bredbender W. M., 

Buckalew W., deserted July 20, 1864. 

Cook Benjamin, 

Crossley John M., 

Cummings Russell, 

•Carroll Patrick, 

Consor Asa A., 

Doran Joseph A., 

Di'nmick Emanuel, 

Davis John- 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 307 

Davis James \V., 

Evelaiid Hiram, 

Evans John M., 

Evans George D., , 

Pluck Lewis A., 

Fitzgerald Tliomas, 

Gearhart Alexander M., 

Guntiier Cyrus S., 

Gib])s Slieldun T., promoted to Commissary Sergeant July 2 1, 

lS(i4. 
Hale John, 
Hale Joseph, 
Hinckley Charles R., 
Hilkert John, 
Hoiiier William L., 
Housel .Jacob P., 
Harding Terrence 
Heddings William M., 
Jones CalcVi, 
Johnson Henry W., 
Jones Stephen A., 
Jones, Francis W., 

Jones. Henry C, deserted July 2 >, 1864. 
Klase Jesse, 
Larafer William, 
Lloyd William M., 
Learny William, 

Learny Dennis, deserted October 12, 18G4. 
Martin John, 
McGrath James, 
Newberry Josiah, 
Faugh Robert, 
Purcell (Jharles P., 
Rake John, 
Reninger William, 
Rhoads George, 
Robins Abram V., 
Runyan Jesse, 
Robenbach Joseph H , 



308 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA OOUNIY. 

Snyder Henry, 
Snyder Jacob J., 
Stadler Aaron W., 
Scott Robert, 
Sterick David L.. 
Sarapsol John G., 
Suit Alonzo J., 
Strawhecker D. H., 
Taylor John H., 
Taylor William E., 
Thomas James, 
Woodside Charles, 
Walker Harvey V., 
Weaver Benjamin, 




HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 309 



NINE MONTHS' SERVICE. 



132d KEGIMENT. 



COMPANY A. 

This company was from Montour county and was mustered into 
the service August 15, 1802. The Regiment was at South Moun- 
tain, Antietara, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. Its war 
record is first rate. When not otherwise accounted for the men 
were nuistered out with tlie Company, May 24, 1863 Clinton W. 
Neal, of Bloorasburg, was Quartermaster of the Regiment. 
Joseph E. Slireve, Captain, promoted to major September 18^ 1862. 
Charles E. Norris, Captain, 

G. W. Vangilder, 1st Lieutenant, discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate October 26, 1862. 
Tliomas Maxwell, 1st Lieutenant. 
Charles A. Meylert, 2d Lieutenant, missing since February 22, 

1863. 
Edward W. Roderick, 2d Lieutenant. 
David Shutt, 1st Sergeant. 
J. M. llassenplug, 1st Sergeant, killed at Antietam, September 17, 

1862. 
Jolin S. Ware, Sergeant. 
Isaac D. Crewett, Sergeant. 
Michael Kessler, Sergeant, wounded at Fredericksburg, December 

13, 1862. 
George Lovett, Sergeant. 
Jacob II. Miller, Sergeant, discharged Jauuaiy 30, 1863, for 

wounds received at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862- 
Joseph H. Nevins, Sergeant, discharged on surgeon's certificate 

March 6, 1863. 
Daniel Vanronk, Sergeant, killed at Antietam September 17, 1862, 
Jacob lit'dfield. Corporal, wounded at^Chaucellorsville, Virginia, 

May 3, 1863. 



310 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COlfNTY. 

Jjinies VVilliiuns, CA)ri>()r;il. 

Conrad S. Atcii, Corjjoval. 

George Snyder, Corj)c)ral, absent, siek at muster out. 

Alexander Huntingdon, Corporal. 

Samuel Stall, Corporal. 

Henry Vincent, Corporal. 

flohn tlarig. Corporal. 

Charles Flick, Cor|)oral, discharged December (i, iy(t2, for wounds 

received at Antietam, September 17, 1862. 
Nathan F. Lightner, Corjioral, discharged on surgeon's certificate 

8 December, 18()l>. 
William C. McCormick, Corporal, discharged March 1, 1863, for 

wounds received at FredericksV>urg, December 13, 1862. 
Henry L. Schick, nuisician. 
Ai)pleman, Amos, Private. 

Arnwine, Sylvester W. wounded at Antietam. 
Adams Henry, died September 22 of wounds received at Antietam 

September 17, 1862. 
Beaver Arthur W. 

Bookmiller Jacob, wounded at Chancellorsville May 3, 1863. 
Blee Franklin G. 
Black Jeremiah. 

Carroll William, wounded at Chancellorsville May 3, 1863. 
Cooper Sanniel E. deserted October 22, 1862. 
Devine Franklin. 
Davis William. 

Dye Sanuiel \'. discharged on surgeon's certificate April 8, 1863. 
Earp William jr., wounded at Chancellorsville. 
Easton James S. 
Eggert Hiram. 
Feidel Joseph. 
Flickinger Samuel. 
Foin John B. A. 
Foster James. 
Fitzsiiumons C. W. 
Fields John L. 
J^Vancis George, discharged on surgeon's certificate November 15, 

1862. 
Goodall Thomas. 



IflSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 311 

Gulicks Samuel. 

Gibson John, killed at Antietani. 

Hale .Josei»li. 

Hunt George E. 

PIornl)er<fer Adam. 

Hendrickson D. 

Hillner Sanuiel, killed at Antietara. 

Hununel Hiram, killed at Antietam. 

Jones Thomas. 

James Tiiomas. 

Jones James W. killed at Fredericksburg. 

Klase W. J. W. 

Klase J-)aniel J. P., killed at Antietam. 

Leehthaler Conrad, discharged, date unknown. 

Langer Sanmel. 

Leicliow John, discharged October 28, for wounds received at 

AnticlaiM. September 17, 18G2. 
Long dacol), killed at Antietam. 
Morgan Watkiii. 
Miller J.evi M. 
Moyer Jacob W. 
Mayer Leonard. 
Moyer Cornelius C. 
Morris John, wounded at Antietam. 
McCoy John. 

McKee James, deserted August 16, 1862. 

Neese William li. wounded at Antietam, discharged date un- 
known. 

Philli[)s James M. 
Reaser John P. 
Reidy Simon. 
Rantz Isaac 
Rank David H. discharged on surgeon's certificate Januaiy 29, 

1863. 
Ringler William A. discharged May 5, 1863, for wounds received 

at Antietam September 17, 1862. 
Rice Jonatlian, killed at Fredericksburg, Virginia. 
Stewart William. 
Smith Edward D. 



312 IIISTOEY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Sunday William. 

Schreiver August. 

Stiue John. 

Smith Edwin L, 

Switzer Oliver B. 

Snyder Sharps M. 

Sechler Aaron. ^ 

Vandling Archibald, discharged on surgeon's certificate November 

28, 1862. 
Wright Angus. 
Waugh Andrew. 

Wallace John, discharged, date unknown. 
Wate Samuel. 

Wright Matthew R., killed at Fredericksburg. 
Wray James D., deserted September 19, 1863. 



COMPANY E. 



COLUMBIA COUNTY GUARDS. 



The following is a list of the officers and privates of the "Col- 
umbia County Guards." They left Bloomsburg on the 8th of 
August, 1862, and were mustered into service August 13, 1862, 
and mustered out at Harrisburg, May 24, 1863. They were in 
the pursuit at the battle of South Mountain, in the battle of An- 
tietam, in the thick of the fight at Fredericksburg, and at Chan- 
cellorsville. The number of men lost in battle shows the closeness 
of the work. General Trench in an order issued by him, says — 
•'Knowing the character of the one hundred and thirty second 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, which has fought under my eye in two 
of the bloodiest engagements of the war, and which has the high- 
est encomiums from its brigade commander, General Kimball, 
who knows what brave men are," etc.. shows the high character of 
the whole command. All the men not otherwise accounted for, 
are to be considered as having been mustered out with the com- 
pany. 

OFFICERS. 

Captain, Michael Whilmoyer, Bloomsburg. 

1st Lieutenant, Andrew C. Mensch, Bloomsburg. 



HIS TOR Y OF COL UMBIA CO UN2 Y. 313 

2d Lieutenant, D. R. Mellick, Lightstreet. 
Sergeant, Wnx. A. Barton, Espy. 

" Wm. H. Gilmore, Bloomsburg. 
" Wm. J. Renn, Chestnut Grove. 
Corporal, Charles P. Sloan, Bloomsburg, promoted to Sergeant 10th 

of January 1863. 
Corpora', T. Newton Kline, Orangeville, promoted to Sergeant 10th 

of January 1863. 
Corporal, J. Pierce Melliek, Lightstreet, died at Washington, D. 

C, of wounds received at Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 

13, 1863. 
Cor{)oral, Wm. C. Robison, Espy, discharged on Surgeon's cer- 
tificate October 26, 1862. 
Corporal, Clark Krcssler, Espy. 

" Ephrain) M. Kline, Benton. 
*' Henry M. Johnston, Jerseytown. 
Corporal, Clinton W. Ni'al, promoted to Quarter Master August 

22, 1862. 
Fifer, Azama V. Hower, Bloomsburg, discharged on Surgeon's 

certificate, January 29, 1863. 
])rummer, John Staley, Rohrsburg. 
Wagoner, Tilglnnan Faux, Espy. 

PRIVATES. 

James S. Bomboy, Bloomsburg. 

James W. Cook, " 

James Cadinan, " 

Henry D. Croup, " discharged on Surgeon's cer- 

tificate October 8, 1862. 

C. S. M. Fisher, Bloomsburg, wounded at Antietam, Mai-yland, 
September 18, 1862. 

Henry C. Hartman, Bloomsburg. 

Charles M. Hendershot, Bloomsburg. 

Wm. C. Shaw, Bloomsburg, absent, sick at muster out. 

H. Clay Hartman, Bloomsburg. 

Samuel Harder, " prisoner from December 13, 

1862 to May ^I'l, 1863. 

Adam Hoist, Bloomsburg. 

Samuel Harp, " discharged on Surgeon's certificate 

July 13, 1863. 



314 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Au<j;iistus JVI. Kurtz, Bloomsburg. 

Jonathuu W. Snyder, *' 

Joseph Penrose, Bloomsburg, missing in action ut Fredericks- 
burg, Virginia, T)ecend)er 13, 18(>2. 

Oliver I'alnier, Bloomsburg. 

Josiah Keedy, " wounded at Fredericksburg, Virginia, 

December 13, 18G2. 

,I(>ii!i Ivoadarmel, Bloomsburg. 

Isaac Roadarmel, " 

C'harles W. Snyder. 

Frederick M. Staley, •' 

George W. Sterner, " 

Edward C. (Treene, '• corporal, 10 November 1802. 

Amasa W'liiteniglit, " wounded at Antietam, Mary- 

land, September 17, 1802. 

Samuel Wood, Orangeville, corporal 25tli February, 1803. 

David Kuckel, 

George W. Howell, " 

Charles W. :MutHey. " 

Daniel Markle, " 

Wm. Lazarus, killed at Antietam, Maryland, September 17, 1802. 

.losepli S. Ilayman, deserted August 30, 1802. 

Samuel R. Johnson, Orangeville. 

Hiram F. Kline, " 

Jesse M. llowell, " died near Falmouth, Vir- 

ginia, July 8, 1803. 

Elwood W. Coleman, Orangeville. 

Levi H. Priest, Benton. 

Josiah Stiles, " absent, sick at muster out. 

Thomas O. Kline, Orangeville. 

Sanmel Krickbaum, "■ 

Francis M. Lutz, " 

F. J. II. Ti'eller, Lewisburg. 

Lenmel Mood, Lightstreet. 

Lafayette Applegate, Sereno. 

W. H. Hunter, Sereno. 

Joseph Lawton, Pine. 

John Lawton, " 

Lsaac M. Lyons, " 



HIiSTORY OF COTAJMnTA COUNTY. 31;5 

Joseph W. Lyons, Pine. 

Leonard Bciii^Ie, Mordansvillc. 

Henry M. Sands, " 

Hiram M. Hroat, Jerseytown. 

Clark Price, Lime Rid!:;e. 

James F. Trump, l^^!^]>y- 

Jacob W. Homboy. '' 

Isaiah S. Hartman, " died October 1(5, of wounds received 
at Antietam, Maryland, September 17, 1862. 

Jeremiah Keece, prisoner from May Hd to May 22, l.^ifiS. 

Samuel M. Vanhorn, Greenwood, die<l at Washington, February 
10, 1863, buried in Harmony 1)urial ground, I). (J. 

Thomas C'arutliers, C'hestnut (^rove, discharged on surgeon's 
certificate February 1 o, 1863. 

Gaylord Whilmoyer, Chestnut Grove, discharged on surgeon's 
certificate February 17. 1863. 

Peter O. Crist, Chestnut Grove. 

Philip Watts, 

Sanun 1 Young, Rohrsburg. 

Abel Dialy, lioaringci'eek. 

Charles A. Folk, " 

Jchn Moore Eves, Millville. 

Amos Y. Kisner, " 

John F. Eck, Briarcreek. 

Gotleib Wagner, Jackson. 

Geo. M. Kline, Town Hill. 

Moses J. Trench, Plymouth. 

James B. Fortnei', Mt. Pleasant, promoted to corporal 10th of 
July, 1863. 

Robert P. (Trillesj)ie, liuckhorn. 

John P. Guiles, " 

Christian C. Hughes, Cambra. 

John N. Hughes, Fowlersville, |tromoted to corporal 10th of Jan- 
uary, 1863. 



316 JII.STOBY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



COMPANY H. 



CATAWIS8A GUARDS. 



Georg«.» W. John, Captiiin, resigncMl December 9, 1862. 

Miirtiii M. Brobst, CaptJiiii, promoted from 1st. Lieutenant, De- 
cember 9, 1862. 

Isaiah W. Willets, 1st. Lieutenant, promoted from 1st. Sergeant 
December !), 1862. 

Henry H. Hoagland, 2d. Lieutenant, died December 14 of wounds 

received at Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 13, 1862. 

P. 11. Margerum, 2d. Lieutenant, promoted from Corporal Decem- 
ber 16, 1862. 

A. II. Sharpless, 1st. Sergeant, ])romoted from Corporal Decem- 
ber 16, 1862. 

Samuel F. Savery, Sergeant. 

George Reedy, promoted to Corporal January 22, 1863. 

Hiram N. Brown, promoted to Corporal January 22, 1863. 

William McNeal, Sergeant. 

Tluuxlore Kreigh, Private. 

Uolandus Herbein, " 

Sanuiel J. Frederich, " 

Francis M. Thomas, woundet] at Fredericksburg, Virginia, Decem- 
ber 13, 1862. 

John P. Iloagland, promoted to Corporal November 21, 1862. 

Ephraim L. Kramer, promoted to Corjioral January 20, 1863. 

D. Hollingshead, promoted to Corporal ,Tanuary 20, 1863. 

Theobald Fields, promoted to Cori)oral January 20, 1863, wound- 
ed at Chancellorsville, Mrginia May 2, 1863. 

(leorge Harder, Private. 

Burton W. Fortner, " 

Brumbach II. II., " 

Brobst John II., " 

Burger William H., wounded at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863. 

Beaver William, 

Brumbach Josejih, 

Bell John, 

Barret Julius A., discharged on surgeon's certificate January 13, 
1863. 

Bates John, discharged on surgeon's certificate February 1863. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 317 

Bruiubach Win. J., discharged February 2, 1863. 

Clewell Christian, 

Cool Phinciis, discharged on surgeon's certificate January 1863. 

Cool Ilirani, discharged January 1863 for wounds received at An- 
tietani, Maryland, September 17, 1862. 

Dillon John, 

Drum Morgan G. 

Dyer William H., died at Belle Plain, Virginia, December 1862. 

Derr John, killed at Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 13, 1862. 

Erwine Albert, died at Belle I'laiii, Virginia, December 1,3, 1862, 
buried in Military Cemetery, D. C. 

Fetterman William. 

Fetterman Daniel. 

Fedder Christian M. 

Fortner Henry B. 

Fields Samuel A. 

Fischer iJoyd W. B. 

Fischer Jacob G. 

Fischer John D., discharged on surgeon's ceriificate, date un- 
known. 

Hite Scott. 

Iiam])ton John, absent, sick at muster out. 

Harder Arthur. 

Harder Thomas E. 

Hampton Ethan. 

Hartman W. H. H., discharged on surgeon's certificate April 12, 
1863. 

Harder Clark, discharged on surgeon's certificate January 21, 
1863. 

Hawkins George H., died October 4, burial record October 10, of 
wounds received at Antietain, Maryland, September 17, 1862, 
buried in National Cemetery, Section 26, lot B, grave 221. 

John Henry I. 

John William E. 

Kreigh Jeremiah S. 

Kramer Edward. 

Lashell Ralph M. 

Lewis Emanuel L. 

Ludwig John. 



318 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 

INIargerum Juiiies P. 

Marks Williiuii. 

Martz Joseph. 

Mensch Adam W. 

Mears Coininodore P. 

Malony Charles. 

Masteller Isaiah W. 

McGraw Patrick, died at Warreiiton, Virginia, November 6, 1862. 

Ohl John F. 

Payne Ervine C 

Parks William J. D., died December 28 of wounds received at 
Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 13, 1862, buried in MiHtary 
Asylum Cemetery. D. C. 

Phillips David, killed at Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 13, 
1862. 

Keinard Tobias. 

Reese PVederick. 

Hider T.loyd I. 

llishel Elias C. wounded at Chancellorsville, Virginia, December 

13, 1862. 
Robbins TIenry J. 

Rhoades Jeremiah, absent, sick at muster out. 
Rider Wesley, died at Belle Plain, Virginia, December 1862. f- 
Richards James M., killed at Antietam September 17, 1862. 
Roup Josiali G., died of wounds received at Antietam Septeiuber 

17, 1862. 
Schmick Benjamin B. 
Schmick Charles S. 

Snyder Jeremiah II., absent, sick at muster out. 
Stewart Clark B. 
Stokes John H. . 

Shoemaker Jesse. 

Sanks John M., discharged on special order October 14, 1862. 
Sterne George F., killed at Antietam Septeriiber 17, 1862. 
Small Christian, killed at Chancellorsville, Virginia, May 3, 1863. 
Tlieile Lewis. 

Thomas Samuel M., died at Falmouth, Viiginia January 8, 1863. 
Troup John, died Oclober 4 of wounds received at Antietam Sep- 
tember 17, 1862. 



nm TOE Y OF COL UMBIA CO UNT Y. 3 1 9 

Waters Dennis. 
Watkiiis Robert M. 
Warne Monroe C. 
Yeager Daniel L. 

The "Catawissa Guards" were Company H, 132 Regiment, and 
were mustered into service August 14, 1862, for nine months, and 
mustered out May 24, 1863. In all cases where nothing is said 
of the fate of the soldier named, he was mustered out with his 
company. On the 13th of Sejjtember the regiment by a forced 
march reached South Mountain just as the fight closed for the 
day. It joined in pursuit of the enemy On the 17th. it was in 
close quarters in the battle of Antietam, where several men were 
killed. It was in the reconnoissance towards Leesburg and 
Charleston. It was in the assault on Mary's Heights at Freder- 
icksburg, where Henry H. Hoagland was killed while receiving 
the flag from the hands of its dying bearer, and after the battle 
the regiment moved to Falmouth, Virginia, in camp and picket 
duty. It was in the forward movement upon Chancellorsville. 
and on the 3d of May was moved to the front and held its i)Osi- 
tion until the retreat conmienced. The regiment earned and sus- 
tained a first rate military record. 



136th REGIMENT. 



COMPANY I. 

Alem B. Tate, August 25, 1862,. Commissioned 2d Lieutenant 
August 27, 1862, ]>romoted to 1st Lieutenant 27 January 1863, 
mustered out with company May 29, 1863. 

John C. Karns, August 25, 1862, promoted to Corporal March J, 
1863, mustered out with company May 29, 1863. 

George Nicholas, promoted to Corporal March 1, 1863, mustered 
out with company May 29, 1863. 

Boone Samuel W., nnistered out with company May 29, 1863. 

Bowman Joseph P., nnistered out with conii)aiiy May 29, 1863. 

Eves John P., died December 18 of wounds received at Freder- 
icksburg, Virginia, December 13, 1862. 



320 



II IS TOUT OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



Fhn-k Williiuu A., imistored out with company May 29, 1SG3. 
Fox Isaiah, wounded and captured at Fredericksburg, Va , Dec. 

1802, died at Kichnjoud, Virginiii, January 10, IStuV 
Hirlenian David G , mustered out with company May 29, 1863. 
Kitchen Joseph H., mustered out with company May 29, 1863. 
Mott Samuel M., discharged on surgeon's certificate March 10, 

1 803. 

Puff Jacob, mustered out with company May 29, 1863, and never 

heard of since 
Kemley Daniel II , died in hospital Jiear Belle Plain Lauvling of 

fever. 
Khone Livingston, mustered out with com}>any ^lay 29, 1863. 
Vansickle J. 11 , mustered out with company May 29, 1803. 
Vanilerslice T. J , musteied out with company May 29, 1863. 
Van>ickle Aaron M., nuistrred out with company May 2\^, 1863. 
Wright Thomas, nnistered out with company May 29, 1803. 

On the 26th of August the Kegiment was one of the cordon of 
defenses of Washington. Thence to Sharpsburg, Warrenton, 
Brooks Station, ^Vhile Oak Church and Falmouth. In the battle 
of hVederioksburg the Regiment lost 140 in killed, wounded and 
missing. It wa-* out on the Mud March. In the l)attle of Chancel- 
lorsville it lost several men, and saw hard lighting. Mustered out 
at Harrisburg, the 29th of May 1863. 



i^\h 1 y 



JI J STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 321 



ONE YEARS SERVICE. 



74Tn RKOIMENT. 



COMPANY A. 



Recruited in Columbia county. 
Those marked with a * in Wyoming county. 

Samuel J. Poalor, Marcli \?>, I8O0, discharged May 8, 1865. 

John W. lieisliline, " promoted from iHt. Lieuten- 

ant to Captain July 1, I8G0, mustered out witii company Au- 
gust 29, 1865. 

*Joiin F. Miller, March 13, 1865, promoted from 2d. to Ist. Lieu- 
tenant, July 1, 1865. 

*John Beikler, September 6, 1861, promoted from Sergeant Com- 
pany K. to 2d. Lieutenant, July 2, 1865. 

William Saunders. March 4, 1865. 

•Charles B. Fisher, " 

Isaiah Hagenbuch, February 21, 1865. 

Hiram W Brown, " 

RoV>ert C. Parks, " 

Fred M. Staley, February 17, 1865. 

Albf^rt Series, " 

♦Walter Moulton, " 

John Lemon, " 

Francis W. Jones, February 25, 1865. 

♦Severn B. Palmer, March 1, 1865. 

♦Nelson Williams, February 7, 1865. 

♦William Peck, 

Samuel B.Anderson, March 4, 1865. 

♦Charles W. Wood, " 

♦Abbott William, discharged by general order May 12, 1865. 

Beers David, March 4, 1865, 



322 IIi;ST01iY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Blakely Alex R. March 10, I8G0. 
♦Butters Comfort E., " 
Booue Samuel W., " 

*Burlingauie A. G., " 
Buckalew A. G., 
Bower Jonas M., " 

Brittain Frank, " 

Brines Charles, March 4, I860. 
Betz William S., " 

Baker (Charles, 

Bean Benjamin F., Fehruary 16, 1865. 

Brown James M., March 10, 1865, died at Beverly, West Vir- 
ginia, May 14, 1865. 
Cain Pliilip, February 9, 1865. 
Cain Michael, February 10, 1865. 
Case James B.. March 4, 1865. 
Creveling Clark, March 10, 1865. 
L'aden John, " 

Campbell William D., " 
Clu'onias Nathan, " 

Eveland Peter, " 

Emory Hervey, " 

Fox Lloyd, February 2, 1865. 
Finley Martin, March 4, 1865. 
Fowler Miles B., March 4, 1865. 
Fox George. March 10, 1865. 
Howey William, February 16, 1865. 
Herson James, February 16, 1865. 
Hufnagle George F., February 9, 1865. 
Hartman David, March 10, 1865. 
Hill Abram, March 10, 1865. 
Henrie Francis S., March 10, 1865. 
Herring Alex B., « 

Hicks Mahlon B., 
Holligan Patrick, March 10, 1865, discharged by general order 

May 29, 1 865. 
James John C, March 4, 1865. 
Kelchner E. A., March 4, 1865. 
Kishbauch William, March 10, 1865. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 323 

Kline John C, Miirch IJ, 186.5. 

Lantz John, March 4, 186.5. 

May Joseph, February 21, I860. 

Miimmey Israel, March 10, 1865. 

Miller Cyrus U., March 4, 186.5. 

Miller Joseph B , " 

Markle Joseph, " 

*Mellon Jacob F., February 16, I860, discharged by general order 
May 24, I860. 

*Miller Nathan E., February 16, 186.5. 

*McNeal Ilervey, March 4, 1865. 

Oliver Aithur, " 

Oman Henry F., " 

Price Wesley R , March 1 0, 1 865. 

Pohe Stephen, " 

*Rasty Peter, March 4, 1865. 

*liuckey Emanuel, Ma.ch 4, 186.3. 

Robins Abram V., February 9, i860 

Rol)ins William W, February 27, 1865. 

Shipnian William A., February 21, 1865. 

Shultz J.'iraes. February 21, 1865. 

Stiller George P. March 10, 1865. 

Stahl John W., 

Shaffer Winfield S., 

Suit Alonzo .)., Febru iry 9, 1365 

Swank Wilson, February 9, 1865. 

*Thompsou James M., March 4, 1865. 

*Titus George W., March 4, 1865. 

Trons'.ie George, March 10, 1865. 

Truni;) Charles W., Marcli 4, 1865. 

Williams .Joliii, February 10, 1865. 

Wertmaii Willoughby, March 4, 1865. 

Williams Montgomery, Match 10, 1865, discharged by general or- 
der May 24, 1865. 

Zinnnerman George, March 10. 1865. 

This company was assigned to the seventy-fourth in March 

1865. It was at th.at time on guard and garrison duty on the 

Baltimore and Ohio railroad, with headquarters at Green Spring. 

T.ie regiiU-M: procejdv-vl thence by rail to Webster, from which 



324 



TTTSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 



place it marched to Beverly. It remained at the last named place 
on picket and guard duty fi'om April 8, to May 12, when ordered 
to ClarkslDiirg. Subsequently the headquarters were at Parkers- 
V)'irg. wlience it did guard duty along the Parkersburg branch of 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. It Avas mustered out of ser- 
vice at Clarksburg, August 29, 1865, Avhence it returned to Pitts- 
burgh, where it disbanded. All the men not otherwise accounted 
for, Avere mustered out with the company. 



103d RKGIMENT. 



COMPANY B. 

llecruited in Bloorasburg. 



George H. Jones, Captain. 
E. B. Yordy 1st Lt. 
Win. E. Sterner, 2d Lt. 
John G. Gilroy, 1st Sgt. 
Frank B. Gibson, Sgt. 
H. C Hartman, Sgt. 
Alvah Wolcott, Sgt. 
Jos. L. Shannon, Sgt. 
Elias Hoffman, Corp. 
Thomas B. "Williams, Corp. 
Jacob W. Fisher, Corp. 
Wm. Thomas, Corp. 
John Cox, Corp. 
Jacob F. Fox, Corp. 
Chester C Marr, Corp. 
A. M. Cad wall ader, Corp. 
Albertson David, 
Auman Ananias, 
Bodine Henry F. 
Braut George, 
Brian David, 
Bennett Abraham, 
Brink Dennisoii, 
Boice Daniel, 
Bradshaw Chas. deserted. 



Jones Richard, 

Krumm Amos, 

Klett Andrew T. 

Kline Harmon, 

Kunkle Charles, 

Kitchen Isaac H. 

Long John, 

Morris Robert, 

Mittever William, 

Moyer Philip S. 

Millard Samuel J. 

May William, 

Mears John B. 

Nuss Isaac, 

Owens John, 

Powell John D. . 

Powell Abiathan, 

Penman John, 

Richart John C 

Rooney Patrick, 

Reiswick Well H. 

Rehm John, 

Reichelderfer Michael, died at 

Roanoke Island N. C. April 18, 

1865. 



I 



IIISTOliY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 32.> 

<J:i(liii;ui John, Stiner Jacob, 

Cox Lloyd, • Sands William, 

Diley Abel, Shijie Jonas, 

Evans Thomas, Shaffei- Harrison, 

Evans John W. Snyder George I. 

Evans James D. Siout Valentine, 

Freas B. \^. Stephenson John \\. 

Golder Henry, Stiff Moses 

llower Azima V., Snyder Joseph, 

Hopkins Thomas, Summers Jesse, sick at muster 

Hart Charles, out— absent. 

Heist Gideon, Thornton Hiram W, 

Howell William, Terwilligor William, 

Hendershott Frederick, Trout William, 

Hartzell Jacob, Vannatta Benj. 

Heist John, Kitchen Eli, 

Hess Sliadrack, Van Liew Peter, 

Jones John C. Williams George. 

Jones Franklin, 

The company was mustered into the service during the montlis 

of FrlMiiarv and March, ISO.'), and attached to the 103d Regiment. 
They were mustered out of the service at Newbern, North Caro- 
lina, June 2o, 1865. 



209th REGIMENT. 
COMPANY E. 

Recruited in Columbia county. 
An<lrr\v C. Mi-nsch, Ca[)tain September 12, 1864, mustered out 

May 31, 1865. 
Wm. J. Robbins, 1st Lieutenant, Sei)tember 23, 1864, mu.stered 

out May 31, 1865. 
l^issell Karns, 2d Lieutenant, September 12, '64. 
Cyrus H. White, 1st Sergeant, August 31, '64, 
George W. Sterner, Sergeant, August 31, '64. 
Sauuiel Stead, Sergeant, Seiitember 2, '64. 



326 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

WilHam A Robbiiis. Sergeant, Sejitember 1, 1864. 

Beiijaiuin W. Hess, Sergeant, Sei»teniber 9, '64. 

Camden Mears, Corporal, August HI, 1864. 

John F. Hutchi'^on, Corporal. " 

James F. Carnes, Corporal, " 

Joseph C Runyon, Corporal, September 1, 1864, discharged by 

general order, June 6, 1865. 
Ebenezer S. Kase, Corporal, August 27, '64. 
Jacob Trivelpiece, Corporal, Sej)teniber 1, "64. 
John F. Ohl, Corporal, 
Oliver Palmer, Corporal, September 3, '64. 
Amermau C. AV., August 31, '64. 
Andre HS Irvin I., " 

Abbott Oscar, August 31, '64, wouiuled at Petersburg, Va., April 

2, 1865, discharged by general order June 13, 1865. 
Abbott George W., September 2, '64. 
Bittenbender E. E., " 

Bogart Samuel, Sept; mber 1, '64. 
Baker Samuel W., September 1, '64. 
Bright John II., August 31, '64. 
Bigger George W., August 27, '64. 
Barnes William C , September 1, '64. 
Coleman William H., August 31, '64. 
Croeman Mitchell, September 1, '64. 
Croop Henry, " 

Coleman Clinton J., August 31, '64. 

Crawford Joseph, August 31, '64, deserted September 21, 1864. 
Dietrick Joseph B., September 1, '64. 
Dietrick John, September 9, '64. 
Edgar George W , September 1, '64. 
Guist John, *•' 

Garrison Emanuel, " 

Holdren George, September 9, '64. 
Holdren Austin, September 9, '64, discharged by general order 

June 6, 1865. 
Holter Isaiah, September 9, '64. 
Hess Peter, September 1, '64. 
Hunt David P., September 1, '64. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 327 

Hirliman George W., September 1, 1864, discharged by general 
order June 9, 1865. 

Heller George, September 1, "64. 

?Iartnriii Thomas, September 1, '64. 

Hughes Alexander M., September 2, '64. 

Hughes John N., September 3, '64, promoted to 2d Lieutenant 
coinjiany D, 210th Regiment P V., Sei)tember 19, 1S64. 

Henson John, September 1. '64, died December 26, 1864, buried 
in Loudon Park National Cemetery, Baltimore, Md. 

Henry William, September 1, '64, died at Point of Rocks, Mary- 
land, February 12, 186.5, buried in National Cemetery, City 
Point, Virginia, section F, division 1, grave 71. 

Hall George D., SeptemV)er 1, '64, deserted Se{)tember 7, 1864. 

Itchner Frederick. Se])teml)er 2, '64. 

Jamison Isaiah J., September 9, '64. 

Jones David F'., September 9, '64, wounded at Petersburg, Vir- 
ginia, April 2, 1865, discharged by general order May 31, 1865. 

Kline David B., September 9, '64. 

Karnes Jackson, September 9, '64. 

Karns Jacob, September 2, '64, discharged by general order, 
June 19, 1865. 

Kisner Amos G., September 2, '64. 

Kin ley Levi, September 2, '64, discharged by general order 
May 31, 1865. 

Kline Parvin, September 2, '64. 

Lathrope Stilman F., September 13, '64. 

Lauderbach Jesse, September 2, '64. 

Lee Noel, September 9, '64. 

Long Henry, September 9, '64. 

Lyons Richard W., September 9, '64. 

Leonard Merritt, August 31, '64, wounded at Ford Steadman, 
Virginia, March 25, 1865, absent in hospital at muster out. 

Lazarus (ieorge, August 31, '64. 

Lawbaeh Samuel, August 30, ^'64, died December 30, 1864, 
buried in National Cemetery, City Point, Virginia, section C, 
division 3, grave 39. 

Miller Henry, September 1, '64. 

Mills James R., September 1, '64. 

Maury Daniel, August 31, '64. 



3:?8 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Manning Robert, September 2, '64. 

Marteeny Henry, September 1, '64, died at City Point, Virginia, 
January 23, 1865. 

McConnnons Peter, September 1, '64. 

McBride William B., 

Ormsby William A., " 

Pealer Jacob M., September 2, '64. 

Pealer Samuel J., August 31, '64, discharged by general order 
March 12, I860. 

Potter Gustavus A., September 9, '64. 

Parks Andrew H., " 

Peifer George, " 

Palmer Uriah, September 2, '64. 

Pursel Robert, September 9, '64. 

Rupert Richard, September 1, '64. 

Royer William, August 31, '64. 

Robbins James P., August 27, '64. 

Rantz Philip, September 2, '64, died at City Point, Virginia, 
January 18, 1865 

Schuyler Lewis H., September 2, '64. 

Stewart Edward, September 1, '64. 

Segar William, " 

Shutt Henry, September 9, '64. 

Shaffer John, " 

Slife Lepo, August 30, '64 

Sharp John, September 12, '64. 

Stadden Joseph H., September 1, '64, discharged by special 
order April 3, 1865. 

Smith Loomis B., September 2, '64, deserted September 7, 1864. 

Thomas William, September 9, '64, died at Alexandria, Virgin- 
ia, April 20, of wounds received at Petersburg, April 2, 1865. 

Unangst William H., September 2, '64. 

Unangst Abraham, September 2, '64, wounded at Fort Stead- 
man, Virginia, March 25, 1865, discharged by general order 
June 24, 1865. 

Vanover Samuel, September 9, '64. 

Warner John B., September 9, '64, mustered out May 31, 1865. 

Wenner Thomas, September 9, '64, wounded at Fort Steadman, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUN2Y. 829 

VirL,'iiii:i, March 25, 1865, discharged by general order June 19, 

18G5. 
Whitniire Amos, September 9, '04. 
Weaver Samuel A., August 31, '64, wounded at Fort Steadman, 

Virginia, March '2b, 1865, discharged by general order June 20, 

1865. 
Yocum rdiles S., September 9, '64. 
Yinger George, September 1, '64. 

The Kegiment was organized at Camp Curtin, September 16, 
1864. It was then sent to the front and was engaged in fatigue 
and picket duty, seeing some service, however. On the 25th of 
March, 1865, occurred the battle at Fort Steadman. in which the 
regiment behaved very gallantly. On the 2nd of April Fort 
Sedgwick was captured after a severe contest. Engaged there- 
after in railway work, to Nottoway Court House, where it re- 
mained till A)>ril 20th. Thence to City Point, thence to Alexan- 
dria, where it went into camp, and on May 31, 1865, was muster- 
ed out. 




330 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 
THREE YEARS' SERVICE. 

3oTIl REGIMENT. 
SIXTH RESERVES. 



COMPANY A. 



"the iron (iUAKDS." 

William \V. liicketts, April 22, '61, promoted to Colonel July 
27, 1861. 

Wellington H. Ent, April '■I'l, '61, promoted to Major Septem- 
ber 21, 1862. 

Samuel Waters, April "2.'!^ '61, promoted to 2d. Lieutenant July 

, 27. 1861, to Captain March 1, 1863, to brevet Major March 13, 
1865, wounded at Bethesda Church, May 30, 1864, absent at 
muster out. 

Isaac H Seesholtz, April I'l, '61, resigned October 16, 1861. 

Albion B. Jamison, April 22, '61, })romoted from 1st Sergeant to 
1st Lieutenant April 24, 1863, to brevet captain, March 13, 1865. 

Samuel Knorr, April 22, '61, resigned October 25, 1862. 

Harrison J. Conner, April 22, 1861, promoted from sergeant to 1st 
Lieutenant March 1, 1868, to brevet 1st Lieutenant March 13, 
1865. 

James Stanley, April 22, '61, })romoted to 1st. Sergeant Api'il 
15, 1863. 

W. S. Margerum, April 22, '61. 

George W. Mears, July 8, '61, wounded at New Hope Church 
November 27, 1863, absent in hospital at muster out. 

George R. Gensel, April 22, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certifi- 
cate December 6, 1862. 

R. W. Bowman, April 22, '61, discharged March 9, 1863, for 
wounds received in action. 



ni;sTonY of Columbia county. 331 

Amos Gensel, A})!'!! 2i', 'Gl, transferred to 191st. regiment, P. 

v., May 31, 1SG4. Veteran. 
Uriah \\. Burkert, July 8, '61, transferred to 191st. regiment, P- 

v., May 31, 1864. Veteran. 
B. R. ITayhurst, April 22, '61, promoted to Sergeant Major 

June 22, 1861. 
Charles H. Brockway, April 22, '61, transferred to Battery F' 

43(1. regiment P. V., date unknown. 
W illiam k. Snyder, July 13. '61. 
Joseph R. Hess, April 22, '61. 
Randolph llayman, July 13, '61, transferred to Veteran Reserve 

Corps — date unknown. 
Marks B. Hughes, April 22, '61. 
Benjamin F. Sharpless, July 13, '61. 

William ]\IcNeal, ^Vpril 22, '61. discharged on surc'eon's certifi- 
cate September 6, 1861. 
John C. Clark, April 'I'l., '61, transferred to 191st. regiment, P. 

V, May 31, 1864. Veteran. 
George Whitesides. July 8, '61, transferred to 191st. regiment, 

P. v., May 31, 1864 Veteran. 
Chester S. Furman, July 13, '61, transferred to U. S. Signal 

Corps October 28, 1863. 
Daniel M. Patterson, April 22, '61, died March 31, 1862. 
George M. Demorest. April 22. '61, died September 23, 1862, of 

wounds received at South Mountain, September 14, 1862. 
Harman A. Shuman. Ai»ril 22, '61, <lied March 10, 1863. 
Achenbach Cliaries, April 22, '61. 
Achenbach Calvin, July 13, '61. discharged December 6, 1862, 

{'or wounds received in action 
Abbott John H., November 30, '61, dishonorably discharged 

April 10, 1863. 
Bowman Henry C, April 22, '61. 
Bruner Nelson, April 22, '61. 

Berger Jeremiah, April 22, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certifi- 
cate September 6, 1861. 
Boltz John K., April 22, '61, deserted March 21, 1863. 
Coleman John, April 22, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certificate 

October 24, 1863. 



332 HIISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Coleman George S., Apiil 'I'l^ '61, promoted to Adjutant August 
11, 1862. 

Chamberlin James W., July 13. '61, discharged November 21, 
1862, to accept promotion as Major 178th. Pennsylvania draft- 
ed militia. 

Coffman William E., July «, '61, discharged July U, 1863, for 
wounds received in action. 

Chamberlin John, July 13, '61, transferred to U.S. Signal Corps 
August 21, 1861. 

Drinker Francis P., July 13, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certifi- 
cate December 8, 1861. 

Eck Alfred, April 22, '61. 

Eck Joseph S., April 22, '61. 

Eck William IL. April 22, '61, died May 8, 1863, of wounds re- 
ceived in action. 

Fornwald Charles S., April I'l, '61. 

Griffith Thomas, April 21, '61. 

Gottschall Samuel G., April '■12, '61. 

Gottschall Henry, April 22, '61. 

Gottschall John Y., March 5, '63, transferred to 191st. regiment, 
P. v.. May 31, 1864. 

Hamlin Peter S., April 22, '61. 

HoUingshead William, April 'I'l, '61. 

Hause Joseph P., April '22, '61. 

Hughes Jonas H., July 13, '61. 

Hower Sylvester, July 8, '61. 

Harman Henry C. April 22, '61, discharged January 17, 1863, 
for wounds received in action. 

Hayman Joseph S., April 22, '61, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate May 12, 1862. 

Hartman Isaac, April 22, '61, discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate November 28, 1862. 

Harder Charles S., July 8, '61, discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate February 2, 1863. 

Hagenbuch A. H,, March 10, '62, discharged May 16, 1863, for 
wounds received in action. 

Hoover Sebaldus, July 8, '61, transferred to 191st regiment P. 
v.. May 31, 1864. Veteran. 



I 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 333 

Hite George W., April 22, '61, deserted, retnrnt'd, transferred 
to 191st reoinient P. V., by sentence of general court martial, 

Howell John, March 10, '62, transferred to 191st regiment P. 
v., May 31, 1864. 

TTatnlin ]\Iilton G. W., April 22, '61. killed at Fredericksburg, 
December 3. 1862. 

Hess John J., September 9, '61, killed at Fredericksburg, De- 
cember 13, 1862. 

Jamison Benjamin F , July 13, '61. 

Jacoby Flemings, April 22, '61, captured at Bethesda Church, 
May 30, 1864. 

Jacoby Alonzo, July 8, '61 

Kern William, July 13, '61. 

Kortz Josiah, April 22, '61, discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
May 21, 1862. 

Kramer Julius C, April 22, '61, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate August 27, 1863. 

Kostenbauder M. V., July 13, '61, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate December 31, 1861 

Karns Moses, April 22, '61, transferred to U. S. regular army 
July 18, 1862. 

Kern Henry, July 8, '61, transferred to 191st regiment P. V., 
May 31, 1864. Veteran. 

Kurtz Emanuel, April 22, '61, promoted to principal musician 
November 1, 1862. 

Kline John, April 22, '61, died August 31, 1862. 

Lewis Hiram B., April 22, 1861. 

Linn Henry, April 12, '61, died March 1st, 1863, of wounds re- 
ceived in action. 

Mendenhall Theo., November 29, '61. 

Millard Augustus, April 22, '61. 

Mann Andrew W., April 22, '61 

Metz David, April 22, '61, discharged on surgeons certificate 
December 2, 1862. 

Megargell Dethic H , April 22, '61, discharged on surgeon's 
certificate February 4, 1863. 

Mason Malcomb W., April 21, '61, died February 12, 1864. 

Monroe Robert, July 13, '61, died January 2, 1863, of wounds 
received in action. 



334 irrsToin' of Columbia county 

McBrido Tsaiali, April 2i\ "(U, killo 1 at Fre'ierit'ksburg. Do.-oiu- 
ber i;^ 18Gl>. 

Nolton Meury, April 22, '61. transforrod to 191st rogiiuont P. 
V, :^[ly ;>K 18()4. Voteran. 

Palmer William II., April 22, *(il, discharged on surgeon's eer- 
tirtcate June 4, 1804. 

Price William H., April 22. "01. discharged June 17. 1863, for 
wounds received in action. 

Quimby Frank ,]., April 22. '61, discharged oh surgeon's certiti 
cate February o, 1S63. 

Raup William. April 22, \\\. 

Ross David S., April 22, '61, transferred to 191st regunent P. 
A^, May 31, 1864. Veteran. 

Ramsay James li., July 23, '61, transferred to U. S. Signal 
Corps I)cccnd)er 18, 1863. 

]\clir Franklin, August 11, '62, died of wounds Marcli 13, 1863 

Sterling Bait is, July 13, '61. 

Shortz Abraham, April 22, '61. 

Stineman Leonard S., April 22. '61, discharged March 30, 1863, 
for wounds received at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 

Strausser Franklin, April 22, "(il, discharged April lo, 1863. for 
wounds received at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 

Seitzinger Ludwdg, April 'I'l, '61, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate February 13, 1863. 

Staler Henry P., April 31, '61, deserted Saptetuber 21, 1862. 

Schwaderer 0. F., April 25, '61, deserted August 21, 1862— 
Schuylkill county. 

Smith Ashabel W., April 22, '61. not on muster roll. 

Waher Reuben II., April 12, '(>!, discharged for wounds receiv- 
ed Felu-uary 5, 1863. 

Tremble Georg.' W., April 22, '61. discharged on Surgeon's cer- 
tilicaie Noveuiber20. '6:i. 

Waters George, .\pril '>>, '61. 

WhitenighL P. 0, April 22, '6J, discharged o.i Surgeon's certi- 
ficate October 18, 1862. 

Walter Sanmel C, Ajjril 22, '61, killed at l)raines\ ille Decem- 
ber 2.), 1861. 

Wit. nan Jamc> F., July 13, '61, died Septeaiber 1, 1801. 



Ills TO n Y () F COL UMB I A CO UNT Y. :^S "> 

\<)n\\\f Jerciniuli S., 7\|>ril 22, 'OJ, traiisf<!irod to U. S. Signal 

Corj>8 August 21, 18G1. 
Zeigler iVlexander, April 32, '01, innslcicd out with coinpuiiy 

June 11, 1864. 

OUIfilNAI. MKMr.KICS — NOT IN liATKs' IIl.STOUY. 

Gelkiu Frank, uiiaccountcMl U)V. 

Getkii) Jerciiiiah, unaccounted for. 

C'roKsley .John A, Hee I 12th. 2<1. Artillery. J3attery F 

Willanl AiiLCUHtuti, returne(l with conijjiiny .June 14, 1864. 

Lunj^er ISenjaniin F., unu<;counte(l loi'. 

Smith I^eter !>., unaccounted for. 

Jiowman Joseph P.. unaccounted for. 

Vox Aaron, unaccounted for. 

Jirown John, unaccounted for. 

lietz J<»hn, unaccounted ii>r. 

On Thursday, June 14, 1804, ''The Iron Guards'" returned to 
J-Jloornsburg and had an e thusiastic reception. The following are 
the names: Col. Wellington II. Ent, Adjutant George S. Cole- 
man, First Lieutenant A. J). Jameson, Second Lii^utenant H J. 
Conner, commanding company. Sergeants James Stanley, W. S. 
Margerum, Corj)orals W. II. Snyder, Benjamin F. Shar|)less, Jo- 
seph K. Hes.s, Marks B. Hughes, Privates Charles Achenbach, H. 
C. Bowman, Alfred Eck, Thomas Griftiths, Henry Gotschall, Wil- 
liam Ilollingshead, Sylvester Hower, Theodore Mendenhall, A. 
W. iMann, Baltis Sterling, George Waters, Nelson Bruner, Joseph 
S. Eck, Charles S. Fornwald, Samuel G. Gottschall, P. S. Hamlin, 
J. II. Hughes, J(jhn Kern, Augustus Willard, William Ilaup, Ab- 
raham Shorl/, Alexander Zigler, Emanuel Kurtz. 

Col. IJicketts died at Oningeville, August 10, 1862, having 
been discharged on surgeon's certificate F'ebruary 27, 1862. Wel- 
lington II. Ent was promote<l from Captain of Company A to 
Major September 21, 1862, to Lieutenant Colonel May 1, 1863, 
to Colonel July 1, 1863, to brevet Brigadier General March 13, 
1H6.'); wounded at Bethesda (Jhurch May 30, 1864; mustered out 
with regiment June 11, 1864. General Ent was the democratic 
camlidate for Surveyor General of Pennsylvania in 1868, but 
was not elected. 

Tlic re.nment was organized June 22, 1861. On the Uth of 



836 HISTORY or COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

July it moved to Groeueastk>, Pa., and on the 22d was ordered 
by the way of Harrisburg and Baltimore to Washington. It 
was nmstered into the service of the United States July 27, 1861. 
It was assigned to the Third lirigade of McCall's Division. On 
December 20th the battle of Drainesville was fought, in which 
the Reserves won their tirst victory. It is imjjossible to follow 
the lieserves in all their movements and marches. It would be 
almost a history of the war. On the 13th of .lune, 1862. it em- 
barked for White House, ^' a. On the 2hth it was abandoned 
and the stores burned, and the army fell back, McOlellan having 
been beaten in the Seven Days' tight. The regiment reached 
Harrison's Landing on the 1st of July. The last days of July 
came the three days' mameuvreing tight at AVarrenton. After the 
Second liull Hun the Regiment moved towards South Mountain 
and took position on the extreme right. They performed a gallant 
service in capturing the rebel position on the mountain top, and 
the next two days were in the victory gained by McClellan at 
Antietam. And so it continiu'd in march counter marcli and drill 
and in due course moved on toward Fredericksburg, in which 
battle it took a very prominent part. It made the celebrated 
"Mud March," and on the 25th June moved from Fairfax Station 
to join in the Gettysburg campaign. Thence to Falling Waters, 
l\appahannock, Bristoe Station, New Hope Church, through the 
campaign of the Wilderness, and on to the battle at Bethesda 
Church, fought after its term <>f enlistment had expired, and gain- 
ing a signal victory, it started for Harrisburg 1 June, 1864, where 
it was mustered out on the 11th of the same month, with a mili- 
tary reputation unsurpassed by any in the service. 



-*»^ 




HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 337 



COMPANY K. SIXTH RKSEUVKS. 



Recruited in Montour county. 



Mahlon K. Manley, May 14, 'fil, discharged on Surgeon's certifi- 
cate March 22, 18G3. 

Charles Richart, May 14, 'Gl, ])roraoted from Ist Lieutenant to 
Captain Au^nist 27, 1863, brevet Major, March 13, I860. 

John Iloni, May 14, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certificate 
Sei>tember 27, 1862. 

Joniah Mull, May 14, '61, promoted from Sergeant October 11, 
1861, to 2d Lieutenant April 13, 18G3. 

George W. Deen, May 14, '61, promoted to 1st Sergeant May 
15, 1863, Commissioned 2d Lieutenant March 21, 1863,not nms- 
tered, mustered out with Company June 11, 1864. 

Joel Metz, May 27, '61, Sergeant. 

Thomas Levers, June 26, '61, promoted to Corporal July 15, 
1861, to Sergeant April 6, 1862. 

William \. Moyer, May 14, '61, Corporal April 6, 1862, Sergeant 
May 15, 1863. 

Nicholas Frieze, May 14, '61, missing in action at Fredericks- 
burg, Virginia, December 13, 1862. 

AVilliam Kriner, May 14, '61, discharged May 26, 1862, for 
wounds received accidentally. 

William E. Ackey, May 14, '61, transferred to 191st Regiment 
P. v.. May 31, 1864, Veteran. 

Abraham Wand, May 14, '61, wounded at Spottsylvania Court 
House, May 12, 1864, absent at General Hospital, Washington, 
D. C. at muster out. 

William Lezerve, May 14, '61. 

William E Gillespie, June 20, '61, transferred to IQlst Regi- 
ment P. V. May 31, 1864, Veteran. 

H. Kustenbather, July ,11 '61, transferred to 191st Regiment P. 
V. May 31, 1864, Veteran. 



888 IllSTOlir or ('OLUMIUA COl^NTY. 

Jolui LoHUt, .Inly 11, '(il. tr:iiisf«"rr('.l to 1!»lst. Kcoitnciil P. V. 

M;iy JU, ISO I, Vctonm. 
'riiiiddcus S. Smith, .Iiiiic 2"), '(il, f rniisicncd to lOlst IJc^imciil, 

1*. v., May ;U, 1S()1, VctiMMn. 
Aaron II. (Jil)soii, May 14, '(;i, killed at Hrllicsda (Mnircli, Vir- 

liiiiia, May 'M), ISdl, N'ctcraii. 
Edwin Lockliart, May 11, T.l. 
Eli .1. Kicliart, April 1, '(>2, traiisrcncd to l!)lst KN'^inicnt 1*. V. 

May :n, iMdI. 
Adrrlioldl Kaiiu'st, .hdy 27, '()1, Moniidcd, witli loss of U'i>j, at 

Hristoo Station, Yiroinia, Octolx'v 11, 1 S()3, al)seiit, in liospital, 

at nnistcr ont. 
Buttles William, May 25, '(11, traiisfciTcd to llUst KN^inuMit 1*. 

V. May 81, 1.S04, Vctovan. 
Brown James 11., May 2'), '(11, discliarnt'd on Siirj^-eon's ceil ificate, 

Eebruary 12, 1S()2. 
Bailey Olney, May 21, '(>!, diseliaro-ed on Suro«M)n's certilieate, 

July 28, '()!. 
Bowman (leoioc, May 11, '(il, disc'liavi^ed on Sui'^con's certiru'ate 

Mareli 12, 1H()8. 
Bin<;inan (ieoi-^-e. May 14, Y)l, deserted September 1 H, '(12. 
(\)wdt'n SanuH'l, June (>, '(51, transferred to IDlst lu'giment 1*. V. 

May ;U, 18(il, Veteran. 
C^innin<:;liam Robert, M:iy II, '(il. 
I'lironistcr .lolm \V., ,lune 1, "(il, disehar<jjed on Surujeon's eerlifi- 

cate, February 2(), 1H()2. 
(Jliaplain Orvill, May 25, '(il, discharn-ed on Surt;;eoirs ecrtilicate, 

January 2!), lH(i2. 
Davis John, June 21, '(!1. 

Darfus John, May It, '(il, absent at muster out of Company. 
Erant'is Tliomas, June 20, '(il, dist'lniri>:ed on Surneon's ecrtiticate, 

November 20, lH(il. 
Elinn James, May 20, '(12, wounded in action — date unknown — 

diseharged on Surtjoon's certitioate, December 19, 18(>2. 
■Grill Josiah, June 20, '(il, transferred to IDlst Iveoinient P. V. 

May 31, 18(54, Veteran. 
■Garner Autjustus, July 20, '(Jl, deserted February 11, 1S(!2. 
Hare Joseph, :\lay 14, '61. 
Jlilgert Jacob, May 16, '61. 



nisTonv OF coiAjMiiiA bounty. WW.) 

H:it(:iii ( !li;iil<'S, M:iy 21, til , ;iI)H(ii1 ;il riiiistci- out, of ( "<)iii|);iiiy. 
Ilfisiicr Il(!iiry, May 14, '<tl, (liscli:ir<M'il i''fl)rii;iry 12, IHO;}, for 

wouikIh received in action. 
Mocker George, AiigUMt 0, 'Ol, missin;^ in ;iclion, May .'JO, 18(14. 
llunl William II., May 14, (il, <li<<l at I''aiifa.v, Virginia, April 1, 

1 H(;;j. 

Tiilcinan I"'rankrni, May 2."), "01, killed al l''r('d('ricl<hl»nr|^, Decem- 
ber, l.'{, 1H(;2. 
Ilurst, Miles, June <;,'()!, deseil.ed Se|)lc[ni)er G, 1S(;2. 
Jl.uir William, May 14, '01, deserted May 14, |S(;.'5. 
Jones licnjamin A., May 14, '(il. discharged on Snrj^eon'H C(!rt,ili- 

cate, August 0, 1802. 
Johnson, M. li., May 14, '<il, died at I-'rederickshiirg, Virginia, 

J 1111(1 1:J, 1802. 
King, luchard W., July 2!), dl, captured May 20, 1804, died at 

,\nderson\ ille, Cieorgia, (>ctol)er 2. 1 804, grave 11, Hi;}. Veteran. 
Karigiier, (iottleib, May 14, '01, discharged March 18, 18(52, for 

wonnds recived in action. 
Kie/er John, July 20, '01, discharged on surgeon's (;(;rtiiicate, Feh- 

rnaiy 17, 1802. 
Krclner CJeorge, May .'iO, '01, discharged March 28, 18(j.'}, lor 

wounds receiv(!d in a(;tion. 
K<ionH John, May 14, '01, d(!S(;rte(l Augnst 28, 1802. 
King James II., Marcli 11), '64, not on muHter out roll. 
Lucas Abraham, May 25, '01, committed suicide at (yaiiij) Tenally 

Maryland. October 4, 1801. 
Miller .losepli, June 215, '01, wounded at Spottsylvania (Joiirt 

House, May 11, 1804, absent, in hospital at muster out. 
Marchal Carlisle, May 14, '01. 
Moy«'r Ii(!wiH, June 25, '(il. 
Miller .lacob, August 27, '(il, discharged SeptemlKn- 12, 180^^, f<<r 

wounds received in action. 
Metzgar Sebastian, May 25, '01, discharged Fel)ruary 28, 180.'}. for 

woun<Is received in action. 
Miller J(din, .May 14, '(il, killed at Beth(^H<Ia ('hurcli, Virginia 

May .'}0, lHf)4. 
Mallon Feliv, May 2.5, '01, deserted November 23, 1802, 
M'(;ill (Jeorge, May 14, '01. 
M'Laughlin li.. May 2.5, '01, deserte<l December 11, 1862. 



'Ml rrrsv'onv OF ooLir.u/ifA (lorrNrr. 

Mclson Oscar, July 27, '(>1, tlischiirt^cd l»y sid'ciiil onlcr, Aiijfust 

1(>, 18(52. 
Ott Al|)li(Mis I)., .Inly 10, '()1, tlitul at Brisloi' Slatioii, Vir<jjinia, 

February 2!), 1S()I. 
l*urs(>ll I'orry, .luly ">, '(il, dist^liarocd by sjiocial order, August 

11, IS()2. 
I'l-'uu' Abraliam, August 2(i, '(>!, killcil :it South iMouiilaiii, Sep- 
tember 14, IH02. 
Richard John ()., May 11, (il, absent in hospital at iiiustt'r out. 
lvou|» Jonas, May 2r), '(il, absi'nt, in hospital at nnistfi- out. 
Ivantz Isaac, .Inly 20, '(>1, inissinii; in action at liethesda (^hnrch. 

May ;{(), IStil. 
Keinhardt Kdniund. June 2."), '(il, transl'crrcd to l!Hst- regiineni 

]». v., May .*n, lH(i4. Veteran. 
Kose .Toseph, May 14, .'(il, discharged on surij^eon's certilicati>, 

December 12, 1H()2. 
Shedon .John, May 11, '(il, wounded at Helliesda Church, May 12. 

lH(il, absent, in hosjiital, at muster out. 
Staub 1-onrad, May 11, '(U. 
Shult/, .John, May 14, '(il. 
Springer C\)nr:ul, M:iy 14, '(il, discharoed on suri^con's certilicale, 

June 8, 18G2. 
Sintijhiser Theodore, .luue (i, "(il, <liscliar!j,(>d on surgeon's certili- 

cate, February 13, 18(i;?. 
ISevarts (lotleib, .June (i, '(il, discharged April 20, ISd.S, for \voun<ls 

received in action. 
Steii\heiser l*hili[), August 28, 18()1, discharge<l iMay 10, 18(i;? for 

wounds received in action. 
Snyder William, May 14, '(il, discharged on surgeon's certilicale, 

September Hi, 18(i2. 
Seohman Samuel, May 14, '(il, died .luly lo, 18(),'? of wounds re- 
ceived at (TCttysburg. 
Shiirert Jacob, May 14, 'Gl, killetl at Fredericksburg, December 

13, 1862. 
Springer Philip, .Tune 1, '(il, deserted August 24, 18(i2. 
Traub Williani, July 27, '(il, died at (icorgetown, 1). C., October 

18, 1861, buried in Military Asylum Cemetery. 
Vocht George, May 14, '(il. 



II I STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 



:^41 



\';iii \'i-aiil<iii I). I)., M:iy 2."j, "(il, misHiiitr in iictioii M;iy 20, 1H(M. 

VekTiin. 
V;ilf ('ynis, Miiy 1 I, <>1, 'Ik'I iit VVasliiiigtoii, J). C, August 7, '(Jl. 
Welliv«'i- 'riiDiii.is, May 2'), '(il. 
Wagner Otto, .Inno 1, '(il. 
Wi'sl Christ inn, August 27, (il, iliscliargcd on surgeon's certificate 

J)e(H-nil)er 1, I SOI. 
Wagner ('luist ian, May 11, '01, discharged on surgeon's cH-rtilicate 

April 20, IH(i:i. 
WillianiH (iecu-ge, August 27, '(il, tlischarged on surgeon's (H-rtili- 

cate .January H, 1802. 
Woods C'hi'istoplier, May 14, "(il, disch irged i»y sjucial order, 

August II, 1H02. 
Walter , Joseph, July 12, '(il, died at (ieorgetinvu, JJ. C, Septeni- 

her 7, iSOl. 
Weaver Joseph, June 1, "01. killed at South Mountain Septemlxr 

14, 1802. 
Walls John, July 21, '01, deserted August M, 1802. 
Vordy Williani '1'., May 14, "01. 
Zeihe Wilkins Iv., June 'j, '01, deserted June 4, 18GI1 

l''roni J)r:iines\ ille to JH'thesda ( hurch, hy the way of Soutlj 
JNlountain, Frederickshurg, (iettyshurg, and .Sj»ottsylvania Court 
House ; gatliering daily greener lauiels, is glory enough for Cloni- 
pany E., of the Si.xtli Reserves. 'I'lii- company was mustered out 
of service June 11, 1804, witli an unstained military rec(;rd ; and 
all tlie men not otherwise accounteil for weie thus discharged. 



342 HISTOIiY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 



I'OUTV-TIURI) UKCIMKXT. 



FIRST ARTlLV.KnY. 



BATTKRY K. 



COLIMT.IA ANO MONTOUR. 

R. Bruce Ricketts, mnstored in July 8, 'Gl, promoted to Hrat Lieu- 
tenant August 5, 18(il, to Captain May 8, 1863, to Major, De- 
cember 1, 180-4. breveted Colonel. 

John F. Campbell, nuistered in July 8, '61, promoted to second 
Lieutenant, May 20, 1864, to first Lieutenant December 1, 1864, 
to Captain April 17. I860, mustered out with Battery June 
9, 1S65. Veteran. 

Charles B. Brockway, mustered in July 8, '61, jtromoted to second 
Lieutenant February 28,1862, to first Lieutenant March 16,1863, 
commissioned Captain November 30, 1864, not mustered, brevet 
Captain March 13,1865, discharged October 22,1864. Veteran. 

Henry Wireman, imistered in July 8, '61. promoted to first Lieu- 
tenant December 6, 1864, mustered out with battery June 9, 
1865. Veteran. 

William H. Thurston, mustered in July 8, '61, promoted to first 
Lieutenant, A}»ril 22, 1865, mustered out with battery June 9, 
1865. Veteran. 

Francis H. Snyder, mustered in July 8, '61, promoted to second 
Lieutenant January 31, 1864, Avounded at Mine Run, Virginia, 
discharged October 8, 1864. 

George W". Mowrer, mustered in July 8th, 1861, promoted to 
second Lieutenant, April 22, 1865, mustered out with battery 
June 9, 1865. Veteran. 

Frank P. Brockway, mustered in January 1, '62, promoted to 
seco.id Lieutenant December 21, 1864, mustered out with bat- 
tery June 9, 1 865. Veteran. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 343 

WiHiiiiu II. Truiup, mustered in July 8, '61, first Sergeant, mus- 
tered out^with battery June 9, 1865. Veteran. 

Stephen K. Hidgeway, mustered in December 30, '61, Quarter- 
master Sergeant, mustered out with battery June 9, 1865. Vet- 
eran. 

William B. Melick, mustered in July 6, '61, discharged on Sur- 
geon's certiticate July 18, 1862. 

Albert Ilerbein, mustered in August 5, '61, mustered out with 
battery June 9, 1865. Veteran. 

Franklin Ilouser, mustered in January 27, '62, mustered out with 
battery June 9. 1865. Veteran. 

John il. Christian, mustered in July 8, '61, w^ounded at Gettys- 
burg July 2, 1863, mustered out August 8, 1864. 

Jacob S. Yurdy, mustered in July 8, '61, mustered out with bat- 
tery June 9, 1865. Veteran. 

Jacob M. I larman, mustered in March 9, '64, mustered out with 
battei'y June 9, 1865. 

Appleman Cyrus B., March 15, '64, wounded at Tolopotomy May 
31, 1864, mustered out with battery June 9, 1865. 

Fause Thomas E., mustered in July 8, '61, mustered out with bat- 
tery June 9, 1865. Veteran. 

Fox Jacob, mustered in July 8, '61, died October 16, 1862, at 
Washington, D. (1 

Gotschall William, mustered in February 1, 64, mustered out with 
battery June 9, 1865. 

Garringer Charles, mustered in February 21, '64, died at Wash- 
ington, D. C, September 11, 1864. 

Haag JacoV), mustered in July 8, '61, mustered out with battery 
June 9, 1865. Veteran. 

Hughes Mason B., mustered in February 27, '64, mustered out 
with battery June 9, 1865. 

Hart Johu A., mustered in July 8, 1864, mustered out at expira- 
tion of term. 

Harder I'riestly S., mustered in December 31, '61, mustered 
out January 23, 1865. Veteran. 

Need FraiK-is, mustered in July 8, '61, discharged May 31, 1864 — 
exjtiratioii of term. 

Powell Williuin, nuistered in July 8, '61, discharged on Surgeon's 
certitii;ate February 10, 1863. 



344 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Rake John G., mustered in Jiiniiary 1, '64, mustered out with bat- 
tery June 9. 1 865. Veteran. 
Roberts Josiah K., mustered in February 10, 64, miistered out 

witli battery June 9, 1865. 
Rake Isaac, nnistered in July 1, '61, transferred to Battery G. 

March 26, 1864, mustered out with the battery June 29, 1865. 
Remline Francis, mustered in July 5, "61, not on muster roll. 
Slii}»inan Charles, mustered in July 8, '61, mustered out with bat- 
tery June 9, 18()5. Veteran. 
Shoemaker .John, mustered in January 22, '62, dischargeil on Sur" 

geon's certilicate. 
Savage Charles N., mustered in January 1, '62, deserted October 

16, 1862. 
Thompson Edward, nmstered in December 26, '61, killed at An- 

tietam September 17, 1862. 
Weaver John F'., mustered in July 8, '61, on detached service as 
Regimental Hospital Steward. 

The above are all certainly ascertained to belong to Columbia 
or Montour. Battery F participated with distinguished gallantry 
and efficiency in the following engagements, viz : Winchester 
Second Bull Run, Chantilly, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancel- 
lorsville, Gettysburg, Bristoe Station, Mine Run, VVildernessj 
Spottsylvaiua, North Anna, Tolopotomy, Cold Harbor, Petersburg 
and Deep Bottom, a roll of battles of which they may well be 
proud, as well as of the additional fact that they remained in the 
service till the war was over, always doing their work thoroughly 
and taking it as it came, tlie march, the battle or the prison, with 
all of which Capt. Brockwuy has had close acquaintance. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA C0UN2Y. 345 



FIFTY- Sl'XOND REGIMENT. 



COMPANY G. 



RECRUITER IN COLUJIBIA COUNTY. 



William Silver, Captain, September 16, '61, resigned July 17, '62- 

Nathan W. Pierson, August 15, '61, promoted from Adjutant to 
Captain May 19, '63, mustered out January 27, '65 — expira- 
tion of term. 

Augustus W. Kush, 1st Sergeant, September 16, '61, resigned July 
2% '62. 

Timotliy Mahony, November 4, '61, promoted from 1st Sergeant 
to 1st Lieutenant, August 1, '62, mustered out November 5, 
'64, expiration of term. 

John S. Marcy, November 4, '01, dismissed September 21, '64. 

James W. Evans, November 4, '61, promoted from Sergeant to Ist 
Sergeant, Ai)ril 9, '65, to 2d Lieutenant June 3, '65, mus- 
tered out with company July 12, '65. Veteran. 

Richard Shepherd, November 4, '61, promoted from Sergeant to 
1st Sergeant January 1, '64, mustered out November 5, '64, 
expiration of term. 

"W. ^V'. Snyder, November 4, '61, piomoted to Corporal April 9, 
'64 to Sergeant November 6, '64, Commissioned 1st Lieutenant 

March 26, '65. Veteran. 

William H. Johnson, November 4, '61, promoted to Corporal No- 
vember 6, '64, to Sergeant April 3, '65, Veteran. 

John J. Dasher, September 24, '63, drafted, promoted to Ser- 
geant November 6, '64. 

George Besli, November 4, '61, promoted to Corporal January 1^ 
'64, to Sergeant November 6, '64. 

Wesley Cooper, November 4, '61, promoted to Sergeant January 
1, '64. 



346 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

William Shultz, November 4, '61, promoted from Corporal to Ser- 
geant January 1, '64. 

Thomas Slaughbaugh, November 4, '61, discharged November 
18, '62, for wounds received at Fair Oaks, Virginia, May 31, '62. 

William S. Stark, March 11, '64. promoted to Corporal June 18,'64. 

Henry C. Mott, November 4, '61, promoted to Corporal June 18,'64, 

Urias Trate, October 26, 63, drafted, pi-omoted to Corporal May 
1, '65. 

William Adams, November 4, '61, promoted to Corporal Novem- 
ber 7, '64. 

Jacob Ebliug, September 24, '63, drafted, promoted to Corporal 
November 6. '64. 

David Eberts, September 29, '63, drafted, promoted to Corporal 
November 6, '64. 

H. Rummerfield, November 4, '61, promoted to Corporal Novem- 
ber 6, '64. 

Lewis H. Breeze, March 17, '64, promoted to Corporal May 8, '65, 

Caleb Creasy, November 4, '61, promoted to Corporal, January 
1, '64. 

William H. Robbins, November 4, '64, promoted to Corporal Jan- 
uary 1, '64. 

W. Weathervvalks, November 4, '61, discharged on surgeon's 

certificate April 9, '62. 
Charles E. Bohl, November 4, '61. Veteran. 
Adam« Noah, November 4, '61. Veteran. 
Anderson William, September 23, '63, drafted. 
Ace George, October 19, '64, drafted. 
Bush Jacob, October 8, '62 
Boyer John, October 24, '63, drafted. 
Bowers John, October "22, '63, drafted 
Bunn Samuel, October 17, '63, drafted. 
Burgher Abram, February 25, '65. 
Bouch Frederick, July 24, '63, drafted. 
Blon Nicholas, July 24, '63, drafted. 
Bumbaugh Andrew, March 20, 1864. 
Bloom John, March 12, '64 
Bumbaugh Andrew^ November, 4 '61, mustered out November 5, 

'64, expiration of term. 



HIJSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 347 

Baily Weston. November 4, '61, discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate November 30, '62. 

Brown Amos, November 4, '61, killed accidentally at Charleston, 
South Carolina, February 18, '65. Veteran. 

Carroll William, Se|)tember 24, '63, drafted. 

Chatman William, November 4, '61. Veteran. 

Carey Chesterfield, October 31, '63, drafted. 

Culver Solomon, Novembers, '61, mustered out November 5, '64, 
expiration of term. 

Covey Vincent M., November 4, '61, deserted March 14, 1862. 

Davis Edward H„ November 12, '63, drafted. 

Delamp Alamaza, October 24, '62. 

Dalton Thomas, March 2, '65. 

Dougherty James, November 4, '61, discharged on surgeon's 
certificate December 9, '62. 

Etchells Alfred, July 24. '63, drafted. 

Engle Stephen, October 15, '63, drafted. 

Ersenhower M. W., October 28, '63. drafted. 

Edwards Joseph D., February 27, "65. 

Early James, March 23, '64. 

Evans James, November 4, '61, discharged on surgeon's certificate 
October 19, '62. 

Fitzgerald Patrick, September 24, "63, drafted. 

Fritz Charles, September 25, '63. 

Hew George. November 4 '61. Veteran. 

Foust Edward, September 24, '63, drafted. 

Fix James, October 29, '63, drafted. 

Fitzgerald Walter, March 3, '65. 

Frederick John, December 1, '61, deserted April 5, '64. 

Galligan John 2d, November 4, '61. Veteran. 

Grass Charles, September 23, '63, drafted. 

Gilligan J^hn 1st, November 4, '61, mustered out November 5, 
'64, expiration of terra. 

Gemian Thonias, November 4, '64, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate April, '63. 

Gilligan Peter, January 1, '62, mustered out January 22, '65, ex- 
piration of term. 

Haines Le<niard, October 12, '68, drafted. 

Hepler William, March 18, '65. 



348 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Hawk diaries, Scpteiuber 24, '(58, sick, absent at luuster out. 

Halstead Theodore, March 20, '65. 

Hand John, November 4, '(51. Veteran. 

llankiTi James, J(Uy 24, 'G3, dratted. 

lloran Stephen, March 2, '65. 

Harris Job, July 31, '63, drafted, discharged by general order 

May 26, '65. 
Horor Michael, November 4, '61, mustered out November 5, 64, 

expiration of term. 
Ilaight William, November 4, '61, mustered out Novembei' 5, '64, 

expiration of term. 
Holland David. November 4, '61, discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate November 13, '62. 

Harley John, , not on muster out roll. 

Holmes Charles, September 24, '63, drafted, deserted June 18, '64. 
Johnston James P., November 4, '61. Veteran. 
Jones Edward D., November 4, '61, transferred to gunboat ser- 
vice February 17, '62. 
Keys Albert, October 30, '63, drafted. 
Keating John, Septeuiber 24, '63. 
King William C, December 9, '61, mustered out December Id, '64, 

expiration of term. 
King Henry H., December 9, '61, mustered out December 16, '64, 

expiration of term. 
Kinney Edward, July 24, '63, drafted, deserted Decend)er 8, '64. 
Long William, Septend)er 24, '63, drafted. 
Lamberson A. B., September 23, '63, drafted. 
Lockard Alfred A„ March 17, '64. 
Lawrence John, October 22, '63, drafted, absent, sick at muster 

out. 
Lake Fernandez, November 4, '61, mustered out November 5^ 

'64, expiration of term. 
Lelley Samuel, November 4, '61, mustered out November 5, '64, 

expiration of term. 
Lehman Joseph, September 24, '63, drafted, discharged by gen- 
eral order July 12, '65. 
Lane John E., October 14, '63, drafted, drowned at Morris Island, 

South Carolina, June 29, '64. 
Muntz John F. October 30, '63, drafted. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA OOUNTT. 349 

Mott James S., March 17, '61. 

Mack George, October 8, '62. 

Mack James, October 8. .62 

Miller Edward, March 20, '65. 

Merrellua Cornelius, November 3, '61, discharged on Surgeon's 
certificate February 20, '63. 

Miller Jeremiah, February 13, '62, died at Hilton Head, South 
Carolina, January 17, '6.5. 

Motz William, November 4, '61, died at Yorktown, Virginia, Oc- 
tober 2, '62. 

McAfee Joshua, Novt'mber 4, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certifi- 
cate P'ebruary 4, '63. 

Nichols Riley, November 4, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certifi- 
cate October 29, '62. 

Oberender John N., February 15, '65. 

Ocks Adam, February 15, '65. 

Ocks Charles, February 16, '65, discharged on general order June 
25, '65. 

Ollendick Joseph, October 16, '63, drafted, died at Hilton Head, 
South Carolina, June 27, '65. 

Parks John, November 4, '61, Veteran 

Porter James, September 24, '63, drafted. 

Patton John, October 12, '63, drafted. 

Padden Henry, March 2, '65. 

Philliits Henry, February 14, '65. 

Fringle Caleb. November 4, '61, nmstered out November 5, '64, ex- 
piration of term. 

Pointon John, November 4, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certifi- 
cate November 14, '62. 

Powell James, November 4, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certifi- 
cate June 2, '63. 

Phillips Henry, November 4, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certifi- 
cate June 11, '62.; 

Phillips David, November 4, '61, died at Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, June 8, '62, of wounds received at Fair Oaks, Virginia, 
May 31, '62. 

Paden John, November 4, '61, deserted March 28, '61. 

Rittenburg Joseph. November 4, '61, Veteran. 

Ryan William, November 9, '63, drafted. 



350 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 

Rupert John J., September 24, '(>;?, drafted. 

Riiidy John, September 24, '63. drafted. 

Rush Henry, November 4, 'Gl. 

Rozelle P^dward E., November 4, '61. 

Redcay Charles, November 4, 'Gl, mustered out November 4, 'G3, 
expiration of term. 

Redeay George, November 4, 'Gl, mustered out November 5, '64, 
ex})iration of term. 

Ritcli Jolm, November 4, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certificate 
October 29, '62. 

Scott Wesley, November 4, '61, Veteran. 

Sanders George M., November 4, '61, Veteran. 

Shu|)p Charles, October la, '63, drafted, absent, sick, at muster 
out. 

Steinhower Jacob, October 4, '63. drafted. 

Seibert Franklin, September 24, '63, drafted. 

Schrick John, Novembea 4, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certificate 
August 44, '62. 

Smithers John, Fovember 4, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certifi- 
cate November 30, '62. 

Stout Joseph, November 4, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certificate 
Marcli 8, '62. 

Shiner Joseph, November 4, '61, mustered out November 5, '64, 
expiration of term. 

Stout William H., November 4, '61, discharged on Surgeon's cer- 
tificate July 6, '63. 

Smith Martin, November 4, '61, died at Washington, D. C, Feb- 
ruary 1, '62. 

Smith John P., November 4, '61, died at Washipgton, D. C, Feb- 
ruary 8, '62. 

Shunian Milton, November 4, '01, deserted September 1, '63. 

Swartz John, November 4, '61, deserted September 1, '63. 

Thoui])son A. TI., November 4, '61, nuistered out November 5, '64, 
expiration of term. 

Thomas Charles, September 1, '64, discharged by general order 
June 24, '65. 

Taylor Dilton N., November 4, '61, discharged on Surgeon's cer- 
tificate September 16, '62. 

Vanduser James, March 28, '64. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 351 

AVilliaiii Curtis, November 4, '61, mustered out November 4, '64, 

ex|»ir;itioii of term. 
Welsh .John, October 16, '63, drafted, deserted November 1, '64. 

Many of these Columbia county men were among the lirst in 
the field and the last out, and in every place did credit to them- 
selves and the county. The Regiment was at first under General 
Henry M. Naglee, and was in the following engagements, viz : 
Lee's Mills, Bottom's Bridge, and a four days' fight on the advance 
to Kichmond, Fair Oaks, Mechanicsville, and the line of the 
Chickahoniiny. In December, 1862, it was sent to North Caro- 
lina, in January, '63, to Port Royal in South Carolina, and went 
through an arduous campaign. They made the assault on Fort 
Johnson, in July 18G4, led by Colonel, late Governor Hoyt, and 
if su])i)orted would have catured the place. A detachment of the 
52<1, on the 18th February, '65, planted her flag on Fort Sumter. 
When Sherman marched through South Carolina, the Fifty-Second 
joined him. Their march terminated in April, with Johnson's 
surrender near Raleigh. Thence to Salisbury, N. C, and thence 
to Harrisburg, and -a tnuster out July 12, '65. 






352 JilSTOliY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



KKiHTV-KOrUTH REGIMENT. 
COMl'ANY l>. 



HUUl.EY (iUARl>S. 



AlcxaiuU'V J. Frick, cuptaiu, mustered in Si'[)tember IS, "01, re- 
siyiu'd ()(.iol>er 2, '62. 

George Ziim, eaptaiii, October 1, '61, promoted from 2d lieuleu- 
ant eomi>:uiy B October 2, '62, to lieutenant colonel December 
2o, "63. 

Alexander O. Thornton, captain, December 2-1, '61, wounded at 
Fort Tublic June, 9, '62, promoted from 1st seargent to 1st lieu- 
tenant October 2, '62, to captain December 28, '62, discharged 
July 8, "64. 

John W. liissel, captain, december 9, '(il, i)romoted from sergeant 
major to 2d lieutenant December 23. 1862, to 1st lieutenant 
November 16, '63, to captain July 26, '64, discharged Decem- 
ber 14, 1S64. 

F/al n. Ent, 1st Lieutenant October 1, '61, resigned October 2,'62. 

James W. Hunter, August 1, '62, promoted to 2d lieutenant Sep- 
tember 22, '62, to 1st lieutenant December 23, '62, discharged 
8e})tember 15, '63. 

David Larish, December 24, 1861, promoted to 1st Lieutenant 
October 17, '(54, transferred to company G 57th regiment P. V., 
January 13, '65. Veteran. 

Calvin MacDowell, August 30, '61, resigned June 25, '62. 

Lewis ]M. Clark, October 2, '61, captured at Chancellorsville, Vir- 
ginia, May 3, '63, transferred Xo company G, 57th regiment P. 
v., January 13, '65. 

William A. Tobias, December 24, '61, not accounted for. 

James G. Moore, December 24, '61, captured at Chancellorsville, 
May 3, 1863, exchanged, not accounted for. Veteran. 

Josepli D. Hampson, December 24, '61, not accounted for. 

Henry Funk, December 24, '61, wounded at Winchester, March 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 353 

23, 1862, killed at Mine Run, V'irginia, Noveiiibcr 3(J, 1863. 

Josiah IleiiiiiiiLfer, ■, not accounted for. 

James W. Price, December 24, "61, wounded at Winchester, Vir- 
ginia, Marcn 23, 1863. 
Chark'H Manning, December 24, '61, wounded at Winchester, 

Virginia, March 24, 1862. 
Fred C Hess, December 24. "Gl, transferred to coiniiuny G. ';7th 
ReLriment P. V. January 13, '6o, promoted to Coi])oral, Veteian. 
Stephen Johnson, Decemljer 24, '61, captured at Chancellorsville, 
Virginia, May 23, '63, died at City Point, June 19, '64, buried 
in National Cemetery, section E, division 1, grave 154. Veteran- 
Pierce Russel, December 24, '61, promoted to Corporal February 
18, '62, wounded at Chancellorsville, Virginia, May 3, '63, trans- 
ferred to Company G, 57th Regiment P. V., January 13, '65, 
])romoted to 1st Sergeant January 1, '65. Veteran. 
Chai'les Sill, DecemV)er 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Theobald M. Dawson, December 24, '61, captured at Chancellors- 
ville, Virginia, May 3, '63, exchanged, not accounted for — found 
in Company G, 57th Regiment P. V. January 1, '64, transferred 
to Company II June 10, '65, Veteran. 
William l*rosser, December 24, "61, caj^tured at Chancellorsville 
Virginia, May 3, '63, transferred to Comi)any (t, 57th Regiment 
P. V. January 13, '65, promoted to Sergeant July 1, 64. Veter- 
an. 
John F. Crawford, December 24, '01, prisoner from August 16, 
'64, to March 2, HSi>, discharged April 13, to date March 7, '65. 
Theodore W. Overpeck, December 21, '61, not accounted for. 
Roman Dunn, December 24, '61, transferred to Company G 57th. 

Itegiment P. V. January 13, '65. 
Apsker (teorge, December 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Arble James B., December 24, '61, killed at Port Republic,, Vir- 
ginia, June 9, ''(^2. 
Albert John, Decend)er 24, '61, died at Washington, D. C, Jidy, 

'62. 
Albaugh Henry A., December 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Bunker Isaiah W., December 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Barrett Frederick, December 24, '61, promoted to hospital steward. 
Bowers Cornelius D., December 24, '61, wounded at Winchester, 
Virginia, March 23, '62, not accounted for. 



354 II1.ST0RY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Bailey Fr:nu'is J., Deceiubei- 24, '01, wounded at Chanccllorsville, 

Yii-giiiia, May 3, '03, transferred to Company G 57th Ilegiment 

P. V. January 13, ''Q'^. A'^eteran. 
Boger Christian, December 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Benton Anderson, captured at Chancellorsville, May 3, '03. 
Baish Ephraim, October 7, '^2., wounded at Chancellorsville May 

3, '63, transferred to Company G 57th Regiment P. Y. January 

13, '65. 
Biiigaman John, September 26, '62, wounded at Chancellorsville, 

May 3, '63, transferred to Company G 57th Regiment P. V. 

January 13, '65, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps March 21, 

'65. 
Clayton James E., December 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Crofut Alonzo D., December 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Campbell John T., December 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Clark John A., December 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Connelly Patrick, captured at Chancellorsville, May 3, '63. 
Connell John, transferred to Company G 57th Regiment P. V. 

January 13, '65, mustered out at expiration of term. 
Dawson Daniel W., December 24, '61, wounded at Chancellors- 
ville, May 3, '63, not accounted for. 
Dweany Pliilip, captured at Cliancellorsville, Virginia, May 3, 

'63. 
Doney Peter, captured at Chancellorsville May 3, '63, died at 

Philadelj)hia, Pennsylvania, February 5, '65. 
Eby Jacob, wounded at Chancellorsville May 3, '63, died Novem- 
ber 3, '04, buried in National Cemetery, Arlington. 
Fowler Thomas C, December 24, '61, wounded at Winchester, 

March 23, '02, not accounted for. 
Fowler William R., December 24, '01, killed at Winchester, 

Virginia, March 23, '62, buried in National Cemetery, lot 10. 
Fest Henry, December 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Frank Penrose, December 24, '01, not accounted for. 
Foster John, December 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Farley Charles, June 28, 'ti2, transferred to company G, 57th 

regiment P. V., January 13, '05, discharged by general order 

June 1, '65. 
Fitzharris Michael, December 23, '61 captured at Chancellorsville 

May 3, "63, transferred to company A, transferred to company 



IIIISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 355 

G. 57th regiiiieiit P. V., })roiuottHl to sergeant June 10, '65, 

Veteran. 
Foust Cornelius, October 7, "G2, transferred to company G, 57th 

regiment P. V. 13 January '()5, promoted to corporal June 10, 

'65. 
Gessner William, September 26,'G2, transferred to company G, 57th 

regiment P. \ . January 13, '05, discharged by geneial order 

June 6, '65. 
Hess Asa Y., December 24, 'Gl, not accounted for. 
Hess Wilbur F., December 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Hildebrandt Joseph, December 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Hilburn Z. W., December 24, "61, died at Yorktown, Virginia, 

May 30, '64, buried in National Cemetery, section A, grave 

343. Veteran. 
Harding John, December 24, '61, wounded at Winchester, March 

23, '62, killed at Port Republic, Virginia. June 9, '62. 
Holcomb Guy, Deceiuber 24, '61, wounded at Winchester, March 

23, '62, transferred to c >mpany G. 57th regiment P. V. Jarmary 

13, '65. Veteran. 
Hakes Reuben, December 24, '61, wounded at Chancellorsville, 

Virginia, May 3, '63, not accounted for. 
Hagar Charles W., August 12, '62, wounded at Chancellorsville, 

May 3, '63, transferred to Company G, 57th Regiment P. V. 

January 13, '65, discharged by general order June 1, '65. 
Hall Hosea L., April 12, '64, died June 28, '64, buried in National 

Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia. 
Hojikins Kelroy, December 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Jacoby George, Decendier 24, '61, wounded at Chancellorsville 

May 3, '63, and at Petersburg June 19, '64, transferred to 

Company G 57th Regiment P. V. January 13, "65. discharged 

Sej)tember 9, '65. Veteran. 
Jones Joseph, December 24, '61, wounded at AVinchester March 

23, '62 discharged 23 December, '64, expiration of term. 
Kline Abner W., December 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Kline Jacob, December 24, '61, not accounted foi-. 
Kline Abraham E., Decend^er 24, '61, not accounted for. 
Knapp Harvey W., December 24, '61, transferred to Company G, 

57th Regiment P. V. January 13, '65. Veteran. 
King James,' December 24, '61, not accounted for. 



356 FTISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Lun<j:or Andrew, Docomber 24, '61, not ncoountcd for. 

Larish Cyrus W., December 24, '61, not accounted for. 

Larish Wilbur F., December 24, '61, transferred to Tompany (t, 
')7th Ueo-iment P. V. Veteran. 

Lyncli Robert, December 24, '61, not accounted for. 

Learner George. October 8, '62, wounded at Chancellorsville May 
3 '63, transferred to (\Mnpany (t oTth Regiment P. V. 

Leader Henry, captured at Chancellorsville May 3, "()3. 

Loudenshlager J. J., September 21), '62, transferred toC\)mpany (1, 
")7th Regiment P. X. <lischarged by genei-al order .lune 1, '().'>. 

Iiarish Frank M., October 16, '62, transferred to Company G, o7th 
Regiment P. V. 13 January '65, discharged by general order 
June 8, '65 

Millard Lockard F., December 24, '61, not accounted for. 

Merrell Charles C, December 24, '61, missing at Port Republic 
June 9, '62, transferred to Conn)any G, 57th Regiment P. V. 
Veteran. 

Milheim Augustus, December 14, '61, not accounted for. 

Miller Miles, December 24, '61. not accounted for 

Murray Ferdinand, December 24, '61, not accounted for. 

Morrison John, December 24, '61, not accounted for. 

Moore Benjamin W., August 11, '62, transferred to Com|)any G, 
57th Regiment P. V. 

Prosser John, December 24, '61, died JMarch 31 of wounds receiv- 
ed at Winchester, March 23, ,62. 

Resei- Heub^Mi H., December 24, '61, not accounted for. 

Riddle John, December 24, '61, not accounted for. 

Kutter Anthony E, December 24, '61, died July 16, '64, buried in 
Cypress Hill Cemetery, Long Island. 

Simonton Thomas E., December 24, '()1, not accounted for. 

Seeshultz William E., December 24, '61, not accounted for. 

Smith Peter B., December 24, '61, not accounted for. 

Sanders George W., December 24, '61, not accounted for. 

Steele Samuel A. L., December 24, '61, captured at Chancellors- 
ville. 

Shellenbergei-, J. G., December 24, '61, not accounted for. 

Steele Calvin, December 24, '61, captured May 29, '02. 

Squires Smith B., December 2-4, '61, not accounted for. 



iriSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 3r.7 

Schooley Jacob, December 24, 'Gl, died at St. Loiuh, Missouri, 

December 19, '63. 
Sanders Jolin II., December 24, 'fJI, not accounted for. 
Sage "William, December 24, 'Gl. transferred to Company G, 57th 

Kegiment P. V. 
Sheadle Milton, Scpteinber 2(J, '()2. ti aiisf erred to Company G 57th 

Kegiment P. V. 
Teter James C, December 24, 'Gl, discharged June G for wounds 

received at Winchester, Virginia, March 23, '62. 
Wheeler Jesse L., December 15, *G1, wounded at Winchester, and 

not accounted for. 
Wingate J. Kussel, December 24, 'Gl, jtroiuoted Company G, 1st 
Jiieutenant August 15, 'G3, died 18 June, ()4, of wounds receiv- 
ed at Petersburg. 
Wigherman Poster, December 24, 'Gl, piomoted to principal 

musician Not accounted for. 
Wi'.lard H. H., not accounted for. 

Wc'llcr Henry, Oct. 7, '(52, transferred to Company G, 57th Regi- 
ment P. V. 
Weller David, transfei-red to Company G, 57th Ilegiment P. V. 
Williams S. Charles, not accounted for. 

This Comi)any, known as the '"Hurley Guards" was recruited 
in Columbia and Montour, and a few men 8ubse<juently were re- 
ceived from other counties. I have not thought it necessrry lo 
separate or omit them. The Regiment reached Hancock, Md., 
January 2, '^32. The battle of Winchester was fought March 23, 
'62; and that at Port Republic June 9th. On the 15th of June 
Sanniel M. Bowman of Columbia county was conmiissioned Col- 
onel. The Regiment was also in the battle of Fredericksburg, 
and received a handsome compliment in the report of Gen. Carroll. 
It did gallant service at ('hancellorsville, lost heavily and was 
highly spoken of in the campaign of the Wilderness, and along 
down to Petersburg, in the thick of the fray, keeping up its milL 
tary record, until its muster out, when as has been seen a large 
number of the men went into the 57th Regiment P. V., and re- 
mained until nmstered out June 29, 'G5, at the close of the war. 



;jr)H 



II r STORY OF (JOLUMIUA COUNTY. 



NlNKI'V-TllIUI) liKdniKNT. 



COMI'ANV 11. 



"r.Ai.DV (;rAUi>^ 



Hocmitcd ill Montour ooimty. 



.losoph V. Iviiinsuy, rcsii^iu'd, October I'l, 18()2. 

Charles W. KckuiMii, Scptciiiln'v 25, 18()1, wouikU'iI ;U Wilderness 
May 5, and at Cedar Creek, Viroinia, Oetober 19, iSlil, promo- 
ted from 2d to 1st Tiient'iiant July 25, to Cai)taiii, October 21, 
1S()2, to MenteiiMiit Colonel Novcnibei' 27, 1S()1, to Colonel 
January 2.'5, iMOri. 

.[o-seph II. .fohnson, October 21, "(11, proinott'd from (\)rporal to 
Seru^eaiit October 1, 1S()2. to 1st Sergeant January 1, ISC^, to 
2d Lieutenant May 1, iMtll'^, to 1st Lieutenant, Aiisxnst 1, 1 H(i4, 
to ('a|)tain November 2S, 1S(>4. 

Lefferd \L Kase, Octobi'r 21, "111, resioiied July 20, 1S(52. 

Max K. Goodrich, October 21, '(51, promoted from 1st Sergeant to 
2d Lieutenant, July 25, to 1st Lieutenant October 21,18(52, 
died June 14, of wounds received at Wilderness, N'irginia, INLiy 
5, 18(5;i 

Oscar Shar|)less, October 21, '(SI, promoted from Corporal to Ser- 
geant, January 1. 18(5;?, to 1st Lieutenant, November 30, 1864, 
to brevet CJaptain April 2, 18(55, wounded at Spottsylvaiiia 
Court House, Virginia, May 12, 18(51 

Seth V. Fretv.e, ])roinotcd from Sergeant to 2d Lieutenant, No- 
vember 1, 18(52, resigned March 12, 18(53. 
Jared llunyan, promoted to Cori)oral March 18, 18(5;?, to Sergeant 
July 1, 1864, to 1st Sergeant November 3')th, 18(54, to 2d Lieu- 
tenant January 1, 18(55, wounded at Petersburg, \^irgiuia, April 
2, 18(55, discharged on surgeon's certilicate May 15, 18(55. 
Ve .M-an. 
Fre lerick Laubich, October 21, '(51, })romoted from Cor2>oral to 



// fs TO 11 Y () F COL UM li I A CO (IN TY. 3o9 

Sergeuiit, January 1, 18()8, to 1st ScrLiCiuit .laiiii.uy I, 1805, 
co:ninissi<)iuMl 2(1 Lieutoinmt May l.'S, iHOo, not mustered, pris- 
oner May :^il to Oetolter .SI, ISd.'i. V^eteran. 

Clark (Juiiiii, proniotcfl to ('orpoi-al .Inly 1, '()4, to Sergeant Sc))- 
teinlxM- '.>, 1S()4, wounded at Wilderness, May o, 1804 and at 
Petersburg, Virginia, Mareli 2.3, I8(j.">, absent at muster out. 
Veteran. 

W illiani Miller, October 21, '(51, promoted to C'orporal (October 1, 
lH(i I, to Sergeant D^'ceinber 1, 1804, wounded at Wilderness, 
May .'>, 18(!4, and at Fetersl)urg March 2.5, 18(5.'), absent at nuis- 
ter out. Veteran. 

Charles \s . Slioles, Octoln/r 21, '(51, promoted to Corporal Novem- 
ber, 80, 1804, to Sergeant .lanuaiy 1 18(51, wounded at Wilder- 
ness, Virginia, May T), 1801 absent on furloiigb at niustei- out. 
Veteran. 

John T. Howe. October 8, (51, <leserted, returned, jjromoted to 
Cor[)oral Septemb«r 1. 18(>4, t(j Sergeant April 8, 18Go. 

Alfred H. Pa'ton, October 3, 1801, discharged on surgeon's certif- 
icate August 14, 1802. 

William Young, October 8, "(51, wounded at Fair Oaks, Virginia, 
May .'51, 1802, discharged on surgijon's cerLilicate September 22, 
1802. 

David it. Kckman, wounded at Wilderneas, Virginia, May 0, 1804, 
jiromoted to Corporal October 1, 1802, to Sergeant January 1, 
18(5;5, to Qiiartei'iuaster Sergeant January 1, l8(5o, absent on 
furlough at muster out. 

J. A. Penstermacher, October 8, '(51, j)romoted to Sergeant Octo- 
ber 8, 1801, promoted to Sergeant October 1, 1802, wounded at 
Wilderness May 1, 1804, killed at Opeipia, N'irginia, September 
19, 1804. Veteran. 

Hiram Layland, October ;>, '(51, prom<^ted to Corjior.d November 
30, "(54, to sergeant January 1, '05, W(junded at W^ilderness May 
5, '04, killed at Petersburg, April 2, '6.>, buried in Poplar Grove 
Natii)nal (Jeinetery, division E., Section E., grave 90. Veteran. 

George \. (iarrow, October 12, Gl, piomoted to corporal Ncnem- 
ber 80, '(51. Veteran 

Wesley (J. .Miller, March 17, "(51, wounded at Wilderness, May 
5, 'Gl, pro. noted to corporal Novenjber 80, '04. Veteran. 



8(i0 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Gideon Mellon, February 25, '61, wounded at Wilderness, May 5, 

1864, promoted to Corporal November .SO, 1M04. 
Amos Crass, October 21, 'GI, promoted to C/orporal .January 1, 

IMfij), w^ounded at Potersbursj^, V^irginia, Mareh 2.5, iHGo, absent 

in hospital at muster out. Vetei-an. 
John V. liiouilt, ()c,tobc;r 21, '01, promoted to Corporal January 

1, 186.") Veteran. 

Charles Kneibler, October 21, '61, i)roinoted to Cor[)oral Aj)ril 3, 
1.S6'), wounded at Fair Oaks, M.ay 81, 1862 and at Petersburg, 
Virginia, Mareh 2.5, 1H6.5, absent at muster out. 

Sanuiel (Juinn, October 21, '01, promoted to Corporal March 1, 
ISOf). V(U,eran. 

John (i. IJowei', October 21, '61, promo'ed to Corporal .January 1, 
1<S(),), wounded at Petersburg, V^irginia, April 2, 1S6'), absent 
at muster out. Veteran. 

Orvilh' 1). Harder, Octobi-r .'?, IStil, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate, September 22, 1S62. 

Charles W. Weaver, October 3, '61, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate January 27, 1863. 

Oeorge S. Walk((r, October 21, '(51, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tifi(%ate April 14, 1863. 

^Fohn llyerly, October 21, '(>!, dischargt d December 17, 18()4, to 
date expiration of term. 

licwis M. Yoder, October 21, '61, wounded at Wilderness, Vir- 
ginia, May .5, 18(54, discharged on Surgeon's certificate October 
27, 1864. 

Silas Iv. llai'lnian, Octol)i'r .'5, '61, killed at Cedar Creek, Virginia 
October 15), 1864. Veteran. 

Martin V. Murray, October 3, '01, promoted to Corporal January 
1, 186.5, wouiuled .at Charlestown, Virginia, August 21, 1864, 
killed at Petersburg, April 2, 1865. Veteran. 

John Henedict, February 2!), 1804, transferred from Com])any G 
October 28, 1864. 

L. 1). Maugliawout, October 3, '01, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate June 11, 1862. 

Joseph L. Hale, October 3, '01, discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 11, 1803. 

Acor Jose{»li S., October 8, 1804, drafted. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNIY. 301 

Auld . Fumes, October 3, "Gl . discharged on surgooirs certificate 
December 24, 1802. 

Ammerman Jolui, Octol)er 21, '01, discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate June 28, 186?. 

Albright James, August 2(>, '()3, drafted, discharged on surgeon's 
certificate June 14, 18f).') 

Brocius Luther S , Octobei- 24, '01, piisoner May 3, to October 27, 
1803 Veteran. 

Bhie Thomas II., February 25, '04. 

Br.int Henry, November 26, '64, substitute, wounded at Peters- 
burg, Virginia, March 25, 1865. 

Brobst John R., Fel)ruary 10, '04. Veteran. 

Brodlieid Daniel W., October 13, '64. drafted, wounded at Peters- 
burg, Virginia, April 2, 1805 

Behnoy Eiihraim, February 27, '03. 

Blatcliley Samuel, February 27, '05. 

Berger George, December 25, '01, discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate July 24, 1862. 

Beal C^onrad, September 20, '64, drafted, wounded at Petersburg, 
A'irginia, Marcli 25, '05, discharged by general order June 7, 
1865. 

Buckley William, September 20, '04, drafted, wounded at Peters- 
burg. Virginia, March '1^, 1865, discharged by general order 
June 20, 1 865. 

Bariiliart Henry C, October 21, '01, died at Danville, I'a., March 
5, 1864. Veteran. 

Bear Joseph, Octol)er 27, '61, missing in action at Fair Oaks, Vir- 
ginia, May 31, 1802. 

Brunner Jacob L., August 20, 1803, discharged by general or- 
der June 13, 1805. 

Brugler Edward S., Feliruary 17, '64, not on muster out roll. 

Culp .lolm, February 21), '04. 

Cam))bell John W., November 14, '64, drafted. 

Canada James D., October 3, '01. 

Caldeiwood Kiios, November 10, '04, drafted. 

Cornelison Jacob, February 24, 1805. 

Cleaver Alem B., November 12, '61, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate September 23, 1802. 



sr)2 If [.STORY OF COJATMHIA COUNTY. 

C/omish Georjjfc, J;itiu;iry 2S. '(!4, disitliarn'cd on siir^'coirs cc^rtifi- 
ciitc iHli.'). 

(.'nip Williiim, Fchniary 24, 'Ol, kilU'd at, Wildenu'ss May (i. I.SIU. 

Cliiu- CharK's I)., Scpti'iiibcr S, '(il.dicd at Washiiin-tDii, D. C, 
Dcc-i'iiibor 2(), iHdt 

Diivcr Au^-ustiis, Novembi'i' 1(1, (il, drafted, discharged l)y gen- 
eral order May 30, 18()5. 

Daiigherty , lames, November 2(S, '(J-l. 

Deiti'iiek Charles F., Novendx'i' 2(). '()l, substitute, died at, C^ity 
Point, N'irginia, Mai-ch 2(1, of wounds ri'ceived at IN'tei'sbiirg, 
Virginia, March '1^^, ISC'). 

Dauby James, November 8,(54, substitute, deserted I^'ebruary (i,'()4, 

Kekenrodt! Joseph, November 29, '04. substitute, wounded at 
Petersburg, Virginia, March 25, 18(55. 

lOverett l*iiilip, October .'5, '(il, mustercil out October 27, lcS()4, ex- 
piration of term. 

I^^crliart Nathaniel !>., Oct()l)er .'5, '(il, dischargetl on surgeon's 
certilicate, October 2;5, I8(j2. 

Eciimau Piiilip II., October 3, '(51, killed at Fair Oaks, N'irginia, 
May 31, 18(52. 

b'ree/A' Henry F., October 2!), '(51, discharged on surgeon's certi- 
licate Septend)er 15, 18(52. 

i'\)ley 'I'heophilus ,1.. October 3, '(11, dischargml on surgeon's certit 
icate 18{;2. 

Flanigan Wilson, October 3, '(11, dischai-ged on sui'get)n's certili- 
cate June It, 18(12. 

l^'oley Charles E., November 2, '(51, dischaiged November 5, 18(52. 

Fortner Harris B., November 21, '01, died at Washington, D. C, 
January 3, 1862. 

Frame Robert II.. February 25, '(54, killed at Petersburg, Vir- 
ginia, March 25, 1805 

Fryinire William, October 21, (11, deserted January, 1802. 

Fitzpatrick James, November 3, '01, substitute, deserted Febru- 
ary 5, 1805. 

Gulic Charles V., October 24, '01. Veteran. 

Gibbs Sheldon T., October 3, '01, discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate October 15, 1802. 

Garrow John, died at City Point, Virginia, March 2(5, of wounds 
received at Peter-burg, M;uvh 25, 1805. 



JIT STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. ?^V^ 

CJ;in:i .I.inics, DccciiiImt I, '(!i, substitute, deserted Felniiury 

Hower Uriali, October 27, '64. 

Iliiun.'i James, November IS, '04, drafted. 

Ilannoii William, November 16, '64, drafted. 

Hummel Ileury, February 13, '65. wounded at Petersburg. Vir- 
ginia, April 2, 1H6.5. 

Ileury Williain, OctoV)er 3, '61, discbarged on surgeon's (X'rtiticate 
April 28, 1862. 

Hower .John J., Octolx-r 3, '(il, |)r()m()t('(l to (yommissary Sergeant 
July 1, 1864. 

Hoovci- .lac(tl) B., September 6, '64, deserted November 12, 18(54. 

Harvey Franeis J., November 21, 186 I, substitute, deserted Feb- 
ruary 3, 1865, 

Jones William L., Marcli 14, '64. 

Jones Robert E., November 21, '64, drafted. 

Jolinsoii James H., October 3, '61, discharged on surgeouV ('crtili- 
cate, September 22, 1862. 

Jenkins Hicbard, 0(;tober 21, '61, mustered out October 27, '64, 
expiration of term. 

.lohiisoii Toliias S., Septeud)er 27, '64. draftcMl, wounded at Peters- 
burg, Virginia, March 2.'), '65, discharged by general order 
June 25, '65. 

Johnson Jackson B., October 21, "61, wounded at wilderness May 
6th, '64, and at Fisher's Hill, Virginia, September 22, '64, died 
October 13, '64, Ijuried in National (Jemetery, Winchester, Vir- 
ginia, lot 18. 

Kreigh (ireorge I)., October 21, '61, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate September 5, '62. 

Kline John, October 3, '61, discharged on sui'geou's certificate 
September 22, '62. 

Kline Daniel, October 21, '61, mustered out October 27, '64, ex- 
piration of term. 

Kurtz Samuel H., October 13, '61, killed at Fair Oaks May 31, '62, 
buried in National (Cemetery, Seven Pines, Section IJ, lot 126. 

Knerr William, Octol)er 3, *61, captured at C'hancellorsville, Vir- 
ginia, May 3. '()3, died at Danville, Pa., August 23, "63. 

Kirst Sanmel, October 3, "61, deserted Jnly 2, '63. 

Lebo I'ranklin, October 12, '61 Veteran. 



864 III.STORY OF COLCMBIA COUNTY. 

Lynn ITonvy, Fobrn:iry " i^l. '<»■!, woundod ;it Si)o(lsylv:ini;i C\)urt 
llouso, Virn'mia, M:iy 12, '64. 

Lohniaii F>s|>y A., Novonilu'r iMi, '(it, substitute. 

Li'isonriiig H, II , Ootobor .'?, '(il, wounded at F.iiv Oaks, Viiginiii, 
May 81, '(iL*, discliargod on surgeon's eertitieate C)etol)er 81, '(12. 

Leiby Harnian, February 2(i. "()2. diseliaroed on suroet>irs eertiti- 
eate September 22, '(52. 

Lawrence John, Oetober 8, '()!, diseliarged on surgeon's eertiti- 
eate November 21, "(>2. 

Lehman Henry C\, September 21, '(M, drafted, disebarged on 
general order. lune 20, '(i.). 

Levers Jolm, Oetober 8, '(>!, diseliarged o\\ surgeon's eertitieate 
February 17, '()8. 

Lawrence Harnxan K., Oetol)er 21, not on nuister out roll. 

Menseh Tliomas ^1., Oetober 8, (U 

Miller Pereival, February 1. '64, wounded at Fair Oaks, May 81, 
'()2 and at Opequa, ^'irginia, September 19, '64. 

Moore James H., November 21, '61, diseliarged on surgeon's eer- 
titieate November 6, '(VA. 

]\Iiller Franklin, September 8, '64, discharged by general order 
June 20, '6o. 

JNliller Henry. August 18, '62, wtninded at Wilderness, Virginia, 
May 0, '64, diseliarged by general order June 20, '6o. 

Muteheler Joseph K., Oetober 8, '61, died June 28, of wounds re- 
ceived at Fair Oaks, Virginia, May 81, "62. 

Miller Joseph 1)., Oetober 3, '61, died May 26, of wounds re. 
eeived at Spottsylvania Court House, Virginia, May 18 '64, 
buried at Alexandria, grave 1!I88. Veteran. 
Mowrer John Jt., October 1, '61, killed at Ope^ua, Virginia, Sep- 
tember 19, '()4. 

Morrill Thomas, Oetober 8, '61, died June 14, of wounds received 
at Sjtottsylvania Court House, Virginia, May 12, '64. Veteran. 

Miller John, October 8, (il, not on muster out roll. 
McAllister Andrew G., November 18, '64, drafted. 

McFatridge Michael, November 18, '64, drafted, wounded at 
Petersburg, Virginia, April 2, '65. 

McClure Philip H., October 21, '61, died at Fortress Monroe, Vir- 
ginia, September 22, '62. 



// LS TO RY OF COL UMBIA OO TINT Y. 365 

Osmuii TN'ttT v., OctoV)cr li, '01, inissiii<^' in action at Fair Oaks, 
Viririiiia, May 31, '02. 

Perrin Richaifl, October 3, 01, discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate April 1 1, '02. 

Patt'ii John W., Stptcniber 20, '04, drafted, discharged on gen- 
eral oi'der June 21), '05. 

Persing Josej)!! B., September 0, '04, discharged by general order 
June 20, '05. 

Pennsyl Kli, October 3, '01, wounded at Fair Oaks, Virginia, 
May 31. 02, died at Baltimore, Maryland, July 5th '02. 

Phillips Jolm VV , October 3, 01, missing in action at Fair Oaks, 
Virginia, May 31, '02. 

Ramsey lteuV)en, December 20, '01, wounded at Chancellorsville 
V^irginia, May 3, '03. Veteran. 

liilchie Jacob G., June 4, '64, draft' d. 

Khady Josei)h, November 20, '64, substitute. 

Ranch \V. H., October 3, '61, wounded at Fair Oaks, Virginia, 
May 31, '62, dischan^ed on surgeon's certificate September 28, 
"02. 

Rishcl Ohai-les Ji., (Jctober 3, '01, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate February 16, 62. 

Reynolds Alfred, October 21, '01, killed at Fair Oaks, Virginia, 
May 31, '02 

Slay William, October 3, 01. Veteran. 

Steward John, (^)ctober 24, '01. Veteran 

Stephens William, Octol)er 24, '01, wounded at Fair Oaks, Vir- 
ginia, May 31, '62. Veteian. 

Slay Peter, February 25. '64. Veteran. 

Swank Isaac, February 25, '64, wounded at Wilderness, Virginia, 
]\Iay 5, '05, and at Petersburg, April 2, '05. 

Shissler James, February 25, '04, wounded at Wilderness, Vir- 
gini^i. May 5, '64, and at Petersburg, Virginia, April 2, '65. 

Shaffer John I,., February IG, '64. 

Sylvccster Cliarle-s, November 12, '64, substitute, discharged by 

general order June 14, '(35. 
Stertz Peter, June 7, '04, drafted, discharged by general order 

August 2, '(J5. 
Sholes Charles L., October 25, '01, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tiiiciitc July 7, 'G'2. 



366 HISTORY OF COL UMBIA COUNTY 

Stephens Charles, October 21, '61, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
titicate September 13, '62. 

Sperring Jacob H., October 2i), '61, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate July 26, '62. 

Smith William, October 24, '61, wounded at Fisher's Hill, Vir- 
ginia, September 22, '64, discharged on surgeon's certificate 
June 14, '6o. Veteran. 

Sechler William W., wounded at Fisher's Hill, Virginia, Novem- 
ber 3, '64, discharged on surgeon's certificate June 14, '65, 
Veteran. 

Snyder Lambert P., September 6, '64, discharged by general 
order June 20, '65. 

Snyder Henry F., October 3, '61, died June 19, '62, at White 
House, Virginia. 

Snyder William M., October 3, '61, killed at Williamsburg, Vir- 
ginia, May 5, '62. 

Shissler Edward, October 3, '61, died May 10, of wounds received 
at Wilderness, Virginia, May 5, '64. Veteran. 

Snyder John C, October 3, '61, died October 14, '64, at Danville 
Pa. Veteran. 

Shannon John M., Octoler 3, '61, discharged by general order 
May 11, '65, to date October 3, '64, expiration of terra. 

Taylor Jonathan W., September 26, '64, drafted, discharged by 
general order .June 20, '65. 

Turner William, October 21, '61, wounded at Fair Oaks. Virginia, 
May 31, '62, drowned October 5, '62, at Point Lookout, Mary- 
land. 

Tittle Oscar, October 3, '61, killed at Opequa, Virginia, September 
19, '64. Veteran. 

Varus Valentine, November 18, '64, drafted. 

Williams John W., December 1, '64, substitute, wounded at Peters- 
burg, Virginia, March 'lb, \Sk^. 

Wiley John, November 26, '64, substitute. 

Waltmire ,Tacob, November 18, '64, drafted. 

Woods Charles, October 3, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certificate 

January 3, '62. 
Warntz Alem, October 3, '61, discharged on Surgeon's certificate 

April 11, '62. 



HI8T0RY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 367 

Wagner Charles, November 9, '61, died July 14, ■()4, at City 

Point, Virginia. 
Wilson Tliomas, November 30, '64, substitute, deserted Febrtiary 

3, '6.5. 
Winner IJobert, December 6, '64, substitute, deserted March 29, 

'6.'). 
Wirtz Israel, October 3, '61, captured at Chancellorsville, Virginia, 

May 3, '63, exchanged, deserted, date unknown. 
Young Hiram B., substitute. 

The Ninety-Third saw much and arduous service. The num- 
bers killed and wounded and missing in Company H prove 
that the men were always in the front. The official list of en- 
gagements is as follows, viz: Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fair 
Oaks, Malvern Hill, Fredericksburg, Marey's Heights, Salem 
Heights, Gettysburg, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Coal Harbor, 
Petersburg, Oj)e(iMa, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek. Those not 
otherwise accounted for were mustered out with the company 
June 27, 186.'). 






368 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



ONE IIUNDItKI) EIGTV-Ki>URTll KEGIMENT. 
COMPANY B. 



A. Stauk'v Gearliart, Captain, discharged on Surgeon's oertiHcate 
August v5, '64. 

Abner II Brown, Captain, promoted from 1st Lieutenant January 
7, '65. 

Adam Hand, 1st Lieutenant, discharged June 9, '6o. 

S. Hamilton Norman, 2d Lieuteuant. promoted from private Com- 
pany K, iBJth Regiment P. V, April 29. '64, died June 24, of 
wounds received at Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 3, '64 

Thomas vS. Anderson, commissioned 1st Lieutenant June 'I'o^ '65, 
Veteran. 

Dani' 1 II llarkels, Sergeant, commissioned 2d Lieutenant June 
26, '65. Veteran. 

William H. Jenkins, Sergeant. 

Cyrus S. Apph bee, Sergeant. 

James C. Henry, sergeant. 

George W. Crnm, Sergeant, prisoner from June 'I'l, '64 to I\Iarch 
1, 1865, discharged by general order June 12, 1865. 

Stephen T. Stasa, Sergeant, discharged on surgeon's certiiicate 
May 1, 1865. 

David C. Sutton, Corporal. 

John Riley, Corporal. 

David R. Bailey, Corporal. 

Mic.iaci Riley, Corporal. 

Ja> ob Kline, Corporal. 

Andrew J. Stewart, Corporal. 

William J. Kline, Corporal. 

P^iyette Winn, Corporal. 

Charles MacGregor, musician, absent in hospital at muster out. 

Acre Franklin, private. 

Boughner William B., discharged by general order July 14, 1865. 
Veteran. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 369 

Bailey William C, wounded at Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 3, 
'65, absent in hospital at muster out, 

Bastian Mathias D., discharged on surgeon's certificate March 23, 
1865. 

Barger John, discharged by general order June 20, '64, 

Brown Elias, discharged by general order June 3, '65. 

Brown Perry, discharged by general order June 3, '65. 

Blyer Samuel, discharged by general order June 3, '65 

Berry Simon J., discharged by general order June '65. 

Browerson George, discharged by general order June 8, '65. 

Bruner Henry M., killed at Deep Bottom, Virginia, August 14, '64_ 

Bilger Jesse R., killed at Boydtown Plank Road, Virginia, Octo- 
ber 27, '64. 

Bursline Edwin, killed at Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 3, '64, bur- 
ied in National Cemetery section D, as E. T. Burslem. 

Bastian Joseph D., died July 14, of wounds received at Petersburg 
Virginia, June 22, '64, buried in National Cemetery, Arlington, 
Virginia. 

Bessee Robert S., missing in action at Ream's Station, V^irgiuia, 
August 25, '64. 

Burd Franklin G., died May 24, '65, buried in National Cemetery, 
Arlington, Virginia. 

Burd Harvey R., deserted November 13, '64. 

Carpenter Dennis, mustered out with company. 

Castle Adolphus, transferred to Company E., 7th Regiment, Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps, August 17, '64, discharged by general or- 
der July 26, '65. 

Crawford Lott, captured, died at Andersonville, Georgia, October 
24, '64, grave 11,436. 

Chrisman Charles, died August '64. 

Burke Isaac, mustered out with company. 

Deckert Jesse, discharged by general order July 13, '65. 

Dreese William, discharged by general order July 13, '65. 

Devore Lewis, killed at Petersburg, Virginia, June 22, '64. 

Durke John H., missing in action at Petersburg, Virginia, June 
22, '64. 

Gearhart William, discharged by general order June 3, '65. 

Galespie Anthony, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, Sep- 
tember 30, '64. 



870 JIl.S TOR y OF COL UMBIA CO UNTY. 

•Greene Aduiii, killed :it Cold TI;irl)()r, Virginia, June 3, '04, buried 
in National Cemetery, Section B. 

Healoy John S., mustered out with company. Veteran. 

Harris Thomas, discharged on surgeon's certificate June 7, '65. 

Hedglin John, died at Phihideli)hia, Pa., July 1, of wounds re- 
ceived at Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 3, '64. 

Haskel lleuben, missing in action at Petersburg, Virginia, June 
22, '64. 

Hand Isaac, died at Philadelphia, Pa., July 21, '64. 

Jenkins John, mustered out with company. 

Katterman Benjamin, nuistered out with company. 

Keistard Godfrey, mustered out with company. 

Kinney Irwin, discharged by general order June 3, '65. 

Kinney Isaac, discharged by general order June 3, '65. 

Kulp David, missing in action at Petersburg, Virginia, June 22, 
'64. 

Krominger Jacob, ca]>tured, <lied at Andersonville, Georgia, Oc- 
tober 18, '64. 

Lattimore R'obert, transferred to N'eterau lleserve Corps, May 20) 
1864. • • >• 

Lott John T, deserted May 18, '64. ' 

Mart/ Isaac, absent, sick at muster out. 

Morgan Archibald, discharged Atigust 23, '64. 

Miller David, died at City Point, July 1, of wounds received at 
•Petersburg, Virginia, June '22, '64. 

Morgan Dennis, died March 25, '65. 

Miles John, died at City Point, July 1, of wounds received at Pe- 
tersburg, June 22, '62. 

Meed Harley, captured, died at Andersonville, Georgia. Septem- 
ber 21, '64, grave 9583. 

Mansfield Jose])h, died May 15. '64. 

Morgan Matthias R," died July 21, '64. 

McClune Johiij mustered out with company. 

McCurdy Samuel O., discharged by special Order October 13. '64. 

Nickerson Bernard, deserted October 10, '64. 

Nolen James, discharged by general order May 15, '65. 

Osborne Daniel D^, discharged on surgeon's certificate May'15,'65 

PolT Josejdi, absent, sick at muster out. Veteran. 



ITTSTOJIY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 371 

Pifer Daniel S., transferred to Veteran Reserv6 Corps September 

30, '64. , 

Persing Stei)hen K., transferred to company II, Veteran Reserv-^ 

Corpi», February 24, '64. 
Reese Conoway, mustered out witli company. 
Rhodes Morris K., discharged on surgeon's certificate March 

10, '6o. 
Reed Emanuel, discharged by general order June 20, '05. 
Robbins Asher W., discharged by general'order June 20,. 'Oo. 
Reescr David ^f , killed at Petersburg, Virginia, June 22, '04. 
Ray James R., captured, died at Aiidersonville, Georgia, August 

1, '(54, grave 4476. 
SteplieiiP Asa A., mustered out with comjmny. 
Shop William, discharged by s]>ecia] order October '64. 
Stasa John (1.. killed near Petersburg, Virginia, June IS, '()4, 

buried at Meade's station. 
Slay man Josc|di. killed near Petei'sburg, Virginia, June 18, ■()4, 

])uried in Poplar Grove National Cemetery. 
Simmons Harrison, missing in a(;tion at Petersburg, Virginia, 

June 22, '04. 
Sleek William, transferred to 33d company 2d battery, Veteran 

Reserve Corps, October 20, '64, discharged by general order 

Se])tember 4, '56 
Trempore Jolm, discliarged by general order June 3, '65. 
Tomlinson William P , killed near Petersburg, Virginia, October 

20, '64. 
Vauglian Edward, mustered out with coni])any. 
Wagoner Augustus, killed at Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 4, "64. 
WelHey Nathan, killed at Boydtown Plank Road, Virginia, Oc- 
tober 27, 04. 
Waide Andrew J., killed at (Jold llaibor, \'irginia, June 3, "6-1, 
Williams Smith, missing in action at Petersburg, Virginia, June 

22, 64. 
Warner C'yrus C, captured, died at Audersonville, Georgia, Se])- 

tember 21, '64, grave 9464. 
Wilson John. «le.serted May 18, '()4. 
Williams Charles, deserted April 3, '(55. 
\'<KUiii Henry M., mustered out with company. 
VouuLj JoFin W.. discharged on surgeon's certificate, June 28, '(55. 



372 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Yoeman George W., died at Alexandria, Virginia, January 25, 

'G5, grave 2791. 
Zitunierman W. H., mustered out witli company. 
Zimmerman A. W., discharged on surgeon's certificate March, 'C5. 

This company was recruited in Montour county and the regi- 
ment was organized May IBtli and joined the Army of the Poto- 
mac as it was ci-ossing the Pamunky river, May 28, 'G4. The 
next day it was in the battk^ of Tolopotoniy creek. Was in that 
at Cokl Harbor, kising heavily ; and was in the assaults constant- 
ly, losing in 2G days 350 men. Was in the Deep Bottom exjje- 
dition, in the Weldon Railroad fight, at Hatcher's Kun, and 
constantly on duty till the capture of the llebel Army at A])i)0- 
luattox Court House ; and was in the grand review at Washing- 
ton. A fitting close to a long, perilous and glorious career. 




HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 373 



ONIC lUNDRKI) KKMl'rY-SKVKNTII UKOIMKNT. 



COMPANY C. 



A part of this Company recriiitofl in Montour county, was a 
body of troops known as tlie First Jiattalion, organizcMl for six 
month's service. It was Company D, of that organizaticMi, muster- 
ed in June 22, '63, musteivd out January 9, '64, but was immedi- 
ately re-organized and became Company C, of the 187th llegi- 
nient Company D had done guard and provost duty in the State, 
and tliis ))ublication follows the fortunes of Company C, which 
was organized in ]Marcli '04 at Cam)> Curtin. It reached the army 
in the field during the battle at Cold Harboi-. In all the heavy 
fighting before Petersburg it had a full share, and was highly 
complimented. It had the head of the procession at President 
Lincoln's funeral obsequies, from Baltimore to Inde})endence 
Hall. It was mustered out at Ilarrisburg August 2, '65. Joseph 
F. Ramsay, Lieutenant Colonel, discharged September 29, '64^ 
the Company being in command of Captain Young. All the 
men not otherwise accounted for were nmstered out with the 
Regiment. 

William Young, Captain. 

Orville D. Harder, 1st Lieutenant. 

George G. Lovett, 2d Lieutenant, promoted to Captain Company 

K, discharged March 9, '65. 
James R. Johnson, 2d Lieutenant. 
Alfred JJ. Patton, 1st Sergeant. 
John S. Ware, Sergeant. 
Sette K. Sharpless, Sergeant. 
William H. Cool, Sergeant. 
Frank Rockafeller, Sergeant. 

James B. Moore, killed at Petersburg, Virginia, June 18, '64. 
John C. Irvin, Corporal. 
Hugh P. Liblcirt, Corporal. 



:\7\ nrSTOEY OF COLUMBIA COJJNTY. 

Amos (Jurmaii, (^n'porul. 

John II. Harder, Cor[)oral. 

William II Molir, Corj)oral. 

Daniel Marsiiall, deserted .January 19, Mo. 

James B. Forest, Musieian. 

Charles P. Harder, Musician. 

Alward Arthur, private. 

Brown Benton B, private. 

Brown George W., private. 

Beatty John li., private. 

Berdaniel George W., [)rivate. 

Bryant William, private. 

Beaver Charles S., ])rivate. 

Brace Henry E., private. 

Birtch Isaac, private, deserted October 10, '(54. 

C'utair Charles, private. 

Case Nelson 1>. 

Caslin Michael. 

Cani[)bt'll Andrew. 

C-raig William, died at Williamsport Pa., April 12, 'tj4. 

Devine John C. 

Echart Sanmel. 

Elliot William. 

Easten James 8. 

Eyerly Charles W. 

Funston Charles K. 

Foreman Osman. 

Frame .loseph L. 

Fox John. 

Fribley William II. 

Flanigan lleese, died at Dand's Island N. Y., August 23, '04, 

buried in Cypress Hill Cemetery, L. I. 
( Jaudihlue Joseph, 
(iibbons James H. 
Gibbs James M. 

Gibbs (^harles II., discharged on general order May 30, '6o. 
Geiger William, transferred to lo7th Regiment P. V. 
IIei;ry .lolin. 
IlefHer Jacob W. 



IIISTOKY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 375 

lliillilu'ii \N'illi;iiii F., discharged on general order July o, (35. 

Hale Epliraini K , diseliarged on general order Jidy o, 'O.j. 

Hawrer John, deserted February 21, '64. 

Ickus John. 

Ickus Henry. 

Jackson (ieorge W. 

Jackson Caleb. 

Jones William 1*., deserted March 1, 'Go. 

Kercher (iottleib. 

Kutchnian Theodore, transferred to Veteran lieserve Corps. 

Levers Joseph. 

Lewis William. 

Maney Patrick. 

Miller John. 

Morgan Thonias V. 

Morgan Watkins. 

Milner William, discharged on Surgeon's certificate July 4, '6o. 

Mellin Oscar G., discharged on general order July 5, '65. 

Nasli William, wounded with loss of leg at Petersburg, ^'irginia, 

June 18, '64, dischai'ged October 81, '65. 
O'Brian John. 

Oplinger Samuel, deserted May 11, '64. 
Powley Henry. 
Patton Irwin T. 

PoUan John, deserted March 1, '65. 
Rank David H. 
Reed Peter M. 
Rishel (ieorge. 
llishel Charles. 
Uoberts John. 
Kantz Isaac. 
Kidgway Warren M. 
Roderick John J. 
Spoonebager Peter. 
Smith Fdwanl D. 
Slack Jacob. 
Sechler Jolm. 
Stahl Samuel. 
Sni'U Isaac. 



376 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Sl:ick .Toliii AV., (lisc'liiirgod Ai»ril 17, '65, for wounds received in 

action. 
Sponeberger James, deserted March 31, Or). 
Sicwurd William, deserted JMarcli l?l, T)"). 
Thornton CJrier M., dishonorably discharged. 
Vangilder George W. 
Vogle William. 
Wray Lewis V., wounded at Petersburg, Virginia, June 18, '05, 

and nuistered out with Company. 
Wertman John. 
Werkheiser ^V. 1>. 
Ware James D. 
Watts William M. 
Wallace John IT. 
Williams William. 
Warren Henry. 

Warren (Tcorge, absent, sick, at nmster out. 
Wirt William, absent, sick, at nmster out. 
Waldren John, discharged January 5, '65, for wounds with loss 

of arm, received at Petersburg, Virginia, June 28, '61. 
Wray .lames, deserted I^'ebruary 2, '(M. 



. cm, 

-*H- «=T- <»- fy S ^' ■ ♦►5 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNIY. ?>11 



ONK lIUNI>KKO ANI> TWEI.ITH RE<;iMENT. 



SECOND ARTII.I.EUY. 



IJATTKUY V. 



COLUMI5IA ANI> MONTOUR. 

liolirsljiMg, I'ii., December 3rd, 1878. 

CV)r- Jno. G. Freeze, 

iJear Col : In complying with your 
requcHt that I furnisli u list of names of men in Battery F, 2d Pa. 
Art., from this county, I have endeavored to be as accurate as 
the dates in my possession would {)ermit. I have included the 
names already published, m order to make the record more com- 
plete — have furnished a few names of parties who never returned 
to this county, and a few names of parties that entered from 
Montour county but upon their return located here, in this 
county. 

As it may not l)e ^^entTally know n why some officers were com- 
missioned and not nnistercd, I will state that it was the result of 
conflict of authority. In the Spring of 1864 our regiment had 
become very strong, numerically, numbering about 2500 men, its 
numbers rendering it unwieldy. Then it was proposed that a 
regiment be formed from the surphis men of the old to be known as 
the ISilth regiment, I*. \. Governor C.'urtin commissioned a full 
set of otlicers from the old organization, taking such as had been 
identified with its early liistory. To this arrangement Col. Gib- 
son, then connnanding, objected, and having the ear of the War 
Secretary (they being West Pointers) the Governors authority 
was set asi<le. The new regiment was sent to the front as a 
provisional affair — named 2nd Pa. Provis. Art., its organization 
l)eing temporary and somewhat imperfect. 

Respectfully Yours, 

Geo. W. Urr. 



378 HI8T0JR Y OF COL ITMBIA CO ITNTY. 

Wm. M. Mc(1ui-(>, Jaiiuiirv -1, '(12, commissioned Colonel 189th 
regiment Peniisylv;iiii:i Volunteers, April 30, '64, not nuistered, 
promoted to Colonel, October 80, '64. 

S. D. Struwbridge, Janiniry 8, '62, promoted to Captain of Bat- 
tery I, December 13, '62, conunissioned Major of 18l)th regi- 
ment, P. v., April 30, '64, not mustered, breveted Colonel 
March 18, '(io conunissioned Colonel Ajiril 18, '60, discharged 
January 11, '()'), term expire<l. 

John S. Kline, |)romoted to (A)rporal August 7, '62, to Sergeant 
June 12, '()3, conunissioned 1st Lieutenant of Battery K, 189th 
regiment. P. V., April 30, '63, not mustered, to 2d Lieutenant, 
January 15, '65, to 1st Lieutenant May 3, '65, mustered out 
with battery January 29, "6(5. Veteran. 

John Moore Wilson, ])romoted to 1st Jjieutenant Battery D, Oc- 
tober 24, '62, discharged February 15, '64. 

CTCorge W. Utt, December 24, '61, promoted from Sergeant May 
4, '63, commissioned Captain Battery I 189th regiment P. V., 
Ai)ril 30, '64, not mustered, discharged December 26, '64, ex- 
j>iration of term. 

Lloyd T. Brewer, July "1^^, '62, promoted to Corporal July 4, '63, 

to Sergeant , to 2d Lieutenant July 1, '65, mustered 

out with battery January 29, '66. 

Josiah Mensch, January 28, '62, promoted to Corporal October 1, 
'64, to Sergeant December 1, '64, mustered out with battery 
Jaiuiary 29, 1866. Veteran. 

John McMullen, November 25, '(Jl, promoted to Corporal Octo- 
ber 1, '64, to Sergeant February 1, '65, mustered out with bat- 
tery Jaiuiary 29, '66. Veteran. 

John Marshall, January 1, '62, promoted to Corporal November 
10, '64, to Sergeant July 1, '(55, nmstered out with battery Jan- 
uary 29, ''^'6. Veteran. 

John Hart/.ell, January 2, ''^'1^ promoted to Corporal December 1, 
64, to Sergeant December 22, '65, inustered out witli battery 
January 29, '66. Veteran. 

Franklin P. Kline, promoted to Corporal February 1, '64, to 
Sergeant INIay 6, '65, discharged October •l'^, '65, expiration of 
term. 

Jonathan P. Bare, Novend)er 29, '61, promoted froju Corporal 



JITS TORY OF COLUMBTA COUNTY. 379 

J.uiiiiny 1 "),'(»;-$, disoharged Novfinbcr 24, '01, cxpinili'in of 

• term. ' 

Ileeso J. Millard, January 2, '02, Captain in battery T, 2d Pro. 
Pa. A., from April 20, to August 26, '64, jiaroled prisoner; dis- 
cliargcd l»y special order Marcli lf>. '65. 

C'liarles Mowrer, December 4, '64, promoted from Corporal De- 
cember ID, '(;;{, 1st Lieutenant in l»attery I 2d Pro. l*a. A., 
from April 20 to August 26, '61, discliarged l)y special order 
November 10, '64. Veteran. 

Norman C. Kline, Janiniry 26, '(i2, promoted to Corporal Januai-y 
7, '65, mustered out with battery J:inuary 29, '66. Veteran. 

Charles Mattis, December 3, '61, pi-omoted to Corporal October 
29, '05, mustered out with balteiy January 29, '66. Veteran. 

Thomas H. Beimet, November 29, '61, promoted to Cor[)oral 
February 1, "64, discharged November 28, '64, expiration of 
term. 

John Lanciscus, Deceml)er 11, '61, [tromoted to Corporal Decem- 
ber 10, '63, discharge*! December 10, 64, expiration of term. 

Henry J. Pr)tter, November 29, '61, promoted to Corporal Feb- 
ruary 1, '64, discharged November 2S, '64, expiration of term. 

Calver Zimmerman, January 15, '62, jiromoted to Corporal Novem- 
ber 13, '63, died at Washington D. C., March IS, "64, buried in 
Harmony Burial Grounds. 

Adams Albert J., December 4, '61, mustered out with l)attery 
January 29, '66. Veteran. 

Antrim Samuel li., July 13, '63, mustered out with battery Jan- 
uary 2!>, '{'A'). 

Buchecker Edward E., December IS, '61, discharged December 
17, '()3, expiration of term. 

Craw ford Franklin, November 2(), '61. mustered out with battery 
January 29, '()6. Veteran. 

Crawford Isaac, February 24, '64, mustered out witli battery Jan- 
uary 29, '66. 

(yoopcr Peter, Nov(<mber 11, '61. mustei-ed out with battery Jan. 
nary 29, "66. V^eteran. 

Curry Pobert, November 16, "61, die<l ;it Fort Saratoga, D. C, 
October 14. '62. 

Crossley John .\., Decembi'r 27, "61. died July 24, '63, of wounds 
received at Petersliurii-, \'irginia, on the 15th of Jtdy. 



880 HISTORY OF C0LU3IBIA COUNTY. 

Colo (loorgo W., mustered out witli Battery Jaiiujiry 29, 'OO. 

Eggert Richard "\\\, August 22, 'Q>2, diseliarged by general order 
June 24, '65. 

Farver (George, December 25, '(U, mustered out with battery Jan- 
uary 20, 'tU). Veteran. 

Fogle Michael, January 1, '(52, discharged on Surgeon's certificate 
May 29, 62. 

Farral John, December 1, 'Gl, discharged on Surgeon's certificate, 
May 10, "02. 

FaiiMuaii William, dischargi'd Ot-tobcr 2S, '()5, expiration of term. 
Fowler Joshua K., discharged October 28, '65, expiration o1" term. 
Farver Theodore, mustered out with Battery January 2^^, "(Hi. 
Farver Samuel, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, January 
29, '04. 

Graulz Adam J., September 10. '02, discharged by general order 
June 24, '05. 

Ilendrickson .lacob. Dcci'inbiM" 11. "01, discharged Dci-ember J^, 
'04, expiration o( term. 

ITeacock Win. F., absent at nnister out. 

ITeacoclv Geo. T^. imislcred out with liattery Janiiary 29, '05. 

llollman (icorge W., discharged by general order June 27, 05. 

Johnson William R., December 19, '(51, discharged December 18, 
"(54, expiration of term. 

Ktdp Elias, December 19, '61, discharged December 18, '04, ex- 
piration of term. 

Kesty John, August 22, '62, killed at Petersburg, Virginia, Au- 
gust 29, '04, buried in l*oi)lar Grove National Cemetery, Divi- 
sion B. Section 15. grave 53. 

Keller George, discharged by general order June 24, '05. 

Lee George S., November 20, '01, commissioned 1st Lieutenant 
Battery F, 189th Regiment P. V. Ajiril 30, '04, not nmstered, 
mustered out with l->attery January 29, '(50. Veteran. 

Lee Stephen B., December 18, "01, discharged December 17, "04, 
e\|)iration of term. 

Long Charles S., December 27, "(51, di.<charged December 27, '04, 
exj)iration of term. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 381 

Liitz P"'raiicis M., mustered out with Battery, January 29, '66. 
Veteran. 

Lutz Jacob H , mustered out with Battery, January 29, '66. 

Lotshaw Jacob P., mustered out with Battery January 29, '66. 

Murir Larnont, July 24, '64, n)ustered out with Battery January 
29, '66. V^eteran. 

Manning Philip, November 28, '61, discharged November 29, '64, 
expiration of term. 

Mazaell Martin, December 11, '61, transferred to Veteran Reserve 
Corps, January 28, '64. 

Magill Thomas, January 2, '62. discharged January 1, '65, expira- 
tion of term. 

McEwen George, December 27, '61, mustered out with Batteiy 
January 29, '66, Veteran. 

McClure John, December 27, '61, discharged December 27, '64, 
expiration of term. 

Musgrave Simon, January 15, '62, discharged January 14, '65, ex- 
piration of teiTii. 

Major Samuel, January 28, '62, discharged January 27, '65, ex- 
jiiration of term. 

MufHey Charles, mustered out with Battery January 29, '66. 

McMulIen David, discharged by general oider, June 24, '65. 

McCarty David H., December 11, '61, promoted to Corporal De- 
cember 27, '61, transferred to Signal Corps, Jauuaiy 12, '64. 

McC ormick Thomas, August 22, '62, discharged by general order 
June 24, '65. 

Price Clarence, December 25, '61, mustered out Avith battery Jan- 
uary 29, '66. Veteran. 

Pursell Benjamin C, mustered out with battery January 29, '66. 

Pursell Joseph S., discharged by general order June 24, '65. 

Parker John K., died at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, July 27, '64, 
buried in National Cemetery, Hampton, Virginia. 

lloe Henry P., Dcviember 24, '61, mustered out with battery Jan- 
uary 29, '66. Veteran. , 

Robison George, November 25, '01, mustered out with batteiy 
January 29, '66. Veteran. 

Rarabo Alexander, December 6, '61, mustered out with battery 
January 29, '66. Veteran. 



382 niSTOJn' OF COLUMlilA eOUJSTTY 

IvHiubo Thomas 11,, Fobruury lo. .'OK mustori'il out with battery 
January 2!>, 'GO. Veteran. 

KeniU'v William, February ID, "(U, mustered out w itli battery 
January 'I'd, '(>() 

lIuokLe David, February 24, '(»4. prisoner from July oO, tit to 
April 17, 65, nuistereil out with battery January 2iK "(Hi. Vet- 
eran. 

Kuekel IJillingtou, uuistere«l out with battery January 2!\ '(Hi. 

Uoe Hartley, kilted at Petersburii", N'irgiuia, June 2(5, '01, buried 
in National I'enietery, City I'oint, seelion D, division 4, grave 
74. 

IJiili Israel 1.., diseharget] Oetoher 28, "Oo, exi>iration ol" term. 

Koe Asa F., transferred to \'eteran Reserve Corj)s, diseharged 
by general order, November 14, 'Oo. 

Keese John, killed near Fort Ibirnham, \ ir^inia, buried in 
National Cemetery, Hamilton. 

Ragan ^laariee, killed at Petersburg, buried in National Cenie- 
ter3% Hamilton, Virginia. 

Reiehelderfer Thomas, Deeember 2, '(U, nuistered (Uit with Battery 
January 29, '00, Veteran. 

Shoemaker William, Deeember 2."), 'til, tliseharged on surgeon's 
eertilieate May 29, '02. 

SliatVer Aaron, Deeember 2."), "01, nnistered out with battery Jan- 
uary 29, '()(). N'eteran. 

Shult/ Josepli R., Deeend)(.'r 4, "01, diseharged Deeember o, '04, 
expiration of term. 

Steiuer John, Deeember 2o, (il. nuisti'red o\\{ with battt-ry, Jan- 
uary 29, '00. \'eteran. 

Smith Steplieu J., December 11, (il. diseharged Deeendier 10, '04, 
expiration of,,t.erm. 

Smith Daniel H., December 11, '01,.diseliarged Deeentber 10, '04, 
expiration of term. , 

Spjide Daniel. January 1."). "02, transferred to Veteran Reserve 
Corjis January 28, '(i4. 

Sands John, February 23, "04, mustered out with battery January 

29, '60. Veteran. * 
Tliateher Kdward, November 13, '01, nnistered out with Battery 

January 29, '00, Veteran. 



JTT STORY OF (JOLTJMJilA COUNTY. 383 

Triflfpiece Henry, January 25, '01, discharged Januury 24, '04, 
expiration of term. 

Utt William H., December 20. '01, discharged December 29, '04, 
expiration of terin. 

Utt Pjlias, October 27, '02, discharged October 20, 'Oo, exjiiration 
of term. 

Utt Jacob, October 29, '02, discharged October 28, '05, expiration 
of term. 

Weidel Josejjh, December 1, '01, mustered out with battery Janu- 
ary 29, '00. Veteran. 

Wilcox Alvin, December 29, '01, deserted Se].tember 30, "03. 

This legimeut garrisoned Washington until some time in '04, 
when it was divided, and jjart of it was in the Ijattle of the Wil- 
derness and <ni up to Petersburg. It was at Cold Harbor and at 
the Mine exph^sion, where it lost heavily. It was also in the fight 
"at Fort H;iiris(ui, losing over 2U!) in killed, wounded and prison- 
ers. On the evacuation of Petersburg it was ordered to duty in 
that city. It was on (bity in A'irginia, for the purpose of main- 
taining order and tranquility till January, '00. It was mustered, 
out at City Point, Viiginia, and disclinrged v)n the lOtli of F'ebru- 
ary at Philadelj)hia. 






384 HIS TOBY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



KltTTY-SECONI) REGIMENT, 1'. V. 



COMPANY A. 



In this CJompauy, recruited in Luzerne county, quite a nmuber 
of Columbia county men are found. I may not have succeeded 
in culliui^ them all out, and shall be obliged to the survivors if 
thev will inform me of any omitted names. The Captain of the 
Company was George R. Lennard, and the regiment was at first 
under the command of Colonel John C. Dodge, jr., and afterwards 
of Colonel Henry M. Hoyt: The o2d was in the movement of '62 
ao-ainst Richmond, and all that peninsula campaign ; in the siege 
of Fort Nassier and the taking of Charlestown ; and it was the 
old Ha'' of the 52d that first floated over recaptured Sumter. The 
reinment was mustered out July 12, '65. 

Ezra O. West, mustered September 23, '(51, promoted to Corporal 
November 6, '64. 

Loren D. Rosell, mustered September 7th '61, promoted to Cor- 
poral November 6, '64, mustered out with Company. 

Allabach Ed. W., mustered October 9, '61, discharged August 1, 
'62 for wounds received at Seven Pines, Va., May 24, '62. 

Ager Wellington, nuistered September 23, '61, killed at Fair Oaks, 
May 31, '62. 

Adams Robert, discharged January 26, '65, expiration of term. 

Ditts Charles G , mustered September 23, '61, discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate October 20, '63. 

Davis Elias, mustered September 23, '61, discharged on surgeon's 
certificate'May 25, '63. 

Dodson Cliarles M., nuistered September 23, '61, discharged on 
surgeon's certificate September 4, '62. 

Everett Sanuiel,j October 15, '63, drafted— mustered out with 
Company. 

Eveland Nelson S., September 2, '61, discharged by general order 
June 21, '65. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 385 

Hess Jacob, August 27, '61, mustered out November 5, '64, expir- 
ation of term. 
Harrington Henry, October 9, '61, transferred to Veteran Reserve 

Corps November 15, '63. 
Hess Samuel W„ October 9, '61, died at Washington, D. C, 

December 28, '61. 
Lutz M. P., October 9, '61, discharged on surgeon's certificate 

December 3, '62. 
Laubuch Fred, October 9, '01, discharged on surgeon's certificate 

October 27, '62. 
Meeker Albert, March 12, '64, mustered out with Company. 
Megargel O. A., March 28, '02, nmstered out with Company. 
Patterson A. D,, October 9, '61, discharged on surgeon's certificate 

June 20, '63. 
Roberts Samuel, October 17, '61, mustered out with company. 

Veteran. 



KIl'rV-SKVKNTH REGIMENT. 



COMPANY H. 

Clarence G. Jackson, mustered into service August 2, '62, in Com- 
pany H, 84th Regiment P. V. promoted from 2d to 1st Lieu- 
tenant, January 18, '63, to Captain July 1, '63; wounded and 
captured at Chancellorsville, Virginia, May 3, '63, transferred 
to Company H, o7th Regiment P. V. January 13, '65, and dis- 
charged by special order March 10, '65. 

Hiram S ^larr, October 16, '62, promoted to Corporal March 1, 
'65, to Sergeant June 1, '65, mustered out June 29, '65. 

Uriah Edgar, September 16, '02, discharged by general order June 
1, '65. 

Hilburn Samuel, September 18, '62, mustered out June 29, '65. 

Hossler Fred jr., September 18, '62, mustered out June 29, '65. 

Hossler Jacob, September 18, '62, absent sick at muster out. 

Seeley Andrew D , August 6, '02, transferred from 84th Regi- 
ment P. v., 13 January '65, discharged by general order June 
1, '65. 



386 



insTOh'Y or ('()i.r.)fn/ A corx/r 



ow 111 Ni>KFn vM>s\\rv riKsr un;niiNi -six vniNrii i ^v vi i:\. 

]\iissol K. roiiKM-, mustoviHl (V-tobcr '2, '(>!*, into (.\>iup;uiy K, [>ro- 
motod from Sorgoant Major to iM Lioutt'iiant. niHHMulH'r ll', 
'tU, to 1st Lioutonaiit May 8, "t?."^, wiMUnloil at llatvluM's Kun, 
Virginia, l-'obruarv (>, "(>.'>. mustorod ou\ with (.\>uii>aiiY Au^'iist 
11, "1)5. 

Daniol C\ Swank, nmsteroil CV'lobi'r L\ '&2, into (.'ouipany K. pro- 
luotod troiu Qiiartormastor 8ori>o:iut to iM Lioutoiiant N'ovom- 
bor IS. ■(,>•_'. to 1st Lioulonaiit Soplombor l>()lh, '(M. to Captain 
May .'>. '(>.">. woiMuioil at Trovilian Station. \ ir^inia, ,linn> TJ, 
'(>{, transforrotl to C\nnjiany I. .Inly ill. "(i.'>. inustorod (Mit with 
Company August 11, 'iJo. 

IVtor S. Ashloman, mustoroil (\'tobor i\ \\'2, into (.\Mnpany K, 
transtVrrod Company 1. disi-har^ini on Snrgoon's oortitiratf l"\>b- 
ruary '2~, "l>o. 

John Notoslino, nnistiMVil Oi'tobrr "JT ,'(>_. (."omjiany 1"\ proinotoil 
to Corporal Juno 17, "l>o. JisohargiHl by oonoral orJor .Inly "Jl. 
"(io. 

^-i 

iu;nrY-Fiusr uiciMKNr. 

Daniol Harris. Ov'tobor lo. 'lH. kiUoJ at CIkuIos City Cri>ss KoaJs 
Virginia, Jinio oO. '&2. 




HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 387 



CHAPTER XXIX. 
ONE YEAR'S SERVICE. 



TWO IILM)Ki:i> AM> TKNTJI UKGIMKNT. 



J. Milton Shumaii, August 30, '64, Company p], promoted from 
private to Ist Lieutenant, September 19, "64, discharged by- 
special order F'ebruary 14, '6.5. 

William II. Evans, Seplcinber 13, '64, into Company B, promoted 
to Ist Lieutenant January 28, '65, wounded at Hatcher's Run 
Virginia. February 6, '05, absent without leave at muster out. 

John P. Guild, September 7, '64, 1st Lieutenant, Company D, 
mustered out with Company May 30, '65. 



ONK iu;ni>kko am> sixth kk<;imknt — company o. 



William S. Town.send, mustered in April 8. '62, wounded in the 
battle of the Wilderness, died at Philadelphia at the Chestnut 
Hill Hospital, May 29, '64. 



ONK IILNDKEU AND Fll "rY-SECOND REGIMENT TIIIKD ARTILLERY- 

liATTERY D. 



Amos Townsend, mustered in December 13, '62, died on James 
River November 6, '64. 



FIFTH REGIMENT BATTERY M. 

Charles A. Knorr. 



388 HTSTORY OF COLUMBTA COUNTY 



EIGHTIETH REGIMENT. 



SEVENTH CAV.Vl.UY. 



Tn 1861 William B. Sipes of Pliiladolphia, was authorized by 
Soorotary of War Cameron to recruit a regiment of eavalry. On 
the 19th day of December of the same year it broke camp near 
Harrisburg, Pa., for liouisville. Ivy., and ui)on arrival tliere report- 
ed to Gen. Buell. It remained in arduous and active service un- 
til the close of the war, and was discharged August 23, 1865. A 
part of Co. D. and a })art of Co. H. were recruited in Montour 
county, and I have euileavored to select from them the names of 
the Montour county men. If they are omitted I will be glad to 
have the names supplied to me, to be added. 



COMPANY i>. 



Samuel Robinalt, deserted December 8, '64, 

Michael Breckbill, mustered out with Regiment. 

Samuel Sprout, nmstered otit with Company. 

Newton L. Sayers, deserted December 2o, '64. 

John Dugan, discharged on surgeon's certiti<'ate July 22, '(53. 

William C. McCay, deserted Januarj' 12, '(Si*. 

Joseph lletHer, died at Madison, Indiana, January 12, '6o. 

W. Forest. 

John T. Newcomer, mustered out Octi^ber ol, '64, expiration of 
term. 

T. J. Trumbower, died at Louisville, Kentucky, Feb- 
ruary 13, 1862 — National Cemetery, section A, range 13, grave 6. 

Martin Kieffer. 

Charles K. Wagner, nmstered out with Company. 

Hiram Wertman. 

William H. Kietfer, mustered out witti Company. 

Charles A. Balliet, died at Limestoneville, Pa., May 7, 1864. 

Daniel W. Rank, mustered out December 16, 1864, expiration of 
term. 

Capt. James Bryson, died at Louisville, Ky., April 1, -(S2. 

W. Caldwell. 

Jacob F. Balliet, discharged on surgeon's certificate, Februaiy 
1863. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 889 

Joseph D. Fulton, mustered out with Company. 

Carnathan. 

Alfred Roberts, mustered out with Company. 
Thomas H. Sanders, not on muster out roll. 
Wm. A. Fetter, mustered out October 3, '64, expiration of time. 
Thomas Keisteller. 

Daniel G. Dildine, died at Bardstown, Ky., February 22, '62. 
Daniel F. Wagner, discharged on surgeon's certificate, November 
16, 'Q2, 

COMPANY H. 

Capt. Samuel Hibler, resigned February 16, '62. 
Thomas J. Wenck, mustered out with Company. 
Thomas Davis, prisoner from August 20, '64, to April 28, Go, dis- 
charged June 17, to date May 18, '65. 



"THE COLUMBIA GUARDS. 

This Military Company, belonging specially to Danville, but 
famous all over Columbia county, in honor of which it took its 
name, by its connection with the Mexican war, was organized in 
1817. On the breaking out of the war with Mexico, the Company 
was under the connnand of Capt. John S. Wilson, and their offer 
of service being accepted they were mustered into the service of 
the United States on the 28th day of December, 1846. They were 
escorted as far as Pittsburgh, on their way to the seat of war, 
by a number of citizens and cheered on their way with every 
demonstration of popular approval. They were placed in the Second 
Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteei's, commanded by Col. Wyn- 
koop, and afterwards by Col. Geary, afterwards Governor of Penn- 
sylvania. 

Capt. Wilson died at Vera Cruz on the 10th day of April, 1847 
and the command devolved on Dr. C. W. Frick, who gallantly led 
the Guards during the campaign. Their first engagement was at 
the storming of Vera Cruz, and the second at Cerro Gordo, where 
they lost one man, John Smith. At the battle of Chepultepec 



390 



HISTORY OF COLUMBTA COUNTY. 



tl\('y li)st. two men, Willijun Diotiich and Jolin Snyder. On a})- 
proiu-hino- |lu> city of Mexico, the defense of San Angelos, with 
all the military stores, was coTuniitted to the Guards ; and on the 
13th of Se{)teinber 1H17, tliey were among the first in triiunjthant 
entry into the city. 

They returned to Danville on the 28tli day of July 1H4!). The 
whole county turned out to welcome them, and such a demonstra- 
tion as was then made had never been seen in Danville before or 



The (ruards kept up their organization until tlie llebellion, and, 
entered the Union service under Capt. Oscar Ei)hlin. On the ex- 
pir.ition of their term of service they were honorably discharged 
and the (Company disbanded. 

The following is the muster roll of the Columbia Guards, as 
t,hey went into the United States service for the war with Mexico: 
Captain — John S. Wilson. 
Lieutenants— 1st,, ('larence II. Friek ; 2d, Edward P]. LaClere ; 

3d, William lirindle. 
S,>rgeants— Isl, (Jeorge S. Kline; 2d, Jas. D. Slater; 3d, Robert 

Clark ; 4tli, Charles Evans. 
Cort)orals — 1st, John Adams; 2d, James Oliver; 3d, John Smith; 

4th, Arthur Gearhart. 
Music — Drummer, Thomas Clark; Fifer, Jesse G. Clark. 

I'KIVATKS. 



Charles W. Adams, 
Alvin M. Allen, 
Jacob Apj), 
Geo. W. Armstrong, 
Frederick Brandt, 
Samuel Burns, 
Elam B. Bonhani, 
Wm. Banghart, 
John Birkenbine, 
Sanmel D. Baker, 
Francis Bower, 
Francis B. Best, 
William Brunner, 
Wm. H. Birchfield, 
Randolph Ball, 



Jasper Musselman, 
Edward McGonnel, 
George Miller, 
William Moser, 
Archibald Mooney, 
Mahlon K. Manly, 
John G. Mellon, 
Alex M'Donald, 
Daniel Martial, 
Richard ?I. M'Kean, 
Charles Moynthan, 
Robert M'Almont, 
Hugh MFadden, 
James M'Clelland, 
Nortnan B. Mack, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



391 



Peter Brobst, 
Abraiii B. Ciirley, 
Michael Corrigau, 
Win. Dieterech, 
William Erie, 
Daniel S. Fullmer, 
Chas. W. Fortiier, 
Robert 11. Forster, 
Sewell Gibbs, 
Edward Grove, 
Geori^e Gamer, 
Thomas Graham, 
Shepherd W. Girton, 
Samuel Ilmitiiigdon, 
Adam Ileisler, 
Henry Ilerncastle, 
Oliver Ilelme, 
William 8. Kertz, 
William King, 
Jerome Konkle, 
Charles Lytle, 
Ira Lownsberry, 
Robert Lyon, 
John A. Lowery, 
I^enjamin Laform, 
Benj. J. Martin, 



William McDonabl, 
Casper Oaten welder, 
Daniel Poorman, 
Peter S. Reed, 
Philip Rake, 
James A. Stewart, 
Peter M. Space, 
Jona R. Sanders, 
Oliver C. Stephens, 
Daniel Snyder, 
Edward Seler, 
Peter Seigl'ried, 
John C. Snyder, 
John N. Scofield, 
William Swartz, 
Joseph Stratton, 
Wm. II. Sawaney, 
John A. Sarvey, 
Benj. Tumbleton, 
Adam Wray, 
Wm. White, 
George Wagner, 
Jacob Willet, 
Jerome Walker, 
George Wingar, 
Peter W. Yarnell, 



n«)2 //ISTOh'Y OF COLUMlirA COUNTY 



mTKOOlU'TOKY. 

Tn the year 1860, a narrativo of tho military ooiMipation of Col- 
umbia county, tho arrest of many of our citizens, iheir incarcer- 
ation in military prisons ami their subsequent trial before a mil- 
itary commission, appeared it\ the colunms of The (\)Iu»ibian 
newspaper. It was accompanied with a cojumentaty on the facts 
and cvi»lence adduced upon the trials; and to these were adtU^l 
rejtorts of additional cast's and personal experiences tif harsh, 
cruel and unlawful treatment sutTcred by innocent persons in our 
county. What was then and there publislu'd stands uncontra- 
dicti'd. and as a portion o\' the history of the county is heri' in- 
serted. A few paragraphs by way of connnent and remark have 
been i>mitted. 

The tirst detacliment of troops arrived in Bloomsburg on Sat. 
tn-dav evenino-, August 1.'^, IStvl, and additit>ns cttutintied to be 
m.uh' for several days, until the number amounted to about one 
thousand men. The arrests ^vere made August 81, ISfil, and the 
trials connnenced at Uarrisburg, t)ctol)er 17, ISlM. 

Of the seven men ctmvicted, one, William Applenian, paid his 
tine: one, Sanuicl ICline was par(U>ned by President Lincoln ; 
and the, John Kant/., .lohn Lemons, Joseph VanSyekle, Rev. A. 
K. Hutan, Henjainin CoUey and ^'alentine Fell were par(h>netl by 
President Johnsim. 

To the narrative o\' these occurriMU'cs is added, among other 
interesting matter, the .argument of Hon. Jeremiah S. Uhu-k bcfcM-e 
the Supreme Court of the United States on the Milligan case, 
with the opinion of the Court, delivered by Mr. Justice Davis. 
This oj)inion fully viiulicates the legal position taken by our 
jn'ople, ami is a just and authoritativi' condcnmation of the 
actions of t]u> military detai'lnnent, and of the trials and senten- 
ces bv the militarv connnission. 



iriHTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 393 



CHAPTP:!! XXX. 



MILITARY OCCUPATFOX 

OF 

COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



Ill or<l<;r to preserve an faithful a r<M'.ord uh pOHsible from factH, 
dates and evidence in our |K>sseHsion, we propose to cast int<j the 
form of a snccinct and corrected narrative, the incidents preced- 
ing and a(5Companying tlie arm(,'d occupation of (Columbia county 
in the year A. D. 1S04. The publications heretofore made on the 
subject omit many matters important to be known and rememVjer- 
cd in connection therewith. 

During tli(; civil war, the licpublican party, backed by the ad- 
ministration and the army, which liad been subsidized to its pur- 
poses, became insolent in its V>ehaviour and revolutionary in its 
jiurpoHcs with regard to goverrmient. No man was allowed to 
f-peak freely agairjst or criticise or condemn the course the dom- 
inant party were pursuing. All over th(; loyal North military 
spies, irresponsible I*rovost Marshals and armed forces were dis- 
lribut«-d f<jr the; purj>os(; (A overawing the peoj^le and of jjrevent- 
ing at tlic elections a fair and free expression of ojtinion. And 
the nearer the I'residential election of 1HC4 approached, the more 
overbearing becatne these government officials and employees, un- 
til a reign of terrf»r was inaugurated in the country. The State 
of Pennsylvania was particularly the scene of atrocious outrage. 
Where it was thought the elections required to be manipulated 
there soldiers were located, citizens were arrested, property was 
destroyed, the State itself degraded, and the constitution and laws 
set at defiance. The counties of Berks, Columbia, Clearfield, 
I'ike, Schuylkill and many others were subjected to military raids 
the memory of which will abide with the victims and their poster- 
ity for generations. 

About the first of August 1804, a squad of men led by a young 



394 III STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

niiiii iiiiiiu'd Robinson, ;i citizen of Lu/.ci-ni' coiinly, ;itteinptc'(i to 
Btoj) by clnillcngint;' upon ;i |iubiic luLjIiwiiy of tliis county, in the 
iiiolit time, scvi'ral ol' our citizens — citizens not oni' of whom, so 
fjir iis hiis ever been ascertained, w lis amenable to military law. 
Neither [jarty kiiowiuiji; the otlier in (he darkiu'ss, tJie challensjjed 
party tired and wounded Kobinson sevei'cly and one ol" his (H)m- 
panions slightly. Th(( ail'aii" passed, no infoi'mation was made, no 
warrant was taken out, in short no attempt was made by the civil 
ant horitii'S to search for or arrest any of the pai'ties. SnbstMpient- 
ly a man named Smith was taken up, but he was never tried for 
the olTV'iise. Ilobinson and his com|)any liad no authority or 
pretense of authority to make arrests, or to act in any way on be- 
half of the governnuMit. FoUowinij^ inmiediately u[)on tiiis shoot- 
ing ad'ra-y it is believed that some person or persons (whose name 
or names have never yet transpired) went to Ilarrisburg and j»er- 
haps to VVashino'ton. Representations seem to liave been made 
as a foundation for a military raid, that the drafted men in C'ol- 
uiid>ia I'ounty had nevei- reported. Whatmoiv was alleged has not 
been leai-ned. The residt was, that on Saturday evening, August 
18th 18()4, the iirst detachment of soldiers arrived in Bloonisburg; 
and in a. few days, by constant accretions, the armed force num- 
bered one thousand men. It was given out by those in ttie secret, 
or who desired to be thought so, "that they were to scour the 
county.'' They encamped upon the Agricultural l"'air (Jrounds, 
below Bloonisburg, and on Tuesday the Kith of August, Major 
General Couch commanding the Department of the Sus(piehaniia 
arrived, and he made our town for a time his Head Quarters. At 
that time the force consisted of Capt. Lambert's Independent 
Company of mounted men ; one section of the Keystone Battery 
of IMiiladeiphia, under command of Lieut. Roberts, and a batallion 
of Infanlry under Lit'ut. Col. Stewart. Subsequently, they were 
reinforced by a batallion of the Veteran Reserve Corps, complet- 
ing the Army of {)ccuj>ati«)n. 

The leading Republicans had long and earnt'st interviews with 
Gen. Couch. Finally Senator Buckalew was sent for. Subse- 
quently several gentlemen waited upon Col. Freeze with a {>rop- 
osition to bear a message from the General commanding the 
Department to the non-reporting drafted men. lie at first de- 
clined to go, but finally yielded to earnest solicitation and ac- 



HTSTORY OF (JOLUMBTA COUNTY. 395 

ceptcfl tlic mission. 'I'lic fi)llo\viiig corrcspoiHloncc will fully 
ex|)l;iin the oV)j(!ct iiii<l coiulitioii of iitfairs at tlie tiriic. 1l\w first 
letter is (tlmi. C'Oiieh's official tnariifcslc). 

IIca<l<jiiarterH Departiueiit of the SuKqueliaiiiia, 

Bloornsburg, Pa., August 16, 1864. 
Col. .j. (i. FuKKzi;, 
Hlooinsburg, Pa., 

Sir: 

You are authorized by me to inform 
those persons ill (,'olumhia eounty who liave not reported as re- 
quired undei' tlie |)revious "dr;ifts,'' and are known as deserters, 
that the charge of desertion shall be remitted hy me provided 
they duly report themselves on or before 12 P. M., Saturday, 
August 20, eurrent. 

Tnis does not apply to those charged with tlie crime of murder. 

I am, very respt., 

D. N. COUCH, 
Major General Commanding I)e]>artment. 

Several days afterward, in order to put upon reeonl every cir- 
cumstance relating to Col. Freeze's expedition up the creek, he 
addressed the following note to a gentleman cognizant of all the 
fads and circumstances : 

liloomsburg, Pa., August 22, 1864. 
CiiAKi.Ks K. 1'axton, Esy., 

]Jear Sir : 

As you were fully ac- 

(pi.iiiitcd with every step, preliminary to my taking a message up 
the creek, fronj Maj. (ien. Coueli, Commanding Departnient of 
the Susquelianna, I beg that you will, as fully as your leisure 
will permit, in reply to this, state the facts in connection there- 
with. I am, witli great respect, your friend, 

J. G. FREEZE. 
To whieli, on the next day, Mr. Paxton replied as follows : 

Bloomsburg, Pa., August 23, 1864. 
John G. Fukkzk, Es<^., 

Dear Sir : 

Yours of yesterday is received, 

and I will, with pleasure, comply with your request. It was 

thought by Gen. Couch to ])e advisable to notify the deserters in 



806 HIiSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

the northern part of this county, that the penalties to which 
they were subject jis deserters, would be remitted, provided they 
would innnediately report to tlie Provost Marshal. At the Gen- 
eral's retpiest, or with his approbation, I saw Mr. Buckalew who 
a{>proved of the plan, and suggested that you would be a tit per- 
son to conununicate with the deserters, and said he would see 
you, and try to induce you to do so. After he had seen you, I 
called on you and you refused to go. Subsequently, for reasons 
unknown to me, you consented to go provided Gen. Couch would 
give you in writing the coninumication it was thought expedient 
to send to the deserters, the substance of which is above stated. 
I then introduced you to the General and left you with him. 

Respectfully and truly yours, 

C. K. PAXTON. 

During the interview spoken of above Col. Freeze offered to 
take Gen. Couch in a carriage u}) the creek to all points and have 
him personally meet the people aud hunt the fort alleged to have 
bi'cu erected ; or if the General preferred, each one should choose 
a friend and the four proceed together in a carriage on the ex- 
pedition. The Colonel })ledged himself for the entire safety of 
the party, and agreed to drive to any and every place where any 
one said the fort was located, or entrenchments or defensive or 
oll'ensive preparations had been made. The General declined, 
while admitting he thought there would be no danger. Gen. 
Couch returned to Harrisburg, Wednesday August 17th. 

On that same evening Col. Freeze had an interview with Col. 
Stewai't, in connnand of the forces, and gave him a statement of 
all the facts iu his knowledge in relation to the Kobison alfair, 
also a full report of his mission up the creek, from which he had 
just then returned, assuring him there would be no resistance by 
any citizens to the arrest of alleged deserters, that ten men could 
arrest them as safely as ten hundred ; and concluded by making 
the same olfer to him, that had already been made to Gen. Couch. 
Col. Stewart also declineil. 

This peraistent refusal on the })art of the military authorities to 
become acquainted with our })eople, and make themselves familiar 
with localities and facts, argues very strongly that the object of 
the raid upon our County had an entirely different object than the 
one so ostentatiously set forth, to-wit, the arrest and mustering 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 397 

into service of non-reporting drafted men. They listened only to 
the false, malicious and exaggerated reports and stories of the 
enemies of the people, and were thus prepared to "Scour the 
County." 

And to prove beyond controversy that such was the case, the 
fact exists that during the time the troops were encamped on the 
F'air Grounds, a cavalry officer told Col. Freeze in the presence of 
Col. Iliram K. Kline, Messrs. Levi Cox, Martin Ammerman and 
Cyrus Rohl>inH, that he had V>eeii told by a prominent Republican 
that to his, the Republican's "certain knowledge, there were five 
hundred non-reporting drafted men up the creek." Another Re- 
publican who had a corn field adjoining the grounds or near 
them, requested the soldiers not to take any roasting ears from 
his patch, and pointed out to them one belonging to a "copper- 
head," which was a proper object for destruction and spoliation. 
Again, when Gen. Couch first arrive<l at Jiloomsburg, he was ad- 
vised to call upon Senator Buckalew who had just returned from 
a session at Washitjgton ; whereupon the General mounted Cedar 
Hill, "solitary and alone," and found the Senator at work in a 
field. lie then detailed to him his dreadful story of insurrection 
in the Fishing Creek Country and insisted that it was very exten- 
sive and dangerous, and that it n'ax rr^presented to him {Coxmh) that 
Colonel Kline wan the leader. Mr. Buckalew's reply was, as we 
are informed, that he had no particular information of what had 
occurred in the Creek region beyond newspaper statements; that 
he did not believe there was any general combination of the in- 
habitants to resist the draft; that the statement about Col. Kline 
was inconsistent with the character of that gentleman and was 
no doril^t a falsehood, that in his opinion any military or civil 
officer could proceed into any of the uppei* townships without be- 
ing molested. He further proposed to postpone a journey which 
he was about to make to Niagara and accompany Couch to any 
place he might desire to visit in the county for the ascertainment 
of the truth. The General alleged that he was pressed for time, 
and the interview .closed. The Radical leaders no doubt had 
given Couch his story, and it would seem they were very anxious 
to have Col. Kline, (an active Democrat and respectable gentle- 
man,) arrested. In fact it is very likely that Couch's visit to Mr. 
Buckalew and the emphatic statement made by the latter alone 



398 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 

prevented the arrest of Col. Kline and his incarceration in a Gov- 
ei'ninent Bastile. 

TIIK AURKST8. 



The troops collected in the manner described, moved from the 
Fair Gronnds, near Bloomsbnrg on Sunday August 21, 1S64, and 
advanced up Fishingcreek, on the Orangeville road. They were 
under the immediate command of Lieutenant Colonel Stewart. 
The column was escorted by a large number of sympathisers in 
military methods in buggies and carriages. The force was com- 
posed upon the highest principles of military art; infantry, cavalry 
and artillery being uiuted in proper proportions, and the flng of 
the United States prostituted for a base purpose, was borne in 
front. But the great feature of the scene was the civilian escort. 
It was for them a joyful Sunday and their looks spoke their exul- 
tation. So far as they were concerned the churches were aban- 
doned, the quiet of the day disregarded, and a political raid upon 
their fellow citizens attended and encouraged. Their passions 
were gratified and their hopes were strongly excited at the pros- 
pect of political advantage from the armed occupation of our ter- 
ritory, and the application of military influence to our elections. 
Up past tlie Forks, over Cedar Hill, through Light Street, along 
the narrows beyond, all the way to Orangeville, streamed the mili- 
tary line and the Radical escort "in all the ])omp and circum- 
stance' of inglorious war. Beneath the hot rays of an August 
sun the army of occupation approached the doomed region of the 
Upper Townships, in which its exploits were to be performed and 
its infamy nnide complete. We will not now, however, follow 
further the military advance to the North, but will return to 
Bloomsbnrg and trace subsequent events. 

On Saturday, August 28, Major General George Cadwallader 
arrived here from Philadelphia to assume command, and he con- 
tinued his progress up the creek the next day with three hundred 
additional troops. Again was Sunday selected to push troops for- 
ward to the proposed scene of operations. The General returned 
to Bloomsbnrg on Tuesday, the 30th, and had long conferences 
with leading Radicals ; and during the night of the 30th, upon 
orders from him, troops were posted i^t various points in the upper 
townships, and at the break of day next morning about one hun- 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 399 

died citi/t'iis wt-rc aircKtt'fl and marched to a meeting houKc near 
the vilhige of Benton. Here they were subjected to a siimmarj'^ 
oriU'al and iiisi>ection, their cases being passed upon by a scound- 
rel officer in the ]>ulpit upon whispered consultations with prom- 
inent KadicMls of the neigliborhood. — We say "a scoundrel officer" 
with good reason ; for he was subseipiently tried by a military 
court and convicted as a viUain, and we have besides the proof at 
hand (which will be hereafter given) that he extorted a bribe 
from one of our citizens under circumstances of peculiar infamy. 
There was no open examination of the cases of the arrested men 
nor any o]>portunity afforded them for explanation or dnfense. 
Whispeied consultations between theirmalicious political enemies 
who were on the ]»ulpit platform or near it, and the military sa- 
trap whose will and word stood in place of all law and justice, 
constituted the grounds of judgment by which they should be dis- 
charged or ordered into exile from their homes to be incarcerated 
in distant ])risons. Finally a part of them were discharged with- 
out any reason assigned for their arrest or explanation of their 
discharge ; but forty-five were ordered under guard to Blooms- 
burg, thence to be conveyed by rail by way of ITarrisburg and 
Phihidel})hia to Fort MifHin on the Delaware. The prisoners were 
neaily all driven on foot like cattle, the long 18 miles from Benton 
to Bloomsburg, without breakfast, and had no meals furnished to 
them on their way to Philadelphia. 



They reached Fort MilHin on the first day of September. One 
of the number was released on the second day after the arrest. 

The names of the persons arrested and detained, with their 
ages and occupations, and length of incarceration, are as follows : 

NAMES. 

Daniel McHenry, 

Elias J. McHenry, 

*Joseph Coleman, 

Mathias Kline, 

Abraham Kline, 

Samuel Coleman, 45. " 53 

Josiah Coleman, 

Chailes Coleman, 

John Lemons, 

*Wa8 a soldier in the war of 1812. 



AGK. 


OCCUPATION 


DETAINED. 


37. 


farmer <fc merchant. 


4 mo. 


33. 


farmer. 


70 days. 


68. 


u 


49 " 



26. 


u 




53 


35. 


farmer and butcher. 


8 mo. 


11 



400 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



31. 


carpenter. 


53 


46. 


fanner. 


53 


51. 


farmer and lumberman. 


83 


25. 


farmer. 


52 


22. 


(( 


53 


44. 


merchant. 


103 


44. 


" 4 mo. 


2 


47. 


farmer. 


49 



60. 



8 mo. 



11 



Silas Benjamin, 
Samuel Appleman 
"William Appleman, 51. 
Reuben Appleman, 25 
Thomas Appleman, 22. 
James McHenry, 
Dyer L. Chapin, 
Elias McHenry, 
Samuel Kline, 
John Rantz, 
**Wni. E. Roberts, 
John Yorks, 
Henry Hurliman, 49. 
George Hurliman, 46. 
John J. Stiles, 39. 

Hiram F. Everett, 33. 
Stott E. Colley, 52. 
Benjamin Colley, 37. 
Joseph Van Sickle, 
Rohr M'llenry, 36. 
John Karns, 59. 

fjohu C. Karns, 23. 
Montgomery Cole, 40. 
Russell M'Henry. 26. 
James Evans, 
Jonathan Steele, 
H. n. Hurliman, 
Wm. Hurlynian, 
Valentine Fell, 
JJohii R. Davis, 
fArmillis Davis, 
Samuel M'Henry, 
M. D. Appleman. 
John Baker, 
Abram Hartman, 

**Died in the Fort. 

fBeen in the service nine months. 

JSick when arrested, 

^Drafted while in the West and knew nothing of it until he ar- 
rived at home. 



53. 

21. 
19. 
49. 
58. 
20. 
57. 
26. 
44. 
29. 



« 4 


mo. 


9 


« 4 


mo. 


3 


inn keeper. 4 


mo. 




merchant. 4 


mo. 




farmer. 4 


mo. 




8 


mo. 


11 


:armer and distiller. 


2 mo. 




farmer. 




53 
53 


(( 




53 


(( 


4 mo. 


5 


(( 




52 


carpenter. 




49 


farmer 




53 


blacksmith. 


8 mo. 


11 


farmer. 




53 


carpenter. 


5 mo. 


3 


farmer. 


4 mo, 


17 


wheelwright. 




53 


farmer. 




53 


(( 


4 mo.. 


4 



HltiTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 401 

None of these persons, we believe, (with the one exception not- 
ed) were drafted men, or amenable upon any pretense whatever to 
the jurisdiction of military authority. 

Cadwallader then moved his forces up the creek beyond Benton 
and hunted in all directions for the fort, field pieces and in- 
trenchments, for a week. He came back to Bloomsburg after the 
search, and in an interview with Senator Buckalew, Judge Elwell 
and Col. Tate, pronounced "the whole thing a complete farce." 
He left Bloomsburg for his home in Philadelphia, on Wednesday 
evening, September 7th, 1864. 

OBJECT OF THE RAID. 

During the progress of the occupation of 1864, calumniation of 
our people was scattered broadcast by the radical press and by 
radical orators. It was announced by them that insurgents num- 
bering hundreds or thousands were armed and organized in tliis 
county ; that they had thrown up intrenchments ; that they had 
erected a fort ; that they had field-pieces or cannon, and that ref- 
ugees from Canada and deserters from other sections had joined 
them in considerable numbers. Though all these statements Avere 
utterly false, they were made and repealjed with the utmost confi- 
dence because an excuse was wanted for the steps taken, for the 
outrages committed by lawless powx'r. One examj^le of these 
slanders may be mentioned : 

A certain Reuben E. Wilson, a preacher, then resided in Blooms- 
burg and was seduced from his sacred calling. 

The following letter will show the flagitious statements made 
by him in a street speech at Milton, and will illustrate the course 
of insolent slander to which our people Avere subjected in the 
days of the military occupation. 

Milton, Sept. 14, 1865. 
J. G. Freeze, Est^., 

Dear Sir : 

Your note of the 12th inst. is re- 
ceived, and in reply, say, that I did not hear the speech made by 
Rev. Wilson myself; but he stated in his speech in this place in 
the open street, that there were some thousands of men up Fish- 
ingcreek in arms against the Government — that these men at- 
tempted to set fire to the town of Bloomsburg several times, and 
had burned Mr. Clark's stable. 



402 JIlK'iTOJiY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

I have made inquiry since the receipt of your letter of those 
who heard the speech ; and tliey say he said as above stated. 
The exact number of thousands tliey do not now recollect. 

Truly Yours, 

C. W. THAKP. 

Mr. Tharp is a gentleman of high credit, a member of the Bar, 
and has recently represented Northumberland county in the Leg- 
islature. It is perhaps only necessary to add, that it is under- 
stood that Mr. Clark's stable was burned through the carelessness 
of some little boys who were playing about it with matches, and 
that the other statements made by Wilson were without founda- 
tion. 

But no matter what were the statements made to invite the 
military inroads, or to give to it .abroad a color of necessity or 
})roi)riety, after trooi)s were sent here one thing is very certain: 
That the military authorities were without any excuse Avhatever 
for continuing their occupation of the county and for holding our 
citizens in prison, as well as for sundry acts connnitted or author- 
ized by them Avhile the occupation continued, (to which we shall 
hereafter refer). For the troops traversed the whole course of 
Fishing Creek from its mouth to its sources, and ascended the 
North Mountain into the forests of Sullivan, "scouring" the whole 
region through Mhich they passed, and ascertained beyond all 
question that there was no insurrection — no field works, no fort, 
no cannon, no refugees from Canada or deserters from abroad — 
and that there had not been, in point of fact, in all that region any 
actual resistance to the execution of the laws or molestation of 
any othcer, civil or military, in the performance of his duties. All 
this was fully known not only to the corrupt ofticer (Lt. Col. 
Stewart) who had immediate charge of the troops, but to C4en. 
Cadwallader himself. His declaration that the alleged insurrect- 
ion (or his chase of it?) was "a complete farce," was based upon 
his personal examination of "the seat of Mar" — of his scientific 
inspection of the sugar-camps of Benton and the huckleberries of 
Sullivan — as well as upon his personal intercourse with the in- 
habitants upon the line of his route. 

We are not aware that there were any deserters (properly so 
called) in the county at the time of this military incursion. If 
there were such they must have been very few in number. There 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 403 

were some non-reporting drafted men as tliere were in all other 
parts of the country, but it is j)re})osterous to allege that the pur- 
pose was to secure them to the public service. They were not 
numerous and not one among them (so far as we know or believe) 
had ever offered the slightest resistance to a legal or regular ar- 
rest. Certainly troops were not to be called for to arrest drafted 
men until the ordinary means had failed, and then only so many 
as were reasonably necessary for the purpose. Besides, the army 
sent into the county was more likely to drive off drafted men than 
to arrest them, and its cost was twenty times as much as would 
have been required to obtain voluntary enlistments equal in num- 
ber to the number of men who had failed to report. But in point 
of fact it was announced that the occupation of the county was to 
put down an armed and organized insurrection, and the troops 
proceeded at once to arrest citizens who did not owe military ser- 
vice, instead of drafted men, thus exhibiting its object in an un- 
mistakable manner. 

NECESSITY OF THIS NARRATIVE. 

Having described the beginning of the occupation, exposed the 
pretenses for it, and mentioned the first arrests made in the pros- 
ecution of its unholy work, we are brought naturally to the nar- 
ration of its performances after it became fixed upon our people. 
The necessity for this narrative consists in the fact that we de- 
scribe a great crime for which some degree of punishment is to 
be inHicted by public opinion, and that justice demands that the 
victims of the military raid as well as our people generally, should 
be defended against falsehood and slander. Besides, our review 
must be instructive as it will admonish us that arbitrary power is 
always selfish, unjust, and opitressive, and that its encroachments 
and usurpations are to be oi)posed Avith sleepless vigilance and 
steady courage. 

But we proceed without further digression, with tlie narrative 
of occurrences after the troops were located in the county. 

TROOPS AT ELECTIONS. 

"No body of troops in the army of the United States or of this 
Connnonwealth shall be present, either armed or unarmed, at any 
place of election within this Commonwealth during the time of 
such election : Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be 
BO construed as to jirevent any ofhcer or soldier from exercising 



404 HISTORY OF COLUMniA COUNTY. 

the viglit of suffniojo in the oloction district to Avhich lio may be- 
long, if otherwise qualified accordiiig to haw." 

(Act, 2nd July 1839, See. Or>— P. Laws, 541.) 

This is a very ]>hun hvw and a very good one, ii\tended to st^ 
cure tlie independence of ehn^tions, and it was in full force in 
IStil at the time of tliese «>ccurrences. l>iit it was liehl in con 
tempt by the military power and was rudely broken. 

Tlu' following performances took place in the county : 

At the ehn'tion eleven soldiers with arms stood at the election 
polls in (.\'ntre townshi}> all da\ . 

In Heaver townshiyt a can»[> of about sixty soldiers was located 
within a few rods i>f the polling {)lace : and from ten to iifteen of 
them stotxl at the polls all day, the scpiads relieving one another. 

In JNlount Pleasant townshij) from ten to iifteen soldiers came 
upon the ground in the morning before the polls o|)i'ned, antl at- 
tended the voting the whole day, armed. 

In b^ishingcreek township ten to twelve soldii'rs armed were 
stationed at the polls and otlier squads within call at three differ- 
ent points on the road leading to the place of holding the election. 
Two men wen' arrested on tlie election day. 

In Hemlock township eleven soldiers stood armed, all day at 
the polls, and sonu> part of the time twelve were present. 

In Benton township, ;it the State election, about fifteen soldiers 
prowled around the eh'ction ground all day ; and at the Presiden- 
tial election about f\>i-ty of them were in the township, some of 
them attending the polls. 

In Jackstm township there were eight or ten in squads of two, 
who n\arched around the place of liolding the election all day, 
ami at the close of tlu' election they all canii' into the house and 
demanded the returns. Of course they were refused. 

In Sugarloaf tt>wnship at the State election two armed soldiers 
were loi'aled within h;ilf ;i mile of elect iiui house in oiu' direction 
— two more within a quarter of a mile in aiu>ther — two or nuu'c 
at E/.ekiel Cole's and West Creek, within a mih' : and four march- 
ed past the polls repeatedly during the day. And at the Presi- 
dential election six or eight armed soldiers and an orderly stood 
in the yard of tlie house where the election was being held, and 
others near by. In the evening they c-aww and diMuanded the re- 
turns, sword in hand. 



IIISTOEY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 40.5 

111 Diiiircreek township lour soldiers urined, arrived tlie jiight 
before the November election, and they staid about the grounds 
all day until the closing of the polls. They arrested one man din- 
ing the day. 

In Orange township and within the village and within easy dis- 
tance of the j)olls, there were a number of soldiers at the October 
election. Between that and the November election an additional 
number arrived, took jiossession of the public school house, then 
occujiied by a school of about seventy pupils, and held it till so 
late in the winter, that the people of the township were deprived 
of the bencHi of a jtubiic school foi- the year. This seizure and 
appropriation of ))rop('rty ami violation of private right was most 
\\anloii and iiii])rovoked, and was instituted and applauded by 
civilians who Irid passions to gratify and interests to subserve. 

KI.KCTION AHUKSTS. 

Iiiinicdiatcly before and on the day of the State Election, (1864,) 
a number of arrests were made at various points in the County to 
prevent citizens from voting, and in one instance to wreak revenge 
upon a county officer foi- j)reventing, in a particular case, the con- 
summation of such a rascally jiurpose. A part of these arrests 
were made under military orders by soldiers of the Army of Occu- 
pation, and j)art under authority of the Deputy Provost Marshal 
for the county, by soldiers who constituted his guard, having been 
assigned to him for service. Some of those cases (selected by 
■way of example) we will hereafter describe. For the present we 
projiose to open up a little the character of the officer who com- 
manded the troops and whose word, for a time, was law absolute 
in this county. As the main instrument of despotism in making 
arrests, and clearly responsible for most of them, he merits partic- 
ular notice and shall receive it. 

I.lKl T. C<JI.. STEWART. 

One of the corrupt iierformances of this officer is shown by the 
subjoined documents, the originals of which are now in our poss- 
essi(jn. Mr. Alexander Hess of this county, a drafted man clearly 
entitled to be excused by reason of physical disability, was coerced 
by Stewart into j^aying him $100, as the condition of escai)ing au 
arrest or Mtaiidiiig discharged from the draft. Observe the date 
of this transaction — loth September 1864 — when the reign of ter- 
ror was liilly establislud, and when the military commander could 



406 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

witli most. c'fTect use his power to iiluuder his victims. This cor- 
ru[)t villian knew perfectly well that he had no power t<j discharge 
any one from the draft, that power residing in the IJoard of En- 
rolhnent of the District, and he knew also, from a personal exam- 
ination of the case, that Mr. Hess was unfit for service and would 
not be held to service by any comi)etent authority. But the op- 
portunity of extortion was greedily seized by him and he appro- 
priated the hard-earned money of this poor man to his i)rivate use 
and carried it off with him when he left the county. The docu- 
ments are as follows: — 

Ai'FiDAvrr. 
State of Pennsylvania, ) 
County of Columbia, j 
Alexander Hess of the said County being duly sworn saith : 
That he was drafted into the military service of the United 
States in the year A. D. 1864 ; That on the 15th day of September, 
A. D, 1S64, he reported to Charles Stewart, Lt. Col. Connuand- 
ing U. S. Forces in Columbia County. That Col. Stewart inquir- 
ed of your Deponent what sum of money he would give to be dis- 
charged from the Draft and not to be further troubled ; stating at 
the same time that he had the authority to discharge him. Your De- 
ponent replied that he was poor and not able to pay much, but of- 
fered to Col. Stewart for a certificate of ^\%i^\\'dx^^ fifty dollars. 
Stewart refused this and notified your Deponent that he would be 
held to service, and that he (Stewart) could do as he pleased 
with him. Finally he agreed to grant the discharge upon the 
payment of one hundred dollars. That sum was thereupon paid 
to him, the said Lt. Colonel Charles Stewart, and he gave a dis- 
charge of which the following is a copy. 

Hkaixjttautkks lt. S. Forces 

Sept. 15th, 1864. 
Tins is to certify that I have this day examined Alexander Hess 
of Sugailoaf township, Columbia county, and find him badly rup- 
tured and unfit for service in the armies of the United States : 

CHAS. STEWART, 
Lt. Col. Com'dg." 

That upon presenting the original of the forgoing certificate to 
William Silver. Dei)uty Provost Marshal of the District, he was 
informed that it was worthless, an<l that he must report : That 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 407 

your Deponent tlieii gave bond with seeurity in tlie sum of one 
thousand dollars, to report to the proper authorities whenever 
called upon. 

That he received a notice hereto annexed, requiring him to re- 
port at Bloomsburg, on the 2oth January A. D. 18G5. That he 
did so report, and was by them discharged ; as is certified by the 
said Dep. Pro. Marshal, hereto annexed : 

Alexander Hess, 
Columl)ia County, ss. 

On tlie 2")tli day of February A. D. 1867. ])ersonally appeared 
before me, Je>ise Coleman, Prothonotary of said county Alexan- 
der Hess the said I)e])onent to me personally known, and l»eing 
duly sworn acc'>rding to law snith, that the facts set forth in the 
forgoing statement subscribed by him are true to the best of his 
knowledge and belief. 

Sworn and subscribed ^ 

before me 25th Febr'y. [-Alex. Hess. 

A. I). IS67. ) 

Jesse Coi.eman, Frothy. 

1U)NI). 

Know ail men by these presents that we Alexander Hess of 
Sugarloaf township in the County of Columbia and State of 
Pennsylvania, and H'-nry C. Hess and Joshua B. H^ss. all of the 
same township are held and firmly bound unto the United States 
of America in the sum of two thousand doUa'S lawful money of 
the United States to be ]>aid to the said United States or the au- 
thorities properly constituted to receive the same ; to which pay- 
ment well and truly to be made and done we do bind ourselves 
and each of us by himself for and in the whole, our heirs, execu- 
tors and administrators and each of us firmly by these presents; 
sealed with our seals and dated the seventeenth day of January 
A. D. 186.-). 

Whereas, the said Alexander Hess has been drafted into the 
military service of the United States; now the condition of this 
obligation is such that if the said Alexander Hess shall, whenever 
called upon by the Deputy Provost Marshal of said Columbia 
county or by any other of the properly constituted authorities of 
the United States aforesaid to report as a drafted man as afore- 
said, — if \\v shall so report when so called upon then this obliga- 



408 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

tion to bo null .-ind void, or else to bo and roiuain in full force and 

virtue. 

Signed, sealed and delivered^ Alex Hess, [L. S.] 
in })resence of J. S Woods and ^- H. C. Hess, [L. S.] 
W. Wirt. ) J. B. Hess, [L. S.] 

NOTICE. 

Deputy Provost Marshal's Office, 

Hloonisburg Jan. 24th 18(i5. 
Alexander Hess, 

Sir : You will report at these Head Quar- 
ters Wednesday Jan. 25, 1865, without delay to meet the Board 
of Examiners at ten o'clock. 

By Order of 

WILLIAM SILVER, 
Deputy Provost Marshal loth District Pa. 

Per W. H. Abbott, Agent. 

CERTFICATE. 

I, William Silver, late De])Uty Provost Marshall of the 13th 
District of Pennsylvania do hereby certify on honor, that Mr. 
Alexander Hess, within nanunl, in pursuance of the annexed no- 
tice, did report at Blooinsburg, to the Board of Examiners, on the 
25th day of January A. D. 18(55, and that upon examination he 
was discharged by the Board on account of })hysical disability — 
Rupture. Witness my hand this 25th day of February A. D. 
1867. 

WILLIAM SILVER, 
Late Deputy Provost Marshal. 

Case of Rev. A. R. Rutan: — On the 31st day of August 1864, 
this gentleman was arrested by three soldiers at his residence in 
the lower end of Luzerne county and brought across the county 
line, about ten o'clock at night, to the camp near Benton. The 
day following he was taken by Lt. Col. Stewart before Gen. Cad- 
wall ader who, perceiving no reason for holding him, discharged 
him upon parole to appear when called for, and he returntdhome. 
Ho was not wanted or called ior until the night before the October 
election, when six drunken soldiers arrested him again at his resi- 
dence and hurried him across the county line to the camp near 
Coleman's. This was late in the night and the arrest was made 
in a rude and tliroatonino; manner to the great disturbance and 



HLSTORY OF COLUMBIA C0UN2Y. 409 

alarm of a quiet family. A uiaii iiaiiuMl Steele was compelled to 
drive Mr. Kutan's team to the camj). Mr. Rutan was kept at the 
camp two days and nights, slee})ing on the ground, and was then 
sent to IIarrisl>urg by way of Bloomsburg, under guard. Thu^ 
an additional voter was silenced at the October election. The 44 
electors of this county, first arri'sted, were meantime securely held 
in custody at Fort Mifflin (save one who died a prisoner,) and a 
number of citizens (some of whose cases will be mentioned here- 
after) were also arrested on the day of election, or just before, 
and withheld from the polls. 

Mr. Kutan confessedly had broken no law, nor had he interpos- 
ed any act of resistmce to the prosecution of the war. He was a 
man well advanced in years and not liable to military duty or to mili- 
tary jurisdiction and he was a peaceful and inoflFensive citizen. But 
tlicsi- circumstances counted as nothing in his favor when the grasp 
of military power instigated by political hostility was upon him and 
he was comi^'lied to pass the ordeal of an unlawful military com- 
mission. They were "as dust in the balance" against the fact 
that lie was a Democrat, that he had been active or at least em- 
phatic in his condemnation of the party in jtowei*, and that his ar- 
rest and conviction for some j)retended offense might intimiilate 
tlic peoj)le of his section and weaken the friends of honest govern- 
ment and Constitutional rule. He was arrested three times and 
at Ia<t convicted on a sham trial and sentenced to imi)risonment, 
from which lie was subsequently discharged upon the urgent re- 
monstrance of influential men of both parties, and permitted to re- 
turn to his home. 

When he was first taken to Ilarrisburg, at the time already 
mentioned, a fellow named Wessels was j)laying Judge Advocate 
before the Military Commission and industriously engaged in 
''making up a c;ise" against Columbia county prisoners. He con- 
ceived the idea of using Mr. Kutan for his purpose, and the latter 
was approached with suggestions that he "should tell all he knew", 
(meaning something he di<l not know) "and be saved from all 
fuithei- trouble." "Me should be free at once and go harmless if 
\\v would make a dean l)reast of it, etc., etc." These urgent invi- 
tations to turn informer were received by Rutan with [trudence ; 
lie restrained his indignation, and Wessels supposed he had pro- 
(ImcciI tlif desircil iniprossion upon him and could coerce him into 



410 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

performina; the Avickcd work proposed. Ke therefore paroled him 
to sjo hrtme, upon condition that he should write out "all he knew 
about a meeting near Benton" at which a man named Headley or 
Hadley spoke, and transmit the narrative to Harrisburg. This 
Mr. Rutan could very honorably and safely promise to do, for the 
meeting in question was perfectly innocent and harmless (as was 
shown upon subsequent investigation,) and a truthful statement 
concerning it could do no possible harm. It had been held more 
than a year and a half before and had no connection whatever 
with the Military Incursion or with the events which immediately 
preceded it. 

Mr. Rutan returned home, but as he knew perfectly well that 
what Wessels wanted was not the truth, but falsehood concerning 
the Iladley meeting, and to fix and use him as a witness upon the 
Columbia county trials, and that the transmission of his true 
statement would probably result in his being again arrested, he 
hesitated a short time in performing his promise. During this 
hesitation he was approached by a self styled government runner, 
who for a valuable consideration, agreed that he "would clear him 
of all, and there would be no more arrests made on him, and there 
would be no more soldiers troubling his family by coming after 
him." This contract for peace and quiet was executed in part, 
when Mr. Rutan was arrested for the third time by soldiers, in the 
night time, and hurried oflf to Harrisburg. It seems that Wessels 
had become impatient, as he was in pressing need of testimony, 
and had ordered Mr. Rutan to be seized and sent to him that he 
might be subjected to direct and thorough manipulation. And he 
was put under strong pressure to extort from him confessions or 
statements which could be used upon the trials of the other pris- 
oners, and justify their seizure and imprisonment. It was thought 
that his age, standing, and clerical character would give impor- 
tance and inliuence to whatever testimony, true or false, could be 
obtained from him. Mr. Rutan in mild language informs us, that 
he "was interrogated upon the disloyalty of different men of whom 
he knew nothing wrong," until the experiment was abandoned as 
hopeless. He was given up as incorrigible. The pumping and 
threatening process being in his case a complete failure, because 
he knew of nothing Avrong and would not falsify, nothing was left 
to the military power but to punish him for his contumacy. He 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 411 

was thrust into prison among deserters and bounty-jumpers, and 
kejjt there until about the hist of November when, as he expresses 
it, ''he had some kind of a trial," — that is, he had a summary, im- 
perfect, unfair and hostile hearing before a Military Commission, 
and was subjected to an unjust, unlawful, cruel and infamous 
sentence. He had offended the Judge Advocate and other mana- 
gers of persecution very deeply ; had disappointed their hopes ; 
had refused to become a false witness and rogue at their bidding. 
As he would not become their instrument, he was made their vic- 
tim, and was taught that vengeance will not linger when lawless 
])ower is offended by the scruples or integrity of the citizen. 

The hopes entertained of making him a witness and the disap- 
pointment felt at his delay in making report, are indicated by the 
following extract from one of the radical sensation newspapers 
of that time — the Philadtlphia Inquirer. It said, speaking of 
the Columbia county prisoners : — 

"One named Reutant,'' (Rutati) "a preacher, manifested much 
concern in regard to his flock, and begged to be permitted to fill 
the vacated pul])it. The commission consented, on condition that 
he would, when he got home, write a full account and confession 
of all he knew in connection with these conspiracies. To this 
Reutant (Rutari) "expressed himself willing to comply, and he 
was accordingly paroled, but he has not since been heard from, as 
promised."' 

Upon the (so-called) trial of Mr. Rutan, we believe the Hadley 
meeting was not insisted upon as a disloyal assemblage andj;he 
participants therein as criminal, although it was with reference to 
it that Mr. R. was originally examined with great strictness and 
directed to make up a statement. The pretense that it was crimi- 
nal ()!• disloyal had in the meantime been completely exploded 
upon the trial of other prisoners and could no longer be set up. 
But other ])retexts for his conviction were found. It was charged 
that he had attended one or more political Club meetings in Lu- 
zerne county, the most remarkable feature of which was, that 
like those of the "Loyal Leagues'" they were held in secret. He 
was also charged with having made disloyal declarations on sev- 
eral occasions in discourse or conversation. The main declaration 
insisted upon however, was neither proved nor credible. It con- 
sisted of violent and profane language, which no sensible man 



412 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

ever believed he uttered, and the witness to prove it, was flatly 
impeached as unworthy of belief, and that too even by republi- 
can witnesses. A balder case for mei'ely censuring a man was 
never made out, and there could be no pretense even that a crimi- 
nal offense had been committed. 

Such hovrever was the case upon which Mr. Rutan was con- 
victed and sentenced to a severe imprisonment which was only 
terminated by the intei'ference of the President of the United 
States. Altogether he was subjected to great hardship and suf- 
fering ; his croi)s were lost ; his business broken up, and his fam- 
ily harassed and humiliated. 

Case of David lewis : — Mr. Lewis, a leading citizen and rep- 
utable gentleman of Sugarloaf township, was taken out of his bed 
at 11 o'clock at night of the day before the State election of 1864, 
by i^oldiers, and compelled to go Avith them to the military camp 
at Coleman's, six miles distant. He was kept there without ex- 
amination over election day and until 11 o'clock on the day fol- 
lowing, when Capt. Short who was, in command at the camj), ex- 
amined and discharged him. There was no pretense that he had 
committed any criminal offense, and the questions asked him were 
only a])propriate to him in the character of a witness. Mr. Lewis 
was tifty-three years of age, and would at any time have attended, 
upon request, at the camp or elsewhere in the neighborhood, to 
answer interrogatories. Of course he was arrested simply to pre- 
vent him from i)olling his vote at the Sugarloaf election, and after 
that object was accomplished he was permitted to go home and 
never further called in question. 

Mr. Lewis made the following statement in regard to the mat- 
ter: "I reside in Sugarloaf toAvnship, Columbia county. On Mon- 
day night, October 10, (the night before the election.) soldiers 
came to my house and arrested me. It was about 11 o'clock, and 
I had been some time in bed and asleep. There were two soldiers 
at the house. A third one was in the road, having in charge Eze- 
kiel Cole, who had been arrested at his house a mile distant, and 
from his bed as he informed me. I was taken with Cole to the 
camp below Benton, on the Coleman farm, about six miles, arriv- 
ing there shortly after midnight. I was there put under guard 
and kept until Wednesday without any examination or in forma- 






HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 413 

tion as to the cause of arrest. About an hour after Cole and I ar- 
rived in camp, Rev. Mr. Riitan was brouglit in, (probably between 
one and two o'clock,) and on Tuesday morning Daniel B. Hart- 
man, one of the election board of Benton township, was brought 
in. Neither I nor any of the others were drafted men. I am 53 
years of age, the others are about the same age, except Hartman, 
who is a cripple. 

On Wednesday morning Cole was called up, and after some 
questions asked him, was discharged. I was called up about 11 
o'clock and asked several questions by Capt. Short, which I an- 
swered. He then consulted with a man named Pealer — commonly 
called "Professor Pealer" — for a few moments, and then told me 
I was dismissed for the present. He ordered the guard to let me 
go. I told him I would have thanked him kindly if he had called 
me up the day before and asked me those questions. He said he 
could not attend to it. Hartman had been examined the day be- 
fore and released. 

Rutan, Cole and myself, were legal voters, and we were depriv- 
ed of our votes by these night arrests and by being kept in cus- 
tody over election day. We had all, as well as Hartman, been 
living openly at our homes for some time before. 

I would have answered all the questions put to me by Capt. 
Short, at any time, without hesitation, and would have attended 
for that purpose at the camjt or an}' other place in the neighbor- 
hood, upon reasonable notice. 

Nov. nth, 1864. David Lewis. 

Case of Fzekiel Cole: — Mr. Cole w^as also a citizen of Sugar- 
loaf township, of reputable standing, not liable to military duty 
nor charged with any offense. He likewise was seized the night 
before the election by soldiers, taken seven miles to the Coleman 
camp, kept over election day and discharged the morning after- 
wards. Till' form of putting a few questions to him was gone 
tlirough with, and he was told he might go home. In his case 
also a lawful voter was silenced, and the election return of Sugar- 
loaf township slightly inij)roved for the radical party. 

Case of Daniel B. Hartman : — This gentleman who was a 
cripple and one of the election officers of Benton township, was 



4W HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 

seized on election uiorninL? ;it the place of voting and hun*ied off 
to the camp several miles distant. This was one of the acts in- 
tended to intimidate voters and keep them away from the polls. 
Mr. H. was, however, discharged some time during the same day 
and perniitted to go home as he best could. There was no reason 
at all for his arrest except the political one above mentioned. 

Case of Thomas Downs: — Thomas Downs was an elector of 
Bloom township in 1864, a son-in-law to Michael Casey, an old 
and well-known citizen, and had been a soldier in service in the 
war. He enlisted in May ISOl and served a year and a half when 
he was taken prisoner. He was subsequently paroled and report- 
ed himself to our military authorities at Annapolis by whom he 
was directed to go home and remain there until called for. He 
never i-eceived any notice that he was exchanged nor any infor- 
mation that renewed service under his enlistment was required. 
In the summer of 1864, however, he was drafted under the con- 
scription law, reported himself in a proper manner, paid 800 dol- 
lars conmuitation money, and was discharged from the draft. He 
had been openly at Bloomsburg many months before the general 
election in 1864, when, upon going to the place of election and 
approaching the polls, ticket in hand, he was seized, })ulled away 
and taken into custody by soldiers of the Deputy Provost Mar- 
shal's guard. He was held by them very carefully, permitted to 
to go home for his dinner, but not permitted to approach the 
Court House Avhere the election was held, and was subsequently 
forwarded as an arrested soldier to Georgetown in the District of 
Columbia. This arrest on election day was a great administration 
triumph. Another vote was 'gained, or rather another voter was 
silenced, and for the time Cajtt. Silver and his soldiers were in 
high credit. 

The editor of I'he Columbian became fully acquainted with 
the facts of Mr. Down's case subsequently, and upon his energetic 
remonstrance to the Provost Marshal General regarding the hard- 
ship of his case, the injustice done him, and the positive illegality 
of holding him to double service — that is, under his enlistment 
and under the draft — secured the refunding to his Avife of the 
$300 connnutation paid by him. This was accomplished after 
some expense and much trouble, in June 1865. 



Hli^TOEY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 415 

We will only :idd, that Mr. Downs complains that his certifi- 
cate of discharge from the draft was taken from him, or stolen 
from him, at Georgetown, whereby he was prevented from produc- 
ing it nj)on liis trial. 

Case of Daniel II. Fry : — Mr. Daniel ?I. Fry of Main town- 
shij) was not in accord in his political views with the administra- 
tion at Washington. His case required attention and he was 
waited upon the day before the election (Monday, October lOth, 
18(i4,) by soldiers, and arrested by them. Mr. Fry stared upon 
his captors and inquired the cause of his arrest. They told him 
he was a deserter, which statement put Mr. Fry into a state of 
complete bewilderment. He protested he could not understand 
the accusation ; that he had never been in military service even at 
a militia training, much less in a regular force ; that he had never 
enlisted or been drafted for the war, nor had he been informed in 
any manner that his military abilities were required by the Gov- 
ernment. The answer to all his protestations was, that "orders 
must be executed," and he was brought forthwith across the Sus- 
(juehanna to Bloomsburg and presently found himself thrust like 
a felon into the county jail. The thick jail door closed behind 
him and its iron chain was hooked securely. All this was quite a 
new experience to Mr. Fry, the idea even of going to jail never 
having before entered his mind, but he summoned his courage 
and recollecting that his friend Mr. Michael F. Eyerly resided 
hereabouts, he sent for him, opened to him his situation and re- 
quested his friendly aid. Mr. Eyerly was skilled in the German 
language, had some inkling of the law, and naturally sympathized 
with Mr. F. in his "pursuit of knowledge under difficulties." His 
selection as adviser and friend was therefore judicious. It hap- 
pened also that the elder Fry had followed the younger to Blooms- 
l>uig, and that he likewise was inquisitive as to the cause of his 
son's arrest. He had brought him up "to the best of liis kiuiwl- 
edge and belief" in a proper manner, and was astonished and 
grieved to find not only that he was the inmate of a public jail 
but that he had concealed his iniquity (whatever it might be) 
from parental inspection and reproof. 

Mr. Eyerly and Mr. Fry Sr., prosecuted their researches for 
some time without result. The arrest continued a profound mys- 



416 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

tery to client, counsel, parent and public. But at length Capt. 
Silver opened a little the road of investigation, for he was found 
competent not only to execute the law but to exjjound it also. 
His exposition was to the following purport : — 'True it was,' he 
said, 'that Daniel II. Fry had not been in fact drafted into the 
military service or notified to appear, but he ought to have been ; 
that Daniel Fry, the father, had been drawn in the draft, had 
been notified to appear and had duly re])orted himself to the 
Board of Enrolment, but this was all a mistake; the proceeding 
ought to have been upon Daniel H. Fry, tJiereforc the latter had 
been seized as a deserter f He might have added, like another 
Dogberry, that though this was not ^croioner quest law' it was 
good Provost Marshal law, which had become to all intents and 
purposes, "the law of the land." 

His ex])lanation not being satisfactory, affidavits of the facts 
were at once })repared and sworn to, and ap})lication made to the 
Dep. Prov. Marshal to discharge Mr. Fry, parole him, to take 
bail for his ai)j)earance, etc., but all to no purpose. He was held 
in confinement bey(nid election-day, when upon orders from the 
military authorities at Harrisburg, he was discharged u])()n the 
ground that his arrest was illegal, unauthorized, and imj)ro[)er. 
We will add, that it was clearly outrageous and criminal also, 
and that the sole motive for making it was to deprive Mr. Fry of 
his vote and to affect the result of the election. Considering the 
time when the arrest was made and the circumstances which at- 
tended aihl followed it, this conclusion is inevitable. And the 
pretext put forward for his arrest is too absurd and )»reposterous 
to merit the slightest attention. It merits only contempt. 

Cases of I I alter and Heller: — On Saturday October 8, 18G4, 
(three days before the State election,) Daniel liolter a citizen of 
Hemlock tow^nship was arrested by soldiers under the orders of 
the Deputy Provost Marshal, and Avas brought by them to Blooms- 
burg and lodged in the county jail. On Monday following Wm. 
H. Heller, another citizen of Hemlock township was arrested by 
the same authority and was also lodged in the jail. He was 
promised hearing or examination of his case on Monday and again 
on Tuesday morning, but none was given him. In fact both the 
prisoners were connuitted to prison without any warrant or other 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. All 

written authority, or cause shown, and no hearing or examination 
of their cases was permitted up to 'the afternoon of election day 
when the events to be presently mentioned took place. That they 
were unlawfully arrested and for the express purpose of depriving 
them of their votes at the election, is most unquestionable. 

Ilolter and Heller secured their votes in the manner we shall 
describe, but were hurried off to Harrisburo- on election nitihtand 
held there in coutinement for two days. But when their cases 
were examined by the military authorities there, they were 
promptly and honorably discharged and returned to their homes. 
There being no cause or even a reasonable pretense for their ar- 
rest, they could not be held in custody nor their persecution con- 
tinued. The high-handed, outrageous and shameless proceedings 
against them canle to an inglorious conclusion. 

Case of Sheriff Furman and Robert C. Fruit : — Holter and 
Heller (of whom we have just spoken) being in the custody of 
the Sheriff on election day, it was believed that their votes were 
silenced or pi*evented and that a certain radical gain was secured. 
The fact was the subject of conversation in the town and of evi- 
dent exultation with the radical leaders. It was so good a thing 
to have power on their side ; to have an accommodating Deputy 
Provost Marshal with a guard of soldiers under his hand, acting 
in concert with the troops in the county, to pick up voters and 
keep them away from the polls ! After a time the rights of Hol- 
ter and Heller as voters came into consideration among their po- 
litical friends, and the Sheriff consulted Senator Buckalew on the 
subject. The latter promptly advised him that Holter and Heller 
had been unlawfully and improperly arrested; that they were not 
liable at all to be arrested by the military authorities of the United 
States, never having been mustered into the Federal service nor 
drafted undei- United States laws ; that there was no law. State 
or Federal, which required or authorized him (the Sheriff) to re- 
ceive drafted nien or deserters, or those claimed to be such, into 
the county prison, or to hold them there in custody for one mo- 
ment ; and that what he (the Sheriff) had already done and might 
thereafter do in the matter of receiving and holding such men in 
charge, was and would be entirely voluntary and upon his own 
responsibility without any obligation of law. These views were 



41« III STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

aftorwardH fully sufltainod by the military autlioritics at Harris- 
hiirpr and by (tov. (Purlin and his Sotrolary and Attorney (icnoral. 
The ShcrilT was furtlu'r advised that his relations to the Deputy 
Provost Marshal in the matter, (putting the legal question :i8ide,) 
were 8im])ly tl\ose of comity ; that liaving received the men to 
acconunodate the Deputy I'rovost Marshal and holding them for 
that reason alone, good faith could only require that he should 
not permit their esca]>e, but should deliver tliem \\\) to tlie Deputy 
Provost Marshal when called for. In the meantime he could ])er- 
mit them to vote in their proper election district without any vio- 
lation of faith or of duty. Further, that it was evident tlyit Hol- 
ier and Heller liad been arrested and put in his charge not only 
■sritlumt lawful cause, but for the express purpose of depriving 
them of their rights as electors, aiul that to this frauduU'ut and 
unlawful enter{)rise he (the Sheriff) would becouie a party by 
Ivceping thrm away from the polls. This, as nearly as we can :is- 
certain, was the advice received by Sheriff Furman and he acted 
upon it promptly. A carriage was procured, Mr. Ivobert C. Fruit 
((^lerk to the Oouiity Oonnnissioners) volunteered as an ;iid to the 
SheriiV, and the men were driv<'n from the jail by way of Iron 
Htreet and the mouth of Little Fishing Creek to the Hemlock elec. 
tion ]>olls, four miU>s distant, wluM-e they gave their votes. Thus 
Ihe shanu^ful fraud intendeti by their arrest was defeated. All 
honor to Jofiiah H. Furman and to the men concerned with liim 
in executing this act of evident justice! They preserved the law 
fix>n\ violation, securing to two of their fellow-citizens their un- 
doubted rights and defied the rage and vengeance of power I 
Their ac(ioi\ was legal, laudable, bold and timely, met the neces- 
sities of the case in exactly the proper manner, and deserves to 
be held in lasting remembrance. 

Hut the Sheriff and his assistant did not escape punishment for 
their upright cotidtu't . When, in the course of the afternoon, the 
fact transpired that they had taken Holter and Heller to Buck 
Horn to enable them to vote, radical excitement and indignation 
bticame intense. To have the fruits of rascality snatched from 
their montlis in tbe very hour of sweet enjoyment Avas intolerable 
Hud a desiiv for full vengeance filled every breast. Tlie dignity 
ftJ«o of Mr. Deptity Provost Marshal Silver had been touched at a 
tender ])oint and required signal vindication. Therefore, a squad 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 419 

of soldiers of Capt. Silver's guard was sent in pursuit of the Sher- 
iff and his conii»anion8 with orders to arrest them and bring them 
to the Captain's Head Quarters in the Exchange Hloek or liiggs' 
Buildings. This order was executed with as nujcli of Hpee<l us 
[lossible, but almost too late to take the arrested parties ^a^ranie 
delicto. For the Sheriff and his assistant with Holter and Heller 
in charge were within /iOO yards of the jail, on their return, when 
the soldiers met and arrested them. They were all — the whole 
party — put in strict oonhnement and held behind bayonets and 
barred doors during the remain<ler of the day, with inijK-rfect ac- 
cess of friends and with no knowledge of the treatment or fate 
for wiiich they were reserved. That there was no popular out- 
break upon that occasion; that the arrested men and their friends 
and the peojde generally subinittcMl to this open and insolent out- 
rage upon the laws — this njost tlagrant invasion of private right 
and of the principles of liberty — furnished high evi<lence not only 
of their peaceful disposition biit of their determination to give no 
color of justification to the slanders of their enemies. In fact, 
during the whole latter half of 1864 while arrests wholly unjusti- 
fiable were being made in various parts of our county and circum- 
stances well calculated to excite indignation and turbulence were 
continually occurring, our people everywhere remained peaceful 
and law-abiding. Under great and continued jtrovocation they 
firmly kept the peace and by their conduct gave the most effectual 
contradi(!tion possible to those miscreants both at home and abroad 
who defamed them. By uid)roken }>atience and by upright con. 
duct they proved beyond all dispute that the charge of insurrec- 
tion by them, or of an insurrectionary spirit among them, was a 
base and utter falsehood, fit only for denunciation or contempt. 

Sheriff Furman an<l the others above named, were arrested 
about four o'clock in the afternoon. They were sent in the eve- 
ning of the same «lay, under guard, to Ilarrisburg, where they ar- 
rived a little after midnight. They were then thrust into a room 
in the third story of a building used by the Provost Marshal, 
among negroes, bounty jumpers, deserters and other vile scum of 
the army. There they were kept that night and Wednesday and 
Wediies«lay night, but by reason of the active exertions of their 
friends on Thursday, they were graciously allowed quarters in the 
County Penitentiary. 



420 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY- 

Discharge of Sherijf JBurtnan and others: — It will be observed 
by our narrative, (carried already to the point of time when Sher- 
iff Furman and Mr. Fruit were furnished quarters in the Dauphin 
county Penitentiary,) [^that two important offices in our county 
were virtually suspended and the transaction of public business 
interrupted. The Sheriff was withdrawn from his office and from 
the charge of the County prison, as was Mr. Fruit from the office 
of the County Commissioners, whose business was confided to him 
as Clerk between the meetings of the Board. Public interests 
therefore, as well as private rights, were assailed in the election 
day arrests which we have described. It will also be observed 
that the Courts of Justice were wholly ignored in the proceeding 
and treated with open contempt. Judge El well, it may well be 
assumed, had a proper interest in the uninterrupted performance 
of duty by the Sheriff — the principal officer of his Court — as well 

>.as in the maintenance and due administration within his judicial 
district, of ihose general laws of the State which guarantee and 
protect the libei-ty of the citizen. But no opportunity was sought 
or pennitted of bringing the arrested men before him for examina- 
tion ; in fact they were hurried off to Harrisburg to avoid due in- 
quiry and judicial action by him, which it was well known must 
condemn the arrests and restore the arrested men to liberty. Nor 
was any greater respect paid to the District Court of the United 
States having jurisdiction in this county (to which any offender 
against the ^laws of the United States might have been sent in 
due course of law) than Avas paid to our State Court. Military 
power, when it assumes despotic functions, avoids and hates the 
Civil Courts as much as the Devil is said to avoid and detest holy 
water, and never willingly submits to their jurisdiction and cen- 
sure; lawless itself, it hates all regular justice and the tribunals by 
which that justice is administered. 

But we will i^roceed to trace the progress of those events at 
Harrisburg which affected Sheriff Furman and his fellow victims. 
And in doing so we shall avail ourselves of papers and memor- 
anda which were made at the time Avhen the events occurred (and 
now furnished us) as well as of personal information concerning 

-unwritten facts which we have been able to procure from reliable 
soiarces. Fortunately, at the time in question and at other times 
subsequently, a member of our bar was in attendance at Harris- 



HISTOBY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 421 

Lurg as OIK' of the counsel for tlie Cohmibia county prisoners first 
arrested, and was in a situation to obtain full and accurate infor- 
mation of all that took place there. To him and to the other 
counsel (members of the Harrisburg bar) who were engaged in 
the defense of our people before the Military Commission, we are 
largely indebted for documents and for details of fact upon the 
subject of the military inroad and oc'eut»ation. 

Passing over intervening time we will come to the occurrences 
of Thursday October 13th 1864. Early in that day Mr. Bucka- 
lew (who had arrived at Harrisburg) visited the secretary of the 
Connnonwealth (Mr. Slifcr) and opened up to him the matter of 
the arrests. Subsequently by appointment he had an interview 
in the Executive Building with Gov. Curtin, Secretary Slifer and' 
Mr. Meredith, the Attorney General. The whole subject was con- 
sidered and a common opinion entertained and expressed that the 
arrests were improper and unlawful. Gov. Curtin, however, upon 
being ai)pealed to as the Chief Magistrate of the State (and as 
Buch bound to see that the laws were faithfully executed, and that 
his subordinate state officials received due protection) declared 
thut he could do nothing with Capt. Dodge (the little military 
satrap who held connnand at Harrisburg at the time;) that Dodge 
had treated his Secretary in an insulting manner upon a recent' 
occasion when a proper interposition on behalf of a citizen was 
attempted ; but that he would telegraph a statement of the case 
to xUr. Stanton, Secretary of War,and ask for him an ol'der of dis-' 
ciiarge. This plan of proceeding involving delay and an uncer- 
tain issue, Mr. Buckalew said he would himself confront the terri- 
ble Dodge and endeavor to obtain from him what was desired. 
Pursuing this design he went to the court house and found 
Dodge, cap in hand, about to leave his office and apparently not 
at all inclined to a jn-otracted interview or to any [latient atten- 
tion to business. We have had the scene which ensued described 
to us, l)ut can hardly hope to succeed in representing it by writ- 
ten language. Dodge wanted to be olf; the Senator insisted on 
being heanl, and there was a hearing and conversation jtretty 
much after the following fashion : 

J>odge : "That was a pretty bold proceeding by the Sheriff, to 

carry off our ]>risoners." 



422 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Senator : "No law was broken and it was just. Besides, there 
was no escape." 

Dodge: "They were in custody and it was the duty of the 
Sheriif to keep them in prison until called tor. You say you ad- 
vised this ?" 

Senator: "Certainly I did ; the men had a right to vote. The 
Sheriff was not bound to take them or keep them in charge at all. 
His act in receiving them was voluntary and you have no jurisdic- 
tion over him." 

Dodge: "His conduct was not i*espectful to us. They were our 
prisoners." 

Senator: "It is not your business to manage elections or take 
offense when men give lawful votes. Why should these men be 
disfranchised? You could complain of the Sheriff only in case he 
refused to return your prisoners when you wanted them. Now 
Major — I believe you are a Major? — " 

Dodge (becoming interested): "Well, I'm not sure ; I was nom- 
inated but I believe not confirmed at the last session." 

Senator: "Yes, I think I remember the case. No doubt it will 
come up again next winter." 

About this time the Major (in prospect) underwent a complete 
transformation in demeanor and speech. He had been standing, 
half impatient, ready to leave. But the sudden reflection that the 
man before him would have a vote in the Senate upon his confir- 
mation to a higher rank in the army, worked like a charm. He 
passed back across the room, put down his military cap, placed 
himself at his writing-table, })olitely invited his visitor to take a 
chair, and resumed the conversation : 

Dodge {very kindly): "Well, what do you want done ?" 

Senator: "An order to discharge the Sheriff and his assistant." 

No sooner said than done — the order Was written and handed 
over. Dodge then rose from his chair all benignity, radiant with 
satisfaction at a good action performed. In fact, at that moment, 
Dodge felt at peace with the whole world — felt a benevolent in- 
terest in the welfare of all his fellow-creatures — felt or imagined 
he felt, already, the gentle i)ressure of a Major's straps upon his 
shoulders ! He was a happy man and quite open to any appeal 
of benevolence or of duty. The occasion was improved in the in- 
terests of justice. Dodge was reminded that he had the Hemlock 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 423 

voters (Ilolter and Heller) also under his hand ; that they were 
unlawfully held and should also be discharged. He promptly took 
back his order and underwrote upon it what was desired. That 
document in its final form was as follows: 
dodge's order. 

"Capt. Opdyke will release the Sheriff of Columbia county and 
his assistant, confined on charges preferred by Cap. Silvers. 

These men will hold themselves subject to any order which may 
in future be received from the recorder of the Military Commis. 
sion in session here. 

Richard J. Dodge, 

Capt. Dept. Com'dg. 

Mr. Buckalew" states that the two men arrested as deserters are 
delinquent drafted men from the draft of 1862. If so, they are 
not liable to arrest as deserters. R. J. D." 

The above paper being produced to Capt. Opdyke, who was, 
we believe, a Deputy Provost Marshal and was playing i)ri8on- 
keeper. Sheriff Furman, Mr. R. C. Fruit, Daniel Holter and Wm. 
H. Heller were all promptly brought uj* and discharged. They 
left in the night train and an-ived at Bloomsburg, Friday morn- 
ing, October 14. Here they were met at the depot by a con. 
course of citizens and welcomed home with cheers and rejoicing. 

THE COUCH CORRESPONDENCE. 

Senator Buckalexn to General Couch. 

Bloomsburg, Sei't. 26, 1864. 
Major General D. N. Couch, Chambersburg, I*a. 

Dear Sir : — I have refrained from writing you on the subject 
of the arrests of citizens of this county, in the confident expecta- 
tion that they, or the greater part of them, would be discharged 
and permitted to return to their homes. Most of these persons 
are men of fair character and respectable position ; some of them 
are aged men accustomea to active employments, upon whom im- 
})risonment is peculiarly severe, and as to all of them, their fami- 
lies and business suffer by their absence. And surely the offences 
with which they are charged can be neither grave nor dangerous, 
when they are not announced or recognized in the community 
from which they are taken. Only conjecture or suspicion can be 
exercised upon their cases even by those least friendly to them. 



424 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

I do not doubt that tlie charges upon wliich tlie arrests were or- 
dered arose in some degree from a disordered state or condition of 
luind in their accusers, who Avere carried away by an impression 
of combination and armed resistance to the laws in the Fishing 
Creek to\vnshi]is. Upon inquiry made by me since my return 
from Washington in July, and particularly since our interview in 
August, I have oV)tained information which enables me to speak 
confidently upon this subject. And I have to say, that there has 
not been a time during the present year when a Sheriff, Marshal, 
or other executive officer, could not have executed peaceably any 
warrant or writ whatever in this county; that there have been 
no fortifications or military positions prepared or occupied by in- 
surgents, nor any intention of establishing them ; that there has 
been no large number of men assembled in arms to resist the 
conscription, as was reported ; that no cannon or other arms were 
obtained for a position on the North Mountain ; that neither de- 
serters from abroad nor refugees from Canada came to the assis- 
tance of the so-called "insurgents," and, in short, that the reports 
sent abroad of insurrection in this county, (and probably also the 
statements sent to Washington as to the foregoing particulars,) 
were quite groundless and false. Gen. Cadwallader's researches 
upon the upper Avaters of Fishingcreek and on the North Moun- 
tain I believe were thorough, and should be held as satisfactory 
by the ])ublic authorities. To the President Judge of this dis- 
trict and to me, he characterized the alleged erection of Avorks of 
resistance and the assembling of men in arms to resist the Govern- 
ment, as a "farce." But the arrests in question Avere ordered 
and actually made before the North Mountain Avas scaled and be- 
fore the imposture Avhich had misled men abroad, Avas fully explo- 
ded. Had the truth been knoAvn in the outset, I conclude I would 
have been spared the composition of this letter and you the trouble 
of perusing it. 

But Avhilethe imposture of "the Fishingcreek rebellion" remain- 
ed undetected — before the advance of Gen. CadAvallader upon the 
forests of Sullivan — forty-four of our citizens Avere taken into cus- 
tody and transported to Fort MifHin, Avhere forty-three yet remain. 
With a single possible exception, none of them were deserters or 
drafted men. They were farmers and business men, having no 
connection Avith the military service of the United States and 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 425 

many of them above the age of forty-five years. Neither they 
nor their friends were distinctly informed of the charges against 
them, nor has the privilege of giving bail for their appearance to 
answer, been permitted tliem. And their accusers are still un- 
known as well as the authority by which they were arrested. I 
hear it said recently, that their arrest was under an order from 
the Provost Marshal General at Washington, in which case you 
are not responsible for the order, but only for its execution. 

These men, thus arrested, have been confined in prison nearly 
one month, in an imperfectly ventilated bomb-proof of a Govern- 
ment Fort, subjected to vermin and other hardships, and even if 
it can be shown that they have been guilty, to some extent, of im- 
prudent or criminal speech or action, they have undergone enough 
to satisfy the demands not only of justice but of vengeance. Be- 
sides, two of them are officers of the county (the one a Commis- 
sioner and the othei* Treasurer) whose attention at home to public 
business is necessary. I therefore now make application for their- 
discharge without further proceedings or delay, as a measure of 
justice and humanity, warranted by the facts and demanded by 
public opinion in this section. 

I shall not, General, submit to you any observation upon the 
illegality of these aiTcsts, nor upon the propriety of turning these 
men over for trial (if they are to be tried at all) to the proper 
court of the United States which holds regular terms in an ad- 
joining county (at AVilliamsport.) It is sufficient for my present 
purpose to say, that the arrests were unnecessary ; that no such 
formidable combination of men to resist the laws as was alleged 
had any existence ; and that these men have undergone already 
severe and prolonged imprisonment. I suppose no advocate of 
military arrests of citizens in States untouched by actual war, will 
pretend thej^ should be made except in cases of utmost urgency, 
nor that j)unishment in such cases should degenerate into persecu- 
tion. 

I must add some remarks upon the subject of keeping troops 
here. This county has a population of 30,000 and no more peace- 
ful, law-abiding district is to be found in the United States. For 
many years the quarterly terms of our County Courts have not 
had an average duration of four days. The introduction of a 
large armed foi-oe here was not therefore ])rovoked by the general 



426 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

character of oui* people, but must have been occasioned by the 
particular falsehoods already mentioned and which have been fully 
exposed. With their exposure the reason for an armed force of 
occupation wholly failed and a part of that force has been with- 
drawn. I shall hope you will find employment elsewhere for the 
remainder, and if not, that you will give the officers in command 
stringent orders against interfering with our elections, and par- 
ticularly against placing troops at the places of election in con- 
tempt of an ancient statute of this Commonwealth. 

It remains only to notice in this communication, the two facts 
which remain after freeing the case of "the Fishingcreek insur- 
rection" from falsehood. They are: 1st. That here, as elsewhere, 
some drafted men had failed to report for duty ; and 2nd, That 
there had been a small night aifray in which a young man named 
Robinson was wounded. I have to observe upon these points (to 
which the case as originally stated has dwindled,) that for the ar- 
rest of the offender in the affray, a single officer, or at most a 
Constabulary force, was adequate ; and that as to the drafted men 
though they were probably impertinent and boastful, they were 
not numerous nor formidable. I believe that in all military move- 
ments there should be an employment of force clearly sufficient to 
accomplish the purpose in view, but in the case of these men who 
had failed to report, the advance of a single company of troops 
would have had the same effect as the advance of an army, to-wit, 
their dispersion or submission. 

The men whose folly or malignity was exercised in creating the 
spectre of the insurrection, and who have caused an unnecessary 
and large outlay by the Government, (perhaps in all a quarter of 
a million of dollars,) are those upon whom the indignation of au- 
thority should fall, rather than the men now in custody. In a 
proper place and in due time, I shall probably conceive it to be 
my duty to insist upon an investigation of this whole transaction, 
to the end that the truth shall become known and just responsibil- 
ity be placed where it belongs. 

I am, General, respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 
C. R. BUCKALEW. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 427 

Reply of General Couch. 

Head Qtarters, Dep't. of the Susquehanna •,\ 
Chambersbuig, Pa., September 29, 1864. j 

Hon. C. R. Buckalew, 

United States Senator, 

Bloomsburg, Pa.: 

Dear Sir: — I have the honor to acknowledge receipt this day 
of your note of the 26th. inst., in reference to the Citizen Prisoners 
arrested in Columbia county, &c., &c. 

The commission for their trial has been ordered and I had hop- 
ed it would have been ready to take up their cases before this, 
but there have been delays beyond my control, still everything is 
being done that can be to expedite matters. 

I went to the Fort on Saturday last for the purpose of seeing 
myself how the prisoners fared, inspect their quarters and if nec- 
essary order them to be removed to a more comfortable place of 
confinement — there seemed to be no cause for complaint and 
hence no change was made. 

I fully agree with you that no fortifications were erected by 
the "insurgents," but General Cadwallader who made a close ex- 
amination of the country is satisfied that they had one, and prob- 
ably two j>ieces of artillery, that there was an organization to re- 
sist the draft, the members of which were armed, and I have 
other information to the same effect. 

The men arrested are charged in general terms with resisting 
the Draft, which covers the case of those who advised resistance, 
procured arms, knowing they were for that purpose, or sold arms 
for the same object. 

The arrests were not to my knowledge, made by direction of 
the Provost Marshal General, nor are the prisoners held to satisfy 
vengeance, but to determine whether they are guilty of the great 
crime of which they are charged, or not. 

As regards the troops interfering with the elections, you and 
your friends may rest assured that there will be no just cause for 
complaint. 

When assigned to the command of this Department, I was in- 
structed by the Secretary of War, not to interfere with politics, 
which being in accordance with my natural inclinations, has been 
scrupulously carried out. 



428 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

I cannot for one moment think tliat you believe troops are re- 
tained in Columbia county to control the elections. 

I was very glad to receive your letter, recollecting with pleas- 
ure our interview in August last, and the assistance you extended 
me at that time. 

The subject has received my careful consideration and I hope 
to be able to so conduct matters, that none but the guilty shall 
suffer, and so soon as I can satisfy myself that any of the sus - 
pected parties are only slightly involved in this treasonable move- 
ment, it will be consistent with my duty to the Government to 
order their conditional release. 

I am Sir, very Respectfully, 

Your obd't. Servant, 

D. N. COITCH. 
Major General Com'dg. Dep't- 



A second letter to Gen. Conch. 

Bloomsburg, October 11, 1864. 

Tuesday Evening. 
Gen. D. N. Couch, 

Dear Sir : — I received in due course of mail your letter of 29th 
September, and am duly sensible of your politeness in giving so 
prompt an answer to my communication. I notice with satisfac- 
tion youi- statement that you visited "!• ort Mifflin" and gave at- 
tention to the treatment of our citizens confined there, as the fact 
proves your possession of those feelings of humanity which do 
honor to our common nature. I read also with satisfaction and 
approval your observations upon non-interference Avith our elec- 
tions by troops under your command or control, and particularly 
your assurance to me and my friends (as you expressed yourself) 
that we shoidd have no cause foi- complaint in that particular. 
These were good words and I have no disposition to tliink tliem 
or to re})resent them as insincere. But, unfortunately, the pro- 
ceedings of your subordinates have not been consistent with them. 

Col. Albi-ight, who came u}) to this county to collect evidence, 
preparatory to the trial of our citizens at Harrisburg, did not con- 
fine himself to that business. He went upon the stump in Blooms- 
burg with the republican candidate for Congress, and made the first 
political speech of the campaign. As represented to me it was a 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 429 

very inflammatory speech, and gave a most exaggerated and unfair 
representation of the difficulties in this county. He professed to 
speak from tlie official documents in his possession, and used his 
position to inflame public passion against the men who were to be 
tried and to render their prosecution useful for party purposes. 

But 1 proceed to mention events more recent which deserve, as 
I think, your particular attention. Some days since soldiers were 
sent south of the river. I do not know what they have done 
there, but a i)risoner was forwarded here yesterday from Main 
township and is still kept here. His case is as follows : His name 
is the same as his father's except a middle initial letter. His 
father's name was drawn in the draft; the father was notified, ap- 
peared before the board of enrolment, and was exempted for legal 
cause. It is now said, or pretended, that the son was really meant 
and he, without any notice whatever, is seized and taken away 
from his district, tfie day before the election and held here in spite 
of full explanation ! No one can doubt the motive, and the effect 
is precisely what was desired — the deduction of one vote from the 
poll of Main township. 

In Fishingcreek township, soldiers were stationed for the day 
on the main road near the polls, obviously to watch the election. 

In Benton township one of the election officers was arrested this 
morning just before the polls were open, and carried off, the 
others had been previously disposed of and the people found no 
officers to act for them. Last night several men were ^arrested in 
the neighborhood and kept away from their places of voting. I 
believe no one arrested was a drafted man. They were citizens, 
and had been openly at their homes before. 

Seven mounted nien were met going toward the Sugarloaf polls 
early in the day and they, or another squad, were reported later 
in the day watching the road of approach beyond. 

When the returns come in it will doubtless be found true that 
light elections have been held in several districts, because many 
citizens have been intimidated and deterred from attending the 
polls, in addition to those who were taken away by actual arrest. 
No cause for the arrests is known and no man can feel safe in at- 
tending the election. Of course the intended effect is as certain 
as the means of securing it are unscrupulous and disgraceful. 

At the election here in Bloomsburg a man Avas arrested in go 



430 fflSTOBY OF COLUMBIA OOVNTY 

iiig to vote ; soldiers ftp})earing at the polls in violation of the 
State law to which I reforrod you in my fornior letter, lie was 
kept in hand during the dA\, perm Iff <d to i/o /lotne for /iif> di/tner 
but not to the polls. His ease was one of doubtful dereliction 
under a former enlistment which has expired. He has since 
been enrolled and drafted under the U. S. laws, and I saw to day 
his certiiicate of having paid commutation money. He has been 
living here openly a year or more without question until now. 

Two other men living openly in the neighborhood for two years 
past and voters in the adjoining townshi[) of Hemlock were ar" 
rested and put in jail here — one on last Saturday night and the 
other yesterday. They were not liable to arrest and have not 
been drawn under either one of the V. S. drafts. One of them 
was pi-oniised a hearing yesterday and again this morning, but it 
was not given. Of course none was intended until the election 
should close. I said to the Slieriff who had them in custody, this 
afternoon, that be would be perfectly jvistitied in conveying them 
to their election district to vote, taking care to prevent their es- 
cape and holding them ready for any requisition upon him. He 
took an assistant, conveyed them to their district, and had return- 
ed with them almost home when he and his assistant were arrest- 
ed by order of the Assistant Provost Mai-shal. He had been ab- 
sent less than two houi-s, but in that tinuMncalculable mischief had 
been done. Two of the four men who were to be disfranchise<i 
bv being kept here in confinement, had given true and lawful 
votes under the Constitution and laws of this Conunonwealth . 
And these votes will stand good, and the deprivation of rightful 
suffrage here be narrowed to the two other c:vses before mentioned. 

General, in the war of 1812 the State of Massachusetts refused 
the use of her prisons to the United States for the detention of 
captives *S:c. Immediately afterwards Sinu^n Snyder, Governor 
of this State, addressed a patriotic message to our Legislature de- 
nouncing the conduct of Massachusetts, and at his instance the 
Legislature passed the act of 8d March, 1814, opening wide our 
prisons for the admission of hostages and prisoners of war of the 
L^nited States and charging upon our Sheriffs and jailors the du- 
ties of their ciistody. The prior act of oth December. 1789, had 
authorized the admission of prisoners of the United States **cora- 
raitted by virtue of legal process," obviously meaning in some ju- 



HI!^ TORY OF COL ITMB TA CO UNT Y. 43 1 

dicial proceeding. I know of no statute of this Commonwealth 
charging uj)On our Sheriffw and prison-kee])erH; the duty of hohl- 
ing cilizeiiH in draft proceedings under the authority of the Uni- 
ted States. But even if such statute existed, the duty the Sheriff 
would owe to the United States would be simply the safe custody 
of the persona committed, and the rendering of them up on proper 
demand. And while they were in his custody he would have 
complete control over them, subject to the regulation of our own 
laws, and would share his powers with no other official whatever. 

Observe, General, I do not object to the use of our prisons by 
the United States in the fullest manner, and to invoking the prin- 
ciple of comity for that i»urj)Ose where legal provisions may be 
wanting. But the purposes of the United States being subserved, 
no officer of that government has reason to concern himself furth- 
er and to determine who shall be })ermitted to vote under the 
State laws. 

The arrests which 1 have descril>ed were made by the use of 
soldiers subject to your command, and their occurrence justifies 
my aj)p('al made to you in a former letter for the withdrawal of 
troojjs from our county, or, in case they were not withdrawn, that 
stringent orders should be issued against their interfering with 
our elections and particularly against their presence at our places 
of election in violation of express law. 

In conclusion, I must express my opinion that some signal con- 
demnation of the wrongs and outrages already committed in this 
county is due to our people from the j>ublic authorities, and that 
some effectual provisions should be made against the repetition of 
such occarrences in the future. 

I am, General, very truly 

Your obd't serv't., 
C. R. BUCKALEW. 






482 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



OBSERVATIONS UPON THE COUCH CORRESPONDENCE. 



The Couch correspondence demands some notice before we pro- 
ceed to other matters ; but we shall be brief in our remarks upon 
it because more important topics lie before us and invite us for 
ward. As to the latter we will, just hei'e, take our readers into 
our confidence and imform them what they may expect (in part) 
from our researches. Be it known, then, that we have obtained by 
unexpected good fortune though not without difficulty, full records 
of the evidence in the three leading cases of Columbia county priso- 
ners, tried before the Military Commission at Harrisburg, and shall 
publish them entire, or their full substance. The cases to which we 
refer are those of John Rantz, Stott E. CoUey and Daniel McHenry, 
men upon whom the prosecution — the Military Judge Advocate, 
the spies, informers, pimps and radical politicians, in short all the 
persecutors and their instruments — expended the whole force of 
their industrj% ingenuity and malice (backed by public power) in 
order to secure their conviction. In the main, thank God ! those 
efforts were expended in vain. For the truth and the right did 
triumph in the end; their webs of lies were broken ; their wicked- 
ness came to nothing, and the prisoners, the objects of their hos- 
tility and persecution, went forth from unlawful bondage vindicat- 
ed and free ! Those prisoners went not forth however without 
scars of conflict upon them ; not without grievous expense and 
great suffering first incurred, nor without bitter and enduring 
memories of wrong and outrage inflicted by lawless poAver. 

But, to return to the Couch correspondence, the matter immedi- 
ately in hand : 

1. It will be seen that Couch was notified before the end of 
September, by reliable and responsible authority, that the pretexts 
for the invasion were false, and was called upon to discharge the 
prisoners and remove his troops from the County. Mr. Bucka- 
lew's letter to him dated September 26th, was answered by him 
on the 29th. He received it therefore in due course of mail and 
was fully acquainted with its contents. Why did he not accept 
the information thus given him and take proper action upon it ? 
Assumnig (with gratuitious charity) that he had been misled in 
the outset, why did he persist in the wrong ? 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 433 

2. Gen. Couch in his letter of 29th of September states that 
lie had visited the jirisoners in Fort Mifflin, but he does not state 
tluit lie told them that their arrest "was the worst act of his life.'? 
It may appear incredible that he could make this declaration and 
yet keep them in custody and allow the persecution again5>t them 
to continue, but the fact is too well attested to admit of doubt and 
can be fully proved if called in question. He was conscious 
that wrong had been done, and when he stood face to face with 
his victims the truth was extorted from him by feelings of contri- 
tion or of sympathy which he could not restrain. But those feel- 
ings did not long continue, or at all events had but slight influ- 
ence upon his after conduct. He knew too well what his masters 
recpiired of him ; how exacting were the demands of Radicalism 
and that his commission would be forfeited by any open exhibi- 
tion of independence, justice and humanity, and he followed the 
suggestions of self interest instead of the promptings of his better 
nature. 

3. Gen. Couch's letter enables us to grapple with the points of 
accusation against the prisoners as they were finally arranged 
(and subsecpiently appeared in formal charges before the Military 
Commission) and is for that reason a valuable contribution to the 
history of the occui)ation. By it, to a certain extent, our field of in- 
vestigation is narrowed and has assigned to it definite boundaries. 
In the first place there is no imputation that any of the arrested 
men were concerned in the night affray in which Lieut. Robinson 
was wounded. Further, the General agrees fully that no fortifica- 
tions had been erected for purposes of resistance to the military 
power. But he says that "Gen. Cadwallader who made a close 
examination of the country is satisfied that they" (the alleged 'in- 
surgents') "had one and probably two pieces of artillery, that 
there was an organization to resist the Draft, the members of 
which were armed," and that he had other information to the same 
effect. He says further, that "the men arrested are charged in 
ireiieral terms with resisting the Draft, which covers the case of 
those who advised resistance, procured arms knowing they were 
for that purpose, or sold arms for the same object." This is the 
whole case against the prisoners as stated by Gen. C >uch one 
month after their arrest and after the Albright affidavits had been 
obtained or extorted in the Fishingcreek country. 



434 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUJ^TT. 

It will be our business in the further progress of this narrative 
and by record evidence, to ansv»^er and explode these charges so 
far as they came under examination in the military trials at Har- 
risburg, and we pledge ourselves in advance to perform this work 
in the most effectual manner. But we choose to brand at once 
the statement about "one and probably two pieces of artillery," 
for which General Cadwallader is given as authority, as an utter 
falsehood. No evidence to sustain it was ever produced upon 
any of the military trials, thoTigh if such a fact had existed it 
could have been easily proved and would have been gladly seized 
upon by the prosecution. Besides, the common statement of all 
persons who had means or opportunity for information on this 
subject, has been, that there was no piece or pieces of artillery 
known of in the whole region of the alleged "insurrection." 

CONTINUED IMPRISONMENT. 

Within a few days after the general arrests were made (Aug. 31, 
1864,) some of the prisoners' friends in Bloomsbui-g sent Col. Ent 
down to Fort MitHinto confer with them and ascertain, if possible, 
the charges against them, the line of their defence and the names 
of their witnesses. He performed his mission with diligence, but 
not one of the prisoners could tell why he had been arrested. One 
of them had been in the military service, many of tliem had just 
subscribed money to af^sist in raising volunteers in the pending 
draft, and others had sons and other relatives in the army. They 
were not conscious of having conniiitted any offence or of having 
done any act Avhich should render them obnoxious to the military 
power, and they knew that the general vague reports of "insur- 
rection'' in their neighborhood would be put down upon even 
slight investigation fairly conducted. They could not therefore 
prepare for defence against unknown charges nor anticipate that 
they would be long detained in prison. The character of Gen. 
Cadwallader also, as a gentleman and honorable officer, gave as- 
surance that there would be fidelity and promptness of investiga- 
tion in their cases and that the day of relief and of vindication 
for them would soon arrive. They did not understand that politi- 
cal malignity in the radical breast was utterly relentless, and that, 
united to self-interest, it would disregard all law and all justice — 
the most sacred obligations of duty and the most imperative de- 
mands of humanity itself ! Nor did they understand that officers 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 435 

of tlie army (in high coruiuand even) were under duress to politi- 
cal leaders and constrained to perfomi the behests of party as the 
indispensable condition of their continuance in command and of 
their promotion in the public service ; that command, rank, pay 
and constant favor were for the subservient officer, and embarrass- 
ment and reprimands, if not dismissal and disgrace, to the inde- 
pendent and just one. Nearly all the prisoners were continued in 
continLMMcnt throughout the whole of September and beyond the 
election in October without a hearing of any description and with- 
out notice of charges against them. Meantime as Gen. Cad wall a- 
der could report nothing sufficient or definite against thcni and as 
Lt. Col. Stewart was equally unsuccessful. Col. Charles x\lbright 
was sent up to do what they had failed to accomplish — make up 
a case. How his work was performed we nuiy choose to describe 
hereafter; whnt we are now concerned with is the result of his 
labors — a bundle of affidavits and statements whicli by an aid-de- 
camp of Gen. Couch were well described as "trash,'' which the 
General himself spoke of subsequently with contempt, and m hich 
when subjected to deliberate examination and answer before a 
Military Commission were found to be in their essential features 
whylly false or worthless. These papers however furnished a 
pretext for the continued imprisonment of our citizens. Though 
they had been taken in secret and by most disreputable means, 
though they were afterwards withheld from public inspection and 
their contents unknown to the prisoners in their Bastile upon the 
Delaware, they were proclaimed to be most danmatory upon the 
accused, a complete revelation of iniquity in Columbia county and 
a full vindication of the occupation and all its works. This was the 
speech of the Radical Press at Philadelphia, at Harrisburg and at 
Bloomsl)urg, along the West Branch and in Luzerne, wherever 
interest could be felt in the affairs of this county or political capi- 
tal be made by the calunuiiation,of our people. 

But time passed on; the State election was held on the 11th of 
October and one of the main objects of the occupation became an 
accomplislied fact. More than forty citizens had been kept from 
the election by direct imprisonment, while others had been intimi- 
dated or restrained in their free action as electors, and the reports 
of conspiracy and resistance to law in this county had been ex- 
tensively used abroad for the purposes of party in the election 



436 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

canvass. Under these circumstances of consummated iniquity, of 
accomplished purpose — it was not unreasonable to think that an 
appeal on behalf of the prisoners for long delayed compassion 
and justice would be regarded with favor, or at all events would 
be heard with civility, by the military power. Such an appeal 
was accordingly made in the proper quarter, and we will proceed 
to state its character, progress and results. 

THE EXPEUITION TO CH.VMBERSBURG. 

On Friday, the 14th of October, (after the discharge of Sheriff 
Furman and his companions,) Mr. Buckalew and Col. Freeze 
went over from Harrisburg to Chambersburg to see Gen. Couch 
and induce him to discharge the Fort MifHin prisoners. The 
General had his headquarters at Chambersburg, and the applica- 
tion to him was recommended by Gov. Curtin as more convenient 
and hopeful than would be one addressed to the War Department 
at Washington. An interview with Gen. Couch was promptly 
had and the arrests were fully discussed, together with the circum- 
stances of hardship attendant and consequent upon them. The 
unquestioned fact that there had never been any actual resistance 
to any officer of the Government in this county, was called to 
the General's attention ; as were the further facts, that the pris 
oners had never been drafted and were not subject to military 
jurisdiction, and that they had been in confinement a month 
and a halfvnthout trial or notice of charges against them. He 
was reminded also, that he had already ascertained that the sev- 
eral reports concerning the alleged 'insurrection' (upon which 
the occupation of this county by troops had been ordered and the 
arrests made) wei'e either wholly groundless or greatly exaggera- 
ted, and that no public necessity could require further proceedings 
for the purpose of either precaution or punishment. Gen. Couch's 
reply was scattered and evasive, though made at sufficient length. 
Perhaps the word "shuffling" would describe it more neai-ly than 
any other word in the language. It was not belligerent or uncivil 
nor was it specific and responsive to the application made to him. 
It indicated incertitude of mind and a deficient will, a temper not 
unamiable nor yet pronounced and confident, but above all an ap- 
prehension, or a fear of responsibility to be incurred. The fate 
of M'Clellan (under whom he had held command) was before his 
eyes — a commander who for failing to do political work and con- 






HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 437 

duct a war of spoliation hail been degraded — and he hesitated 
between the demands of humanity and justice on the one hand 
and the promptings of fear and selfish interest on the other. He 
recited his journey to Columbia county at the inception of the oc- 
cupation, touched upon his visit to Fort MitHin, expressed his sym- 
]);ilhy with the prisoners and particularly the old men among 
them, nuide sundry excuses for delay in the examination of their 
cases, thought many of them might turn out to be innocent or 
very little to blame, could not say just when they could be tried 
but would expedite proceedings as much as possible. He said 
he liad ordered the release of two or three of the men who were 
reported to be sick: — At this point of the discourse Col. Freeze 
s'giiiricantly and severc-ly remarked, "General, one of those men, 
(Mr. Koberts,) has been discharged by a higher authority than 
yours — he is dead!" There followed an awkward pause, but con- 
versation was presently resumed. The General's attention was 
called to the act of Congress which expressly required that where 
persons charged with resisting a draft were arrested by the mili- 
tary \).)\\(iY they should be forthwith delivered to the cioil author- 
ities for trial, and it was urged upon him that he could end all 
difficulty and embarrassment, so far as he was concerned, by com- 
plying with the law, while he would extend to the prisoners a le- 
• ••al right to which they were clearly entitled. To this he made 
no direct answer, but said he would write to Washington for in- 
struct. ons. He was then requested to allow the prisoners (or such 
of them as he would not discharge) to give bail for their appear- 
ance before a Military Connnission for trial, whenever the Judge 
.\(lvocate should be prepared to proceed against them, so that in 
the meantime they might return home, escape the hardships and 
danger to health inseparable from confinement, and.be enabled to 
prepare their defense ; in other words, to allow to them one of 
the ordinary privileges extended by law to persons accused of 
criminal offences before the courts of justice ; and he was told 
that a.jy amount of bail which he miglit require would be promptly 
furnished. The General thought he could not take bail, and turn- 
ing to Mr. Buckalew said : "I ask you as a lawyer whether a bail 
bond for the appearance of the prisoners would be good for any- 
thing and could be enforced?" To this direct question Mr. Buck- 
alew answered, that i/' the proceeding of arrest and trial of our 



438 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

citizens by Military Commission was lawful, such bail-bond would 
be good, for it would be taken to enforce a legal obligation; ^y'the 
military power had jurisdiction of the cases, a contract of bail in 
aid of that jurisdiction would bind the parties and could be en- 
forced, but if the proposed trials were unlawful a bond for the 
appearance of the accused would be worthless. Gen. Couch said 
he thought so too — a bond would be good for nothing — and he 
must hold on to his prisoners in order to secure their appearance 
for trial. What an acknowledgment was this of usurpation and 
outrage ! That brute force, naked power, acting in contempt of all 
law, could alone hold these men in prison or drag them before 
strange tribunals ! It was an unblushing announcement of the 
rule of the strong hand and of despotic will, as a substitute 
for all those fundamental and statute laws which can aloue bind 
the rightful obedience of the citizen. 

At the instance of Col. Freeze, however, the cases of two of 
the prisoners were acted upon favorably by Gen. Couch. They 
were shown by certificates to be sick and suffering from confine- 
ment and an order was made for their discharge upon parole to 
appear and answer when called for. The interview closed with 
an appointment for another at a later hour of the same day. 

That second interview was had, but without any definite result. 
During the latter part of it Col. Alex. K. McClure was present 
and interposed some remarks in favor of the prisoners or of their 
discharge. Though a republican leader he was sagacious enough 
to see that arbitrary arrests and political persecution could not, in 
the long run, be advantageous to his party, and he scorned the 
short-sighted, petty and vindictive policy which inspired and dic- 
tated the outrage upon our people. 

The following morning, October 15th, a final interview was had 
with General Couch and the application for discharge of prisoners 
again urged. He was still fidgety, and chatty, but undetermined, 
and it become necessary at last to bring matters to a point and 
conclude the negotiation. Mr. Buckalew therefore said to him, 
"General, we came to you to get relief for our neighbors, supjjos- 
ing you had full power over them and would be disposed to act 
kindly. Even their enemies might now agree to their discharge 
as the election is over. If you can act, say so ; if you cannot, we 
will go at once to Gen. Cameron and apply through him to the 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA CO UN 7 Y. 439 

Secretary of War and the President for relief, I believe he will 
aid us and we cannot go home until this question is settled." The 
true ground was at last reached. Couch knew that Gen. Cameron 
was hostile to him and had denounced him, and he had a whole- 
some terror of Stanton. He therefore came to a quick conclusion 
and answered with energy, "Don't go to anybody ; I will do 
whatever I can for your men ; I'm sorry there has been so much 
delay, and I will send an officer at once to inquire into their cases. 
As soon as he can report to me I will discharge all of them but a 
few to be held for trial." He proceeded to say that he would 
immediately call in the officer to be detailed for the investigation 
and give him his directions. And thereupon '"the General Com- 
manding the Department of the Susquehanna'' rang his bell, or- 
dered to his presence one of his officers, (we believe a Col Mere- 
dith) and informed him that beside the written order which would 
be furnished him he would explain to him the object of his ap- 
pointment. He was to })roceed forthwith to Harrisburg and in 
connection with Captain Wessels (the Judge Advocate) examine 
the papers in the Columbia county cases and report to him (Couch) 
the names of the principal ofFendeis to be held for trial, in order 
that the rest might be discharged. The report was to be made as 
quickly as possible To a question put to the General as to the 
number to be held for trial, he replied, "tive, seven, nine, half a 
dozen — about that." The officer retired to prepare for his mission 
and soon afterwards, farewell civilities having been exchanged 
between the General and his visitors, the latter turned their faces 
towards home. 

DISCHARGES MADE. 

The result of the expedition to "Head Quarters" already de- 
scribed, is shown by the following letter from Gen. Couch which 
we copy from the Columbia Democrat of April 1st, 1865: 
General Couch to Senator Buckalevo. 
Head Quarters, Dep't. of the Susquehanna;) 
Chambersburg, Pa., October 18, 1864. j 

Mr. Senator Buckalew, 

Bloomsburg, Pa.: 
Dear Sir: I beg to inform you that the Board of officers 
which were ordered, as you were notified, to examine and see how 
many of the Columbia county prisoners could be safely released, 



440 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

have recommended (21) twenty-one to be set at liberty under 
certain conditions. The nature of the evidence is such that no 
more can be safely released at present. 

I am, Sir, very Respectfully, 

D. N. COUCH, Maj. General. 

The number 21, above mentioned, included five persons previ- 
ously discharged on account of sickness, to- wit : John Yorks, 
William E. Roberts (who died before his discharge reached him), 
Joseph Coleman, Rohr M'Henry, and Elias M'Henry. The num- 
ber of new cases of discharge was therefore just sixteen. De- 
ducting twetity-one, the total number of discharges from forty- 
four, the original number of prisoners, would leave more than 
half still in confinement ; so that Gen. Couch's "five, seven, nine, 
half a dozen — about that," to be held for trial, had risen in num- 
ber to twenty-three. This computation does not include Mr. 
Rutan who was arrested after the olhers. The general declared 
that "the nature of the evidence," rendered it unsafe to release 
more. Of course Capt. Francis Wessels, Judge Advocate and 
manager of the prosecutions, was opposed to discharges. He 
showed very pertinacious and sometimes unscrupulous hostility to 
the prisoners upon the trials subsequently had, and he was actu- 
ated by strong motives to oppose their release and to press for 
their conviction. His service as Judge Advocate was much more 
safe and more lucrative than service in the field, and he had rea- 
son to expect promotion in rank and increased pay as the result 
of a successful campaign against the citizen voters of Columbia 
county. By activity and zeal followed by success he expected to 
win re])utation, and he knew that by exhibiting those qualities 
against the accused he would recommend himself to a political 
party that had power to reward him, and would not be critical 
upon any course of conduct which he might pursue in their service. 
He reported therefore to General Couch that it would be unsafe 
to discharge so many prisonei's as proposed, and his superior gave 
way before his objection. The smaller man controlled the greater 
one, and nearly twenty victims suffered in consequence. 

Wessels had then left in his hands twenty-four prisoners for 
persecution at pleasure. A Military Commission, '-organized to 
convict," was to be furnished him as an instrument for his work, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 441 

he was authorized to employ agents and runners to prepare 
evidence, a stenogra}»her to relieve him of labor and trouble, and 
had subject to his call any military assistance he might require. 
Nor were "the sinews of war" wanting for his campaign. Any 
amount of money for his purpose could be drawn from army 
apj)ropi-iatious, and that too without responsibility to public 
o])inion for the extent or the character of the outlay incurred. 
The draina of the trials Avas about to open, and all due prepara- 
tion had been made. Power, confident and insolent, smiled upon 
tiie suffering and terror of the weak and defenceless who were to 
be oitenly smitten and crushed. The performance was to open ; 
Judge Advocate, informer and loyal witness were all ready for 
their j)arts; the ])ublic expectant ; nothing remained but to organ- 
ize the Mock Court and begin ! 



442 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



THE TRIALS. 

TiiK Military CojiMissiON ; — On the 17th of October, 1864, a 
Mock Court (called 'a Military Coinniission') was organized at 
Harrisburg for the trial of the prisoners. It was com})osed of 
three Army officers, to-wit: Colonel CMiarles N. Provost, Colonel 
J. M. Frink and Captain Lee, with Captain Francis Wessels as 
Judge Advocate. It convened under orders of 'the General Com- 
manding the Department of the Sns(piehanna,' that is without 
any authority at all excej)t one wholly usurped and lawless. The 
members went through the form of taking an oath, and business 
began. 

The first case called for trial was that of John Rantz (which 
was supposed to be the best or strongest one for the prosecution) 
and the charges and sjtecifications against him were })roduced. 
They were, in substance, that he had confederated with others to 
resist the draft (what draft was not mentioned) and had formed 
or united with a secret society conuuonly known and called the 
"Knights of the Golden Circle," the object of which was to resist 
the execution of the draft, and that he had publicly expressed 
disloyal sentiments and opinions with the object of defeating and 
weakening the power of the Government in its efforts to suppress 
the rebellion. In brief, he was charged to be a conspiratoi-, an 
organizer or member of an unlawful secret association, and a man 
of disloyal speech. 

For the defendant, John G. Freeze, Hamilton Alricks and A. 
J. Herr, Esqs., appeared as counsel, the two latter being members 
of the Harrisburg Bar, and Mr. Herr District Attorney for Dau- 
phin county. 

Plk.v OF John Rantz TO the Jurisuiction : — Mi-. Alricks on 
tlie part of the defence promptly tiled an elaborate written plea 
to the jurisdiction of the Commission. It set forth that by most 
clear and imi>erative provisions of the Constitution of the United 
States and of the Constitution of Pennsylvania the defendant was 
entitled to a trial by jury, inasmuch as he was a citizen and not 



HI^STOJRY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 443 

I'lniiloycd hi the military or nuval service ; recited the provisions 
of several acts of Congress, and particularly the habeas corpus 
and enrollment acts of 3rd March, 1863, as conclusive that the 
civil courts alone had jurisdiction in the case, and referred to 
sundry legal authorities as confirmatory of the position taken. 
The plea concluded as follows: "The defendant resi)ectfully sub- 
mits that he is not triable by this Commission, not being within 
the jurisdiction thereof, or of any other military tribunal 
whatever." 

This was ver}' good law — sound, settled, evident and un- 
answer,al)le ; but it was thrown away upon a tribunal which 
knew little about law (or justice either) and cared still less. The 
plea was overruled and the defendant required to plead to the 
charges directly ; whereupon to each charge and sj)ecification he 
plead "not guiliy," and the trial proceeded. That plea to the 
jurisdiction however, which was repeated (though in brief form) 
in the subsequent cases, stands ui)on record as an enduring i)ro- 
test against des[>otic power, and proves that there was no volun- 
tary acquiesence by our people in the jurisdiction assumed over 
them. A similar plea to the jurisdiction of a Military Commis- 
sion, made in the Milligan case in Indiana, was subsequently sus- 
tained by the Supreme Court of the Ignited States in a judgment 
which will remain one of the beacons of liberty in future times. 
The Kantz plea was unanimously and promptly overruled by the 
Military Commission at Hanisburg: precisely the same )>lea, in 
another case, was unanimously and deliberately sustained by the 
Supreme Court of the United States at Washington. Such is the 
differeiu^e between a mock court and a real one ; the latter en- 
forces the laws and is competent to its work, will almost always 
be found learned, patient, impartial and just, while the former 
will violate laws and exhibit ignorance, impatience, passion and 
injustice throughout its proceedings and in its judgments. 

Conviction ok R.*ntz. — The trial of John Rantz proceeded for 
several days and was concluded on the 24th of October. He was 
found guilt ij <iud was sentenced to pay a fine of one thousand 
dollars and to tinder go an imprisonment in Fort Miffiin for 
the term of two years. The witnesses examined against him 
were Nathan J. Hess, Adam Lutz, Richard Stiles, and Edward 
M'Henry. For the defence the witnesses were, Abraham Young, 



444 IIIHTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Samuel Rhone, Jolni O. Dildinc, Duvid Savage, Andrew Lau- 
))ach, Nicholas Kindt, Martin A. Annnernian, E. J. McHenry, 
and Wni. Applenian. Tiie evidence was closed on tlie 20th ; on 
the 21st, Mr. Ilerr submitted, on behalf of the prisoner, a written 
aioiunent, reviewing the whole case, and on the 24th, the reply 
of the Judge Advocate to the defence (also in writing) was put 
in. The whole of the evidence as it was carefully taken down at 
the trial will be made the subject of future examination and 
comment. 

Otiiku Convictions: — The trial and conviction of Samuel 
Kline followed imediately after the case of Rantz. lie was sen- 
tenced to two years imprisonment in Fort MifHin. William Ap- 
pleman was next tried. He also was convicted and sentenced to 
suffer imprisotmient for one year in Fort MifHin or to pay a fine 
of five hundred dollars. He chose the alternative of paying the 
fine and after some delay succeeded in borrowing money for 
the purpose. He paid the fine and was discharged from impris- 
onment November 22nd 18()t. John Lemons, Josej)h Vansickle, 
Valentine Fell and Ijeiijainin Colley were also tried successively, 
convicted and sentenced to imprisonment in Fort MifHin. 

Conviction followed trial with a certainty and regularity which 
were refreshing to the radical observer and furnished tlie un- 
thinking and ill-informed an apjiarent justification, or at all 
events an excuse, for the arrests and for the military occupation 
of our county. 

The sentences of several of the prisoners whose convictions 
were mentioned were as follows: Benjamin Colley, one year, 
at labor ; Joseph Vansickle tlie same ; Valentine Fell and John 
Lemons each six months, also with labor,(Col. Dem. Feb. 4, 18G5,) 
Mr. Fell's trial was concluded January 14, 1865, and was, we be- 
lieve, the last of these already referred to. 

We have said that Wessels, the Judge Advocate, rejoiced 
greatly over his success in those early trials and looked forward 
with confidence to his coming reward. But one of the remaining 
cases gave him some concern and as proceedings upon it progress- 
ed, no little trouble. It was that of Daniel MTIenry, Treasurer 
of Columbia county, whose conviction was greatly desired but 
who showed from the outset an unmistakable disposition and in- 



ni,STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 445 

tention to make vigorous fight and to overcome if possible the 
enormous rlifticulties wliich stood in the way of a full, fair and 
triumiihant defense. lie was not allowed to go home and pre- 
pare for trial, nor was there much to encourage continued resist- 
ance in the circumstances which surrounded him. His counsel 
even (who were very intelligent gentlemen^) advised him that a 
defense would be useless, as in their opinion, the commission 
would convict without much regard to any evidence which might 
be produced, and the Judge Advocate whose control ovi r the re- 
sult was almost absolute, was evidently hostile and anxious to 
convict him. Nevertheless our friend from Stillwater remained 
unmoved and undiscouraged in the position he had taken, and 
we say advisedly that the peoi)le of this county generally, as well 
as his fellow prisoners were under deep obligations to him for his 
exhibition of courage, fortitude, energy and sound judgment at 
that time. Thereliy he secured their vindication as well as his 
own — the turning back of the tide of radical defamation which 
theretofore had moved on unchecked, and the regular collection 
of evidence for a righteous judgment by histoiy upon the subject 
of this military occupation. 

His friends collected his witnesses with the advantage of the 
light afforded by the previous trials, and (after vexatious and 
expensive delays inter)>osed by the prosecution) his case was fully 
heard and an honorable judgment of acquittal was pronounced. 
But pending the consideration of his case, the case of Stott E. 
CoUey was called for trial (Nov. 21, 1864,) and a large part of his 
witnesses were examined in Mr. Colley's defense, thus narrowing 
the field of investigation when his own case was proceeded with 
on the 14th of December. The evidence taken in the two cases 
must therefore be con-<idered together in order that we may pos- 
sess ourselves of complete information when we come to examine 
the charges or articles of accusation against the prisoners. Those 
charges were very nearly the same in all the cases tried, but oidy 
in the cases of Mr. Colley and Mr. M' Henry was full defence 
made and records in all respects satisfactorily made up. 

On the Colley tiial the veracity of Edward M'Henry (the prin- 
ci})al Government witness) was successfully assailed and his credit 
broken. The character and j)urpose8 of the CluV) meetings of 
1^6;^ were also shown to have been entirely lawful and innocent 



446 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 

and tlie importimt f;urt tli:i( the last one of them had been held 
njore tlian a year before tlie occupation, was put beyond dispute. 
In that trial too, and still more fully in the trial of Mr. M'Henry, 
the Ivantz meetin<;- ol" August 14th, 18(51 was explained and re- 
lieved from most of the imputations cast upon it by the prosecu- 
tion, whili' the fact that it hid been held after the troops came to 
the eountii and therefori' could not have caused their being sent 
here, was phiced in bold relief. This evidence nu>t and exploded 
all the general t'harges upon which the prior convictions had ta- 
ken place. Absolutely ni)thing was left of all the nuitters of gen- 
eral accusation against the prisoiu'rs, aiul the occupation stood ut- 
tei-ly condemned before its own extraordinary and partial tribunal 
— the Military Commission — and in the presence of all the peo})le. 
By the unanimous acquital of Mr. Oolley and Mr. INT'IIenry slan- 
diM- was silenced and the ]»olitical raid upon Columbia count}'^ 
placed forever beyond justiiication or excuse. 

It is true that particular charges of disloyal discourse were 
made against the prisoners, or some of them, in addition to the 
general matters of accusation. So far as these related to Mr. Col- 
ley and Mr. M'llenry their futility and injustice will appear 
when we come to recite the evidence in their cases. But 
we will here remark concerning these charges against lie 
prisoners generally, that they were cpiite secondary or subordi- 
nate to the main ones before mentioned, that they were supported 
by very doubtful or tainted testimony in nu)st cases, an<i that they 
were in their very nature vague, uncertain or suspicious. Besides, 
the discourses which the prosecution attempted to prove uruler 
this head of accusation were almost invariably mere improprieties 
of speech and tlu'ir utterance could not constitute a criminal of- 
fence Tn fact, the alleged disloyal renuvrks of some of the pris- 
om-rs were obviously introduced upon their trials rather as con- 
firmatory of the general charges of criminal conduct made against 
thciii, and to color their cases with odiiun, than as distinct and 
substantive oifences. 

Before proceeding to sum up the cases of Stott E. Colley and 
Daniel M'Henry with a detail of the particulars which gave them 
peculiar interest, we shall lay a solid foundation for our renuirks 
by reciting the main parts of the testimony both for the prosecu- 
tion aiul the defence. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 447 

Edward M'Uknuy as a witnkss :— This ])L'rsoii was u iion-re- 
portiiig drafted man and was iincjuestionably guilty of a(;tive 
op|)Usiti()ii to tlie enforceiiient of the coiiscri})ti()ii hiws, and that 
both by sj>eech and eonduet. He was arrested on tlie 19th of 
September 1HG4 in a state of intoxication and placed in the jail 
at liloomsburg. There he was visited by two of the leading 
radicals of tlie town. lie was taken on to Harrisburg and held 
in confinement there until the 22d of October, when he was re- 
leased upon condition that he would become a government wit- 
ness. The negotiation with him was finally concludcid by Col. 
Albright, and he was suddenly transformed from a culprit to a 
patriot, was put on governmetit pay, and became the main sup- 
port and instrument of the jjrosecution, in all the trials which 
subsecpiently took j)lace. Upon his testimony, mainly, all tlie 
earlier convictions were had, and therefore an examination of 
that testimony, of the contradictions to which it was subjected 
and of his general character and credibility, become important in 
our investigation. 

In till' Daniel M'llenry trial, on the 1 4th of December, he testi- 
fied as follows .• 

JMii-ard M' Jlenri/ turorn: — "I am a carpenter and reside in 
IJenton township, Columbia county ; know Daniel M'Henry ; I was 
at Rantz's barn about the 14th of August last. The meeting was 
to resist the soldiers at liloomsburg from taking the drafted men. 
The meeting was gathered when I got there at 11 o'clock ; I sup- 
pcjse 100 to 125 there. There were some speeches made, Samuel 
Kline made the first one: He advised them to form into squads 
or companies to I'esist the soldiers ; nothing else said. Daniel M'- 
llenry was the next speaker, I understood him to say ; 'these 
were critical times ; he thought they were unanimous in 
resisting the draft, the people were unanimous in resisting the 
draft and the soldiers.' That is all I recollect of his saying that 
day; I gave them a little speech ; I spoke in favor of resisting 
the soldiers ; I told them as the old men were encouraging it, and 
as we were drafted and had not reported, we could do no better 
than resist ; I said more but don't recollect. I did not hear any 
other spi'ech. Daniel M'Henry 8|)oke a couple or three minutes ; 
the spc, iking was about 2 or 3 o'clock in the afternoon. A j)or- 



448 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

tion of the meeting was armed ; I suppose about one lialf Avere. 
The meeting formed into squads — ahnost all. There were five 
squads, Samuel Kline was Captain of one squad, Jacob Shultz of 
another, a young man from near Orangeville of another, Elias 
Kline another. I was the other. The squads elected their Captains. 
These squads did not afterwards resist the soldiers that I know of ; 
from what I understood the soldiers were too strong. Part of the 
squads went to the mountain to keep out of the way. I heard the 
story that the soldiers were coming to burn and destroy property. 
Some believed it and some did not. We resisted the soldiers to 
prevent the drafted men from being taken. 

I attended so-called 'secret meetings'; I was a member, I joined 
in the spring of 1863 in Jackson township, near the Union church. 
We were required to take an oath, which was, 'to suppoit the 
Constitution of the United States and resist the conscription act.' 
William E. Roberts administeied the oath to me. It was not a 
secret meeting at Ezekiel Cole's ; I think Col. Tate and Daniel 
MTIenry made speeches there ; I heard him (D. M'Henry) say, 
that they ought not to furnish a man or a dollar towards the war; 
I don't know whether he was on the stand or not ; I do not re- 
collect that he said anything about the draft in his speech. Do 
not recollect of seeing Daniel M' Henry at any of these secret 
meetings ; I live several miles from him ; I never attended any 
secret meetings in his neighborhood. 

Cross-examined: Can't say I was arrested for same offence as 
that charged on defendant. I was a drafted man and did not re- 
port; I can't say who arrested me or where I was arrested. The 
first I knew I was in the county jail, and I was drunk ; I was in 
confinement from the 19th of September till the 22d of October ; I 
got my liberty. I do not know that any drafted men but myself 
were set at liberty. Col. Albright told me if I would make a clean 
breast of the difficulties up Fishingcreek, as far as I knew, I could 
have ray liberty. I was not drunk at Rantz's. I don't remember 
of having said at Rantz's that we would trim apple trees and 
would turn the ditches. I did not understand that the meeting at 
Rantz's was occasioned by fear of the Harvey ville boys. Absalom 
M'Henry was at Rantz's, I heard Daniel M'Henry's speech dis- 
tinctly, I was examined in these Columbia county piisoner cases. 
A question submitted here by counsel for Defendant, but object- 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 449 

ed to] I do not recollect that T threatened that I would convict 
Daniel ^M'Henry ; I do not recollect that I said in the cars coining 
to Ilarrishurg I knew what to say and would say. it. Daniel M'- 
Ilenry had no more to do with the meeting at Rantz's than Iliad, 
f A question by Mr. Herr for defence, objected to and overruled.] 
I told men we were drafted, had not reported and the best thing 
we could do Avas to resist. The next day Valentine Fell asked 
nie to go up with him to Sugarloaf to get people to turn out and 
I went with him. 

Re-examined by Prosecution : — The secret meetings were call- 
ed "Kniglits of the Golden Circle," I do not know when I joined: 
I do not know any name used when I was initiated. 

lie-cross Examined; — Sometimes the meetings were called 
"Knights of the Golden Circle'' by way of reproach and sometimes 
not. 

The foregoing testimony of Ed. McIIenry, which is exact and 
complete as given by him, may be taken as his revised and final 
statement of fact. But was he a credible witness? Let the fol- 
lowing statement made by an honorable gentleman, in the Daniel 
McIIenry trial, answer: 

Jesse Jlartman sinorn: — '•! reside in Sugarloaf township, and 
am a farmer. I know Edward McHenry. I had a conversation 
with him in Benton and also in Harrisburg. He told me in Ben- 
ton : "if the conscripts would stick to him till he got them to- 
gether, he would soon drive the hell-hounds (the soldiers) out of 
the county." I met him in H;xrrisburg at Park House, the time 
of Colley's suit; I said, 'Ed. McIIenry you have altered your 
opinion since I sfioke to you at Benton.' He said '■'■the;/ had 
caught him, and handcuffed him,, and he coxdd do no better 
than swaar as he did, and that the innocent at such times must 
sK.ff'er irith the f/ifllti/.'' 

But Ave go furtlur : we will cite the strong testimony upon his 
cliaractcr which was given on the Colley trial. 

Jacob Welliver, farmer of Benton, testified that lie had known 
Ed. McHenry twenty years, and that his reputation for truth and 
veracity was bad. He would not believe him upon oath where 
\w was particularly interested. 



450 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Williayn Ash, n farmer of same neigliborhood, testified tliat 
he knew Ed. McHenry and that his reputation for truth was not 
very good. 

William Brink, of Jackson township, testifiied : "I know Ed. 
McHenry, his reputation is pretty bad. I would not believe him 
on oath." 

Hiram Ash, testified : "McHenry's reputation for truth is not 
good, I do not think that I would believe him on oath. I would 
not. 

Cross Examined: "I think it pretty hard for him to tell the 
truth. He is a man not of his word. I do not know of his hav- 
ing given evid^^nce : I have known him otherwise to speak false." 

John Savage, a farmer of Jackson township, another witness, 
said he knew Ed. McHenry and his reputation for truth was not 
good. 

Martin A. Amm,erman, of Fishingcreek said he lived a dis- 
tance from Ed. McHenry who was considered a rowdy. It was 
a hard question to say whether he would believe him on oath. 

Moses Yocum, farmer, of Benton, testified : "I know Ed. Mc- 
Henry, his reputation for truth is poor. I think 1 would not 
believe him." 

Cross Examined: "Would not believe him in anything he 
had an interest in ; he would not tell the truth. He has been 
drinking and cutting up since a boy. I have heard him swear he 
would do so and so, and then do the reverse." 

Hon. Iram Derr : ''Ed. Mc Henry's character is not good ; so 
the people say." 

Samuel Jihone, JEsq., of Benton, said : Ed. McHenry 's reputa- 
tion is not very good.'' 

John O. Dildine, of Benton, said : McHenry's reputation is 
not good ; not well enough acquainted to say whether I would 
believe him on oath," 

These citations of testimony will answer, we suppose, on the 
question of character, especially in view of the fact that not one 
witness was called on behalf of the prosecution to sustain Ed. 
McHenry against this strong impeachment. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 451 

The Witness Richard Stiles: — This person, who may be rank- 
ed in position if not in importance next after Ed. M'Henry, was a 
swift and willing witness for the prosecution, and though his rev- 
elations of fact were not very important nor at all reliable in 
their details, they were well intended to secure the party objects 
of the prosecution. 

Upon the Rantz trial, in October, Stiles testified that he heard 
of the Rantz meeting on the 14th of August, but was not there ; 
that he attended a meeting at the Ash's School House about the 
last of March 1864, at which twenty to twenty-five men were 
present ; he believed the school directors called the meeting to 
know whether the people would be willing to be taxed to raise a 
bounty for volunteers. Some were in favor of the proposition 
and some were not. "Rantz was opposed ; advised the people to 
keep their money to buy arms to fight at home. John R. Davis 
said, 'John, we can't do it, we are too weak.' Rantz said he 
thought not ; he had been to Bloomsburg that day ; just came 
from Bloomsburg. He said lawyer freeze had told him, Illinois 
was about seceding and the State of New York was about to go 
out of the Union. Rantz said. Abolition leaders had seven pock- 
ets and never were satisfied till they got them all full of money. 
Meeting adjourned to meet again without doing anything." The 
witness jiroceeded to state a conversation he had with Elias 
M'Henry on 14th of August, and another which he had with 
Rantz in 1862, in which the latter said his son Jonas was not of 
age to be enrolled, and made declarations similar to that above 
mentioned about fighting at home. He (the witness) "went on 
and left him talking." 

Stiles then detailr-d a conversation he had with William Apple- 
man in the spring of 1863, in regard to secret meetings, as fol- 
lows: — "I saitl to him 'I heard you had a secret meeting at Ash's 
School House.' I told him I understood they were sworn to re- 
sist the draft ; I understood liim to say they were not sworn at 
all ; he said they did take upon themselves an obligation to sup- 
port the constitution of the United States and of the State of 
Pennsylvania. I told him I had been straightly informed the ob- 
ject was to resist the draft, and if so, they would all be arrested 
and put into prison ; and he replied, 'there would not be prisons 
enough to hold us.' My sister, Mj-s. Peter Appleman, informed 



452 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

nie of the object of the meeting ; also Daniel Karns, M'ho said he 
had been in, but not till it was finished, unless he Avould be one of 
them."' In answer to questiots by the Commission witness to!d 
some particulars he had heard about the Rantz meeting of the 
I4th of August, and said he had seen men armed going to and 
returning from it. 

'■'■ Gross-examined: The meeting I speak of [concerning boun- 
ties] at Ash's School House was the first meeting. They adjourn- 
ed to meet again without coming to a conclusion ; I think Sam- 
uel Rhone was chairman ; I think there was a vote taken ; I 
think the majority tliat night was in favor of raising the money. 
Rantz did not vote at all ; voting was by raising the right hand ; 
I kept a sharp look out ; there was but one more meeting ; then 
a committee avus appointed to canvass the sub-districts ; John J. 
Stiles, Thomas Davis, William Appleman, John R. Keeler and 
others ; I do not remember if Lemon's hauling was on that day or 
not ; Rantz did not oppose my nomination for Sheriff ; I consider 
Rantz a man that talks considerable." 

Examintd hy the Commission: "I can't state who voted in 
the minority at the meeting to raise bounties. There was a neg- 
ative vote taken. I think Rantz voted against it, and spoke right 
out against it." 

Reaiauivs — 1. Stiles said, on direct examination, "the meeting 
[to rais'^ bounties] adjourned without domg aiiythin^^ Then, 

1 cross-examination, "they adjourned to meet again without 
coming to a conclusion." But pressed by farther questions he 
finally gave to himself a flat contradiction by saying : "I think 
there was a vote taken ; I think the majority that night was in 
favor of raising the money.'' 

2. Speaking of the same meeting he said, on cross-examination 
"iJant'^ did not vote at all ; voting was by raising the right hand; 

1 kept a sharp look out.' But again he flatly contradicted him- 
self in saying, in answer to a question by the Commission, "I 
think Rantz voted against it and spoke right out against it." 

'\ Stiles' narrative of what was said by Rantz at the meeting 
mn^t be greatly exaggerated, if not a gross fabrication. Samuel 



IIISTOBY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 4o3 

IMione, P^sq., wlio \v:is l*iesident of the meeting, testiiiod subse 
queiitly, that he "did not hear Rantz make any remarks ; made uo 
public speecli ; litard no remarks from Ka-itz ;" and no Avitness 
was called to corroboraie Sules. JJesiiles, Esq. Rhone testified 
fwrt^ier, that within a week after the meeting Rautz told him 
'we must help the boys, the tax will be high but we must try and 
pay it ;" and William Appleman testified, "1 took subscription 
for bounties, John Rantz subscribed $103.03 for himself, and 
S2o.00 for another man. These were voluntary subscriptions in 
addition to the tax." 

4. Stiles says that in his conversation with William A])ple- 
maii concerning the secret (or Club) meetings, he understood him 
to deny that the members were sworn at all. But immediately 
afterwards he admitsthat Applemau told him they took an obliga- 
tion to support the constitution of the United States and the con- 
stitution of Pennsylvania, which was in fact the very oath of ini- 
tiation as shown by abundant testimony upon the several trials. 

On the 22nd of November 18()4, Stiles was examined as a 
witness against Stott E. Colley and testified to declarations made 
by the latter a year before, and also to an attempt of intimidation 
directed against himself by some person w holly unknown. We 
give his testimony as it wa '. delivered. 

'■'Richard iStiles, sicorn : — I reside in Benton township : a far- 
mer. I know Stott E. Colley, for fifteen years or more. I was 
an enrolling officer for the first nine month's drafted men ; also 
revised third enrollment after second enrollment. 

I received a letter about the 1st of last May, [^Evidence of the 
contents of the letter objected to by the Defense but admitted by 
the Commission.'] Found a letter nailed in a coffin and the lid 
turned down. Letter was left as a solemn warning — charged me 
with dragging my friends and neighbors to a field of slaughter in 
defence of an inferior race of beings — gave me solemn warning. 

[Letter jn-oduced.] At one time at in Benton township 

had a conversation with the accused. It was about one year ago, 
after the election of 1863. He contended if tliere had been a 
fair election Woodward would have been Governor. It was through 



454 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

fraud Curt in was elected. Tlio Douiocrats would try the ballot- 
box once more ; if they had not fair play there would be blood 
spilt. 

Cross-examined: — Prisoner never threatened or intimidated me; 
I do not know who wrote the letter ])roduced. I think tlie con- 
versation with him was in November 1868, about one month after 
election." 

TiiK WiTNKss Nathan J. IIkss — Of all the witnesses examined 
for the prosecution whose testimony was relevant and important 
this one perhaps is least liable to criticism or censure. It is true 
that we can detect a few inaccurate statements made by him, and 
we are at liberty to suppose that his intelligence was not of a high 
order, but he does not seem to have been actuated by any mali- 
cious or br^se motive or to have been misled by unworthy passions. 
He was examined as a witness in all the trials of which we have 
records before us — those of Rantz, Colley, and M'llenry — and 
mainly in regard to the Rantz meeting of August 14th 18()4. 
When we come to treat of that meeting as a distinct subject of 
iiwfcstigation, the testimony of Hess will become most valuable, 
and will be freely used. It will exhibit (indirectly at least) the 
cause of that meeting as alleged in defence upon the trials, and 
also the circumstances under which it assembled. Unfortunately 
the witness was not present at the meeting in the afternoon. He 
says, he went to it "about 10 o'clock and staid until 12. The 
meeting had adjourned to go to dinner when I left; I did not 
return after dinner." We have not therefore, the advantage of 
his testimony as a check upon other statements of what took 
place and was said in the afternoon, but as far as it goes it has 
its value and will be made available for our purpose of ascertain- 
ing and exposing the whole truth in regard to the Rantz meeting. 

In the Colley trial, Hess testified to a remark by the defendant 
about a future fair election and spilling of blood if it should not 
be had, almost identical in terms with that testified to by Richard 
Stiles upon which we have already commented. 

In the Rantz trial Hess was examined as to his knowledge of a 
secret meeting at the house of Peter Case, but nothing important 
was elicited. He was not, therefore, examined upon that point 
in the subsequent cases. We only refer to his testimony concern- 



* 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 4o5 

ing tliat meeting for the purpose of saying that the witness was 
in error regarding its date. He fixed it, "about a year ago,'' 
which would be in October 1803, whereas it was in fact held many 
months before that date, as was fully shown by other testimony. 
Heas says there were no speeches made at the Case meeting ; that 
he was not initiated as a member of the club or association, and 
that he did not know its object. He had heard the meetings 
called "Knights of the Golden Circle,'' (but does not say when, or 
by vihofn ; "don't know if that was the name or not." 

Hess had served in the war but returned home 5th of August 
1864. Afterwards and at the time of the trials he was, as he 
says, in no regular employment. His invited presence at the 
meetings above mentioned is, in itself, some evidence that they 
were innocent in character. It is believed he was induced lo be- 
come a government witness in order to save his father from a 
threatened arrest. Every effort and influence possible were used 
in the days of the occupation to make up evidence against our 
citizens. It was sought with avidity and used without scruple. 
It was invited from all quarters and sometimes extorted or sub- 
sidized. Fear, interest, family affection and party passion were 
each appealed to for the false, perverted or irrevelant testimony 
which should consign innocent men to dungeons and gloss over 
and conceal the iniquity of their arrest and punishment That 
Nathan J. Hess did not swear more strongly and unfairly under 
the pressure of power, was due to his own scruples of honor or of 
conscience and not at all to any sense of justice or of moral obli- 
gation in those who employed him. 

The Witness Sii-as Karns : — Another government witness aji- 
pears upon the scene under circumstances of a very peculiar 
character and full of instruction. He came into view in the Mc- 
Henry case for the first time, and fresh from the manipulation of 
the military authorities to whose jurisdiction he was amenable. 
For he was a non-reporting drafted man who had made terms 
with power and was transformed from a criminal to a witness, 
from being an object of vengeance to occupy a position of toler- 
ance and favor. The witness was Silas Karns (who was suppos- 
ed to have been concerned in the shooting affray in which Lieut. 
Robison was wounded) and he was produced under instructions 



456 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

and c'oiKlitioiis well calculated to si)ur his zeal in behalf of the 
prosecution. A world of nieaniug is contained in the following 
language obtained from his cross-examination in the Mcllenry 
trial : 

"7"a>M drafted in first three years draft — in fall of Vi'o2>. 
Capt. /Silver said, if I came here and testified I shotdd be re 
leased — and tell all I kneto about this case, and liutaiis case, 
and the shooting of Hobison." 

Of course Capt. Silver acted under instructions and was not pri- 
marily responsible for this arrangement and for the manipulation 
of the witness, who, being within tlie grasp of power, was com- 
pelled to make tlie best terms he could. The military authori- 
ties at Harrisburg and the i"adical politicians who instigated 
tliem, are the parties to be held responsible for all that was done 
in and about tho trials including the i)reparation of testimony. 
And what did they do in the case before us ? Discharged Karns 
from all responsibility and took him into favor upon the express 
comiition that he would tell them about the shooting alfair and 
swear against Daniel Mcllenry and ]\Ii-. Uutau. Tlu' latter ob- 
jects were of course the main ones. Tlie Itobison honiicide was 
quite a secondary matter — it involved only the question of a life 
lost by violence — but the ct)nviction of JMcIIenry and IJutau was 
an im{>ortant and darling object and to be accomplished by the 
use of all possible means. It was "a political necessity" that 
they should be convicted and }tunished, for they had been contu- 
macious to power and their ac(piittal would openly condemn 
their persecutors before the people. 

C)bserve the tenq)tation held out to the witness — exemption 
from army service; e.\em})tion from all punishment for desertion 
(or not reporting for a whole year ;) innnunity, for all possible 
participation in the homicide affray, and finally, enqiloyment and 
compens.ition as a witness. The road in one direction was made 
smooth and inviting, while an opposite course pointed to prison 
and bonds— to poverty, disgrace and i)unishment. 

Tt nmst ai)i>ear very remarkable to good unsophisticated peo- 
ple Avho supposed the military occupation had legitimate objects, 
that deserters were not pursued with vigor, and those concerned 
in shooting Kobison sought out and punished. Although the 



IIISTOMY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 457 

county was occupiLMl by :iii jirmy for luoiillis, at an expense of 
hundreds of thousands of dollars, very little was done by it to 
accomplish the first of these objects, and (so far as the public 
knew) nothing to accomplish the last. It is true that deserters 
(non-reporting men) were not numerous here, and that a few 
of them left the county ; but of those accessible scarcely 
any were arrested by the troops. Those reclaimed or secured 
to the public service were almost exclusively reclaimed or 
secured through the regular agency of the Deputy Pro- 
vost Marshal, either by voluntary reporting to him or (in a 
few cases) by arrest under his authority. The airny ex- 
pended its attention upon innocent citizens and watched the 
elections, but mostly lounged away its time in inglorious but ex- 
pensive idleness. We have seen too that when so called desert- 
ers wtre arrested the main object was to make them witnesses 
against the citizen ]»ris()ners instead of securing them to the pub- 
lic service or punishing them for their dereliction of duty. 

Karns was examined as a witness on the loth of December 
1864. As his testimony related entirely to the Rantz meeting we 
shall reserve it until we enter upon the subject of that meeting. 
In fact we shall rely upon ])arts of it in our exposition of the 
Kantz meeting as a valuable contribution to the cause of truth 
and justice. 

TiiK Witness Aija.m Li tz: — This witness was examined against 
Kantz and Colley but not in the Daniel M'Henry case. He 
resided in the village of Benton, was a pumjj-maker and farmer 
and about the time of the trials an inn-keeper. 

In the liantz case, Lutz testified that he had heard of the Kantz 
meeting but did not know its object, and that upon one occasion 
(the time of which lie could not state) he had heard Kantz say 
that they (the people) should save their money to buy powder and 
lead to shoot the abolitionists. This remark was made after a 
failure to raise bounty money to clear the township. He further 
testified to a conversation with Kohr M' Henry, to which allusion 
has been already made, and which was manifestly intruded into 
the case without reason or justification. We omit it because it 
was wholly irrelevant to the case on trial and its introduction 
})lainly unjust to an absent party. 



458 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

In the Stott E. Colley case, (November 23d, 1864), the testimony 
of Lutz was as follows : 

Adam Lutz, sworn: — ''Reside in Benton ; know prisoner. Last 
harvest, about July, got into conversation with him about the 
draft and about election. He claimed Woodward was elected ; 
Curtin put in by intrigue. He stated we could never whip the 
South ; we had been whipped in every engagement, lost every 
battle. He said our armies were all cut up while the south was 
in good lighting order. He said we could not fill up our armies ; 
volunteering was played out, and there was no use in drafting. I 
asked him why they couldn't fill the armies by drafting; he said 
they did not intend any more men should be sent south to be 
slaughtered. I told him if a draft was made it would be enforced. 
He said, if the Government undertook that there would be war 
at home, and the bloodiest times 1 ever heard tell of. He said I 
would be sorry that I had ever left the party. 

Cross-examined: — We came nearly to having blows. We 
talked some before that day. He said we had never given the 
South any chance to come back in the Union. He spoke in the 
way I stated." 

Upon the face of the above testimony it a})pears that the parties 
to the conversation had a warm dispute about politics — that they 
had "talked some before that day" — and that there must have 
been more of the discourse between them than that reported. There 
is here great opportunity for mistake not only as to the actual 
language used but also as to the connection in which it was utter- 
ed. 

But the declarations of Colley, (assuming the fact that they are 
reported with substantial correctness,) fall short of criminality. 
However improper and censurable they may be thought to be, 
their utterance violated no law and could justify no conviction. 
And it is to be remembered that they were spoken in excitement 
and not deliberately, and that they were very probably provoked. 

The Witness Robekt La Fayeite Colley : — This peison will 
make but a single appearance in our narrative, as we have the re- 
cord of his testimony in one case only; but while he remains be- 
fore us for inspection we shall endeavor to do him justice. Here 



HI8T0RY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 459 

is what ho said on the 23d November 1864, on his brother's trial, 
wlien the question was whether the latter, who had already un- 
dergone nearly three months of dungeon life, should be further 
persecuted and punished : 

7?. L. F. Colley, sicom : I live in Benton , a shoemaker by 
trade, I know Stott E. Colley ; he is my brother. On Monday 
evening after they m(t at Rantz's, I heard Stott E. Colley say, in 
Benton town, "if the soldiers came on that side of the bridge 
they would butcher every devil, or d — d one of them." He had 
a gun ; I saw two others with guns that evening — Mathias Kline 
and Valentine Fell. Through the day saw squads of near twenty 
armed ni'. ri ; some had arms, some few had none. I heard Philip 
Knouse say, their intention was to give ihe soldiers tight on their 
way from Bloomsburg to Benton. If they found them too strong 
they would lay in the brush. If the soldiers come up and behaved 
themselves they would not disturb them. If they disturbed, or 
endeavored to arrest the drafted men, they intended to fight 
them. He said he knew the drafted men had no Y>eace for a long 
time and tliey would not stand it any more. P. Knouse left that 
night; not heard ot him since the arrest. 

Cross-examined : There was a good deal of excitement in 
town. I was no nearer to my brother than across the street. I 
suppose he was excited. There was great excitement in the 
neighborhood. My brother was not present when P. Knouse 
spoke what I have detailed. I think I saw him that day ; I saw 
him at Appleman's. It was a common talk that the soldiers 
would burn the houses of the drafted nieti." 

We have already examined the evidence and general status 
of six of the witnesses called by the prosecution in the Ilarris- 
burg trials. Those which remain may be disposed of more briefly 
with two notable exceptions. We are anxious on the one band 
to present all the testimony against the prisoners or its full sub- 
stance, and explain who the persons were by whom it was given, 
and on the other to avoid prolixity and undue minuteness of de- 
tails. Our narrative to be fair, exhaustive, satisfactory and con- 
clusive, imist be reasonably full in exhibiting the evidence upon 
both sides ; but we will consult the convenience of our readers 



460 UTSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

by being ;m immumsc ;is pti-sibic in our fiivtlier (.-itations aiul stiili'- 
luents. 

Against Daniel IM'TTiMiry woiv exaniint'd six witnesses in addi 
tion to those before mentioned. Five of tliese we sliall now dis- 
pose of, reserving o\w for futnre treatment. 

Gu.HKur C M'VVaixk, Esi^., of Sbiekshinny, ft)rnK'rly of Hunt- 
ington townsliip, testified, to remarks made by Daniel M'llenry 
at a meeting in Benton, in June. 18G3. The witness says that he 
attended the meeting to obtain volunteers, (we suppose to till the 
quota of Huntington township,) that h" showed his authoi'itv and 
gave public invitation. M'llenry thereupon said that "it was his 
opinioM tlie quickest way to put down the rebellion was \,oX to 
furnish a man or a dollai-."' l"|)(m his eross-exainination, how- 
ever, the witness testified fur; her, that JNF Henry "argued the 
cause of tlie war; said the troubles were brought about by tlie 
aboliti'inists and the war might have been settled on the basis of 
the Crittenden emnpromise, 1 thiid< he did say if we would pass 
the Crittenden conq)romise to the Constitution we need not fur- 
nish men or money. He made a remark that they should wait 
patiently and ai)i)eal to the ballot-box; I do not think he said 
anything disloyal. He opposed tlie carrying on of the war to 
liberate tlie negroes: he favored carrying on the war for the Con- 
stitution and the Union." 

Taken together, this testimony exhibits ;i politic:il ;ugument, 
which, whether correct or not, wa'< innocent and wjxs one of com- 
mon and open use during the war. It may have been prompted 
in part at that time by the attempt of the witness to obtain men 
to be credited on the «piota of a district in another county, thus 
stripping M'llenry "s m ighborhood of available means for tilling 
their own. At all events what w;is saiil was simply an expres- 
sion of o})inion ;is to wliat should be done to restore the Union, 
and it was not an expression of hostility to the enforcement of 
law. 

CuAS GnuiONS of Benton townshi]>, a farmer, testified that he 
attended the Rantz meeting (Aug. 14, 64) in the forenoon but 
left about one o'clock. He further stated that he had "attended 
three or four of the so-called secret meetings; never saw JM'Henry 
at one, nor ever heard of his .attending any." His testimony con- 



HISTORY OF (JOLL'MJilA COUNTY. 401 

ceniiiii^ the Kaiitz incotnig, we will reserve until that subject 
shall be reaeliefl. 

Jonas Dotv of Fishirigoreek townshi]), fiirmcr, \v;is eullcd to 
jjrove de(!lfirations made by M'lleiirv tlire.e years before in a 
conversation with him. They were improbable in character and 
evidently colored and perverted if »iot manufactured outright, 
l^pon objection ma<Ie by counsel for defendant the Commission 
rejected this testimony and it was struck from the record. 

Aarox Smith of l^cnton township, farmer, testified that he at- 
tended one secret meeting at the house of Peter Case. He was 
a member. The oath as near as he could remember was this : — 
"to be true to the Constitution and the laws of the United States ; 
the signs were not to be revealed." On cross-examination he 
a<lderl, '-that was all that I ever knew about the oath ; Daniel 
M'llenry was not there.'' This witness was also examined as to 
the remarks of M'Henry at the Benton meeting in 1863 about 
not giving money, or men, to the war, the way it was carried on. 
II is testimony upon this was very much the same as that given 
l)y P]sq., M'Waine, though somewhat less distinct and emphatic. 

\V:\i. Evans of Fishingcreek, boatniaii, was exannned on the 
subject of secret meetings but without any very satisfactory re- 
sult. He "attenflcd so-called secret ineetings ; one or two, could 
not say positively,'' but it turncMl out that he attended but one 
which was at the Savage School House in March, 1803. The date 
is important as fixing- the time when those club meetings were in 
vogue, and this witness is worth looking after because he is 
tlie only one who locates Daniel ]M'IIeiiry in one of those 
meetings. The witness appears in his testimony timidly anxious 
to escape responsibility. He says, "I was partly a member ; I 
never went through ; I was invited ; I nevei" was there but once ; 
I was tlie only one [initiated] ; I did not get through." Sul>se- 
(piently he says, "I atteiided no secret meetings after that time. 
I did not walk far down [to the meetings ;] I went boating .'' 
The fact was, the witness was afraid and confused before the 
Conmiission ; ho had the terror of military [tower before liis eyes, 
and hence his scattered answ< rs and discb'moi-s. Although in- 
itiated niid sworn he says he was only partly a member ; he did 



462 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 

not get through. ; he did not walk far to the meeting, and he 
went bouling as quickly as possible ! 

As to the oath taken by him and the object of the meeting, 
Evans proceeded to say — "the oath, near as I can recollect it, was 
to support the constitution of the United States and the Union. 
The Constitution of the United States was to be the Constitution 
of the society. * * I cannot recollect whether we were to support 
all laws of the land. * * I got there by being told there was to 
be a meeting at the school house. It was public; the house was 
all open. It was not considered a meeting to resist tlie draft. It 
was purely political ; not for purpose of resisting the draft.' He 
also said: "tliere were twenty to twenty-five persons present ; 
would not say the number; Daniel M'Henry made a speech there. 
Can't recollect what he said. It was a political speech. John 
Savage, Charles Kramer, William J. Kramer, Alexander Kramer 
and one of the M'Uenry's were there; also Levi Lunger." 

This concludes the testimony of a government witness about a 
secret meeting which was open ! about a disloyal assemblage 
which was sworn to support the Constitution of the Union. 

Thk WiTNKSs Charlks M. Dodson: — James M'Henry, Esq, of 
Canibra, Luzerne county, was arrested at daylight on the morning 
of August 31st 1864, and hurried across, four miles, to Benton 
church in this county, where the other prisoners were assembled. 
Without examination he was then taken with the others to Fort 
Mifflin and was kept inconfinement until December, or for a period 
of more than three months. At the end of that time he was in- 
formed that the military authorities had fiothing against him 
and was discharged and permitted to return home. And who was 
James M'Henry ? A merchant of Cambra, of intelligence and 
character, who had committed no offence nor given the slightest 
provocation for his arrest to the military authorities. His stand- 
ing in the conmmnity was attested, subsequent to his imprison- 
ment, by his election and re-election to the Legislature as a Rep- 
resentative from Luzerne county. Wlien arrested he had his 
name upon a note in Bank, along with Edward Hughes, for the 
amount of $2,000 to raise bounties for volunteers to till the quota 
of Huntington township. 

Mr. M'Henry 's arrest was upon the information, it is believed, 



HOST DRY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 463 

of Charles M. Dodson a young man of Benton township who had 
been in the army, but was at home on leave. Engaging in the 
business of government informer, runner and witness, he had his 
leave extended and thus escaped active service and danger for 
many months. He took witnesses to the military camp in Benton 
against D. L. Chapin, Esq., and perhaps others, gave information 
himself, and was at Harrisburg several times as runner and wit- 
ness. 

Dodson 's story against James M'Henry was that he had heard 
the latter make a s[»eech in opposition to the draft, a speech of an 
inllannnatory and disloyal character, in the fall of 1H63, in the up- 
per end of Benton township. Upon this statement of hi«», which 
was a complete falsehood, the arrest and long imprisonment of Mr. 
M'llenry were based. The facts were, that at the meeting in 
question (which was held pending the election for Governor in 
18f)3) political speeches of an ordinary character were made by a 
Mr. Wagner (who had been a soldier and a republican) and by 
others. James M'Henry being present and called upon, made 
some remarks in favor of Judge Woodward, the Democratic can- 
didate for Governor, stating his i)ersonal knowledge of him and 
of his high fitness and character as a candidate. Confining him- 
self to that subject his remarks were brief and had no reference 
whatever to the draft or any other general question of discourse 
or debate. 

Ascertaining by good fortune what testimony Dodson proposed 
to give against him before the Military Commission, Mr M'Henry 
prepared himself for trial in the most effectual manner and urged 
that his case should be heard. For a month or more, however the 
prosecution delayed the hearing while efforts were made to se- 
cure additional evidence against him. Mr. Wellington Hughes of 
Cambra, an honorable gentleman and a republican, was asked to 
become a witness against his neighbor; in fact we believe he was 
sent for or brought from one of the western states to testify. 
But he declared h*^ knew nothing against Mr. M'Henry. Addi- 
tional witnesses failing the prosecution, and a large number of 
reputaV)le men standing ready to contradict Dodson, the further 
persecution of Mr. M'Henry had to be abandoned. Dodson, utterly 
discredited and impotent for further mischief, could only make 
the wretched and miserable excuse, that he had beefi mistaken — 



464 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

that it iras not J'amen 31' Henry who had made the disloyal 
speech, but another 7iian. 

Dodson's father hud resided for years about two miles from 
Cambra and tlie family were accustomed to trade at that i)hi.ce. 
jNIr. ^['Henry's store and Mr. M'Henry himself were as well knowji 
to them all, as was any place or man in the whole country. !t 
was therefore just impossible that young Dodson could have mis- 
taken any other person for James M'Henry at the Benton meet- 
ing of 1863. 

TiiK WrrxKss Natitaxiki: L. CAiMrnKu, : — This witness appeared 
late upon the serene at Harrisburg to testify against Daniel ^f- 
Henry. but he succeeded in making up for himself a soniewliat 
remarkable record. Testifj'ing to an interview and conversation 
between himself and M'Henry at Stillwater in February, 1S64, 
he w;is confronted and contradicted by four or five credible wit- 
nesses upon every material point of his evidence. In sliort, his 
story was completely overthrown, and his appearance instead 
of aiding the prosecution contributed to secure an honorable ac- 
quittal for the defendant. We will now proceed to give his tes- 
timony literally and in full, following it with a recital of the over- 
wlu'lming testimony in reply. 

Nathaniel L. Camphell, sirorn : — "I reside in Centre township, 
Columbia county ; a farmer, T know Daniel M'Henry. I 
attempted to till the cpiota of our township in February last, 
I attempted to fill cpiota by liiring volunteers, paying a 
local bounty of §200, in addition to Government bounty. I 
had a conversation with Daniel M'Henry ; it was in Febru- 
ary 1864. I stopj)ed at Daniel jNI'Henry's and got my 
horse fed and dinner, as I was returning home. T live above 
Bloomsburg; I stopped. He commenced talking about the war. 
He remarked war was waged against the South by the black abo- 
litionists of the North to free the negroes. I told him 1 thought 
he Avas mistaken. He said men going down there to fight now 
were not going to fight for their country: thej' were going to 
fight for their money, you know. He said they were really mur- 
derers and ought to be shot before they went there or ought to be 
shot when they got theie or wheii they came home. He remark- 
ed, the volunteers were reatly murderers and ought to be shot be- 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 46.', 

foro they went there, or after they got there, or (I think he put to 
it) as soon as they came home. I told him I thought it was bet- 
ter hiring men tlian to be drafted. He remarked, he would not 
give a pence of money to hire volunteers and he would not go 
himself. I remarked if he was liable to draft he would have to 
go as well as me. T remarked. Government would not draft and 
leave him at home and take me. He either said he was armed 
and prepared or he would arm himself; if he had to die he would 
die at home and have a decent burial. I said I thought he was 
foolish. He might shoot down an officer and he would either be 
shot down or hung. He said we have 500 men ready to defend 
him or any other drafted men — was the way he expressed himself 
— or any other drafted man in the neighborhood I undertsood 
him; I remarked I liad heard a report of that kind in the neigh- 
borhood before but I did not believe it; but, I said, suppose that 
to be the case I think I remarked it was merely a matter of moon- 
shine to attempt to resist the government, the government would 
send enough men up there to take the whole of them. He said 
that was not all ; there was half a million of men in the United 
States armed and ready at a moment's warning, all they wanted 
was a man that had nerve and courage to strike the first blow. 
1 rejnarked, if that was really true the country was in a worse 
situation than I sup])Osed it was. but if there was not a man in 
half a million that had nerve enough to strike the first blow it 
was not very dangerous. He insisted that a majority of the peo- 
]»le in the North were opposed to carrying on the war any fur- 
ther and the South would eventually whip us and there would be 
a rising up of the peoi)le in the North against the prosecution of 
the war. He talked on for a considerable time and insisted the 
war was unjust and a war to free the negroes and I insisted tlie 
war was just. He talked on for near one hour. I had no other 
conversation with M'Henvy but that time. 1 never conversed 
with him before that time. He said if drafted he was armed or 
would arm himself and fight at home. 

(1)'0SH Examined. I went into Benton township to raise men 
to fill our quota, I do not know that Daniel M'Henry was filling 
< plot a of his township. Did not come to high words in attempt- 
ing to get men out of his township. I did think he was excited ; 



466 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

we parted good friends. I told him I was a Jackson Democrat. 
He thought it strange. We were not both greatly excited. The 
words were not spoken in presence of any one about to volunteer. 
There were four men in the bar-room ; they were strangers to me. 
I had accomplished my business and was about to return home. 
The words had no influence on me. I do not know that they had 
on any other person. I had got the men I needed. He said the 
majority of the people of the North were opposed to carrying the 
war further ; that the South would eventually whip us and there 
would be an uprising in the North. His opinion was that the 
war was carried on to free the negroes. That opinion was carried 
through all his conversation. I d(j not recollect that he mention- 
ed slaves. I understood the half million of men were to defend 
men that were drafted, I could not tell who were present ; there 
wei'e four persons present. I did not know them. They stood 
behind the stove and M'Henry at the bar. It was previous to the 
27th of February last.'" 

Contradictions of the Witness N. L. Campbell : — These were 
no less than twelve in number, and covered all the material points 
in his testimony as given heretofore. It will be remembered by 
our readers that Campbell stated in his testimony that "there 
were four persons present" when ht had his conversation Avith 
Daniel M'Henry at Stillwater in February 1H64. Those persons 
seem to have been James Edgar, W. B. Kline, Moses M'Henry 
and Wm. Raber, of whom the three first named were called as 
witnesses for the defense. By them Campbell was flatly contra- 
dicted in the following statements made by him: — 1st. That D. 
M'Henry '■^commenced talking about the war" and the South ; 2d, 
"that he talked on for near one hour;" 3d, that "he insisted the 
war was unjust;" 4th, that he said the men going down South to 
fight "were really murderers and ought to be shot ;" 5th, that he 
said "he was armed or would arm himself" to resist if drafted; 
6th, that he said "he would not give a pence of money to hire 
■volunteers or go himself;'' 7th, that he said there were "five hun- 
dred men ready to defend him or any other drafted man" (of the 
neighborhood as the witness understood;) 8th, that he said "there 
was half a million of meti in the United States armed and ready 
at a moment's warning" to resist the draft; and 9th, that he said 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 467 

"the Soutli would eventually whip us and there would be a rising 
up of the people in the North against the prosecution of the war." 
So far we have a denial by three witnesses against one that cer- 
tain words were spoken at the interview in question. But the 
contradictions did not stop there. Campbell having denied on 
cross-examination that he knew "that Daniel M Henry was filling 
the quota of his (M'llenry's) township,'' and asserted also that he 
and M'Henry "did not come to high words" by his (Campbell's) 
attempt to get volunteers out of M'Henry's township, the three 
witnesses above mentioned proceeded to narrate the conversation 
which actually took place, which consisted mainly of a dispute 
betwt en Campbell and M'Henry, about the attempt of the former 
to get volunteers from P^ishingcreek to fill the quota of Centre, 
and recited the ''high words" which really passed between them 
on that subject, thus showing the complete unfairness and false- 
hood of Camjjbeirs story. 

Again, Canqtbell having stated (in order to show that no dis- 
jtute about obtaining volunteers from Fishingcreek had taken 
place) that he ((Campbell) "had gone into Benton township to 
raise men to fill the quota" of Centre, and that he "had accom- 
plished his business and was about to return home" when the con- 
versation with M'Henry occurred — that "lie liad got the men he 
nei'ded. ' — Andrew Freas, Esq., of Centre, was called to contradict 
him upon that statement. The testimony of Mr. Freas was as 
follows : 

Andrew Freas, Esq., stoorn: — "I reside in Centre township, 
Columbia county, I'm a farmer. Samuel Henderson, Tilghman 
Noblet, Andrew Freas, Dr. Elisha Low, and Nathaniel Camj>l)(,'ll, 
[were ajjpointed to act for Centre township in raising men to fill 
her quota] and he, Nathaniel L. Campbell, went up Fishingcreek. 
Mr. Canq)bell, told me on the 27th of February (when the citizens 
came together) that he did not get any men above M'Henry's ; he 
got them two miles above Bloomsburg. One young man's name 
was Chester Dodson. He had none when he got to Daniel M'- 
Henry's. He got two men on the 27lli of Febiuary, near us or 
Bloom. They were going to Philadelphia, Campbell said." 

Campbell liaving testified that he had "no other conversation 
with Mllenry, but that one tiuR," and that that "was previous to 



468 irrSTORl' OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

the 'iTtli of Fobrn:»ry," the ooiitradiotion of him by Aiuirow Froas 
was complete. In point of fart ho l\aii not obtained "the men he 
needed" and ''accomplished his business," before his interview 
with MTlenry. at Stillwater. It follows, that the testimony of 
Edixar, Kline, and M' Henry, about the dispute eoneerniuL;; volun- 
teers fr.MU Fishin>::;ereek to till the quota of (.\Mitre. was reasona- 
ble and probable, .and tliat Campbell's denial of such ilispnte 
was not aeeordinii' tn the fart. 

The testimony of the witnesses for the defence, to whii-h we 
have referred in the foreu'oine; exhibit, was as foHows : 

f/(^r//^■,^• tJilgar, strorn: — "I know Nathaniel K. Campbell, that 
is about all. I was present at a conversation between Daniel 
M'Heury a-id Campbell, and hoard the whole till they went to 
dinner. Tl\ey were pretty much excited towards the last "f their 
conversation, but no violent languag:e passed between them. The 
conversation started from getting volunteers. Campbell was out 
from his township to hire volunteers in MTtenry's township. Dan- 
iel Mllenry did not s.ay anything about having live hundred men 
to resist the draft, nor about dying at home, nor that men who 
went south should be killed, nor about half a million of men. nor 
about a rebellion in the North. Cami>bell said he wanted to hire 
men. M'llenry said they could not be got in his township; Camp- 
bell said he h \d a right to hire where he pleased. M'llenry told 
him he had, but it woidd not be a very gentlemaidy act : he would 
not do so in his (CimpbeU's) township. Campbell said it was no 
more than lie expected from a disloyal or secession townsliip. 
Tiien MTtenry got pretty well excited and the bell rang for din- 
ner. That is about all I know. 

Cro.-i.^h\-anihud: — I heard all the conversation in tlie bar-room 
where I was. I do not know that I could recollect every word 
tliat was said — not word for word. They talked tifteen, twenty, 
or twenty-tive minutes, might be logger, though I think not. That 
was all was said as I recollect. It might have been longer. I do 
not think I heard Campbell tell M" Henry if he was drafted he 
would be obliged to go. M"IIenrv did not ?ay anything about 
men being siiot if they volunteered for the war. He did not say 
so in the bar-room. They were talking about the war and about 
trying to till their quotas. They talked about their quotas : what 



JIIST(jKy OF (JOLUMJilA (JOTJNTY. W.) 

tliey said ahout the war I cannot say further. I do not recollect 
that M'Henry Haid it was a netjro war. I do not recollect about 
the South. Aftei- (Jarnphell nairl it was a disloyal townsliip they 
liotli got a little mad — what I meant by a sj>at. M'llenry said he 
would test his loyalty with Campbell, or the loyalty of their 
township witli Campb(firs townshiji ; that he had done as much 
to get volunt(;erh as (,'ampbell, and liis township had done as 
mN<;li as tin- other township." 

\V. li. Kline, Hwor7i : — "I reside in Fishingcreek township; 
a tanner. I know N. L. Campbell. I was present at the con- 
versation Itetwccn Daniel M'Henry and Camjibell, and heard tlie 
whole ol' the conversation. Nothing was said about five hui:- 
dred men to resist the flralt, nor about half a million of men, nor 
did M'llenry say that those who went to tight the South ought 
to be killed, nor did he say anything about lesisling the prosecu- 
tion of the war av that the South would whij; us etc , nor about a 
ni.ui of nerve nor any such sentiments. Daniel M'PIenry has 
lielpf<l to till (jiiota. I saifl 1 would give one hundred dollars. He 
said he would do that miu^h more and would heljj us — w'ould 
double the aniounl if necessary. That was al^out the time the 
draft was <H-dered. 1 heard him tell drafted men they had better 
report instead of skedaddling round. I met Campbell a few rods 
from defendant's rt sidence. I accompanied him into the bar- 
room. 

Cros8-exaniinfAl: — Daniel M'Henry did not say anything in 
j)articular aln^ut the war at that time. 1 remember the substance 
of what he sairl ; I cannot word it word for word. Nathaniel 
Can)pbell inquired if there were any volunteers to be had there. 
M'Henry replied that he thought theie were no more thau for 
their own townshi]). Campbell said he was going to have some 
of the men. M'Henry said he should not if he could help it, 
until our <m\ n township was tilled. Campbell made answer they 
could not expect anything Ijetler from a disloyal township. M'- 
Henry replied he was leady to test loyalty with Mr. Camjibell 
for himself or the township. The bell rang for dinner; it was 
a short time, live or ten minutes or longer, could not fix the time. 
I do not rememljer anything said about the draft except as to 
raising (juota. I might have joined in conversation but Jo i;ot 



470 nrs-ro/n' or Columbia county. 

rcMiuMiibiM- tliat 1 dill. Aft it (ho insiiuiation of disloyalty they 
wore both oxi'itod iind rather rotioji words passod. T do not 
know but tlu' lie w;vs given and taken. The rouiih words were 
(he lie oiven and taken. M'llenry said C'annil)ell liad uttered dis- 
loyal sen(inien(s (here; Canipbell said in re|>ly tiiat he eould wol 
exj»eet anvthing better o{ M'llei\ry when he ealled him a liar. As 
tar as I remember that is the substant.'e. Campbell retnrneil tlie 
lie to the delendant. In eonneetion witi\ what I said I wish to 
jitld — Campbell replied *yon are a liar and 1 did not expeet any- 
thin;:; better ot" vou,' and then thi' bell rang l\>r diniu i-. Mr. 
M'llenrv J^aid he had snbseribed to raise substitutes or volunteers. 
1 th) not renuMuber (l>a( he said (he war ough( (o stop. 1 do \\o\. 
know anything said abou( the draft ov abinit his going. 

lu (xanihud by dcftuct : — C.impbell, Oaniel ^Tllenry, JMoses 
^rilenrv. ,)an>es M'llenry, ^^'illianl Kal>er, James Kdgar and my- 
self were (U'esent. William IJaber is an old man — about tiO or up 
wards. 

lUf Coniniinsio/i : — "M'llenr) did mit say that he was armed; 
110 mention was imule of five hundred men or h;df a million." 

JfoK(f< J/' //iiit'i/. finu^ni: — ••! am a meri'h;int :md reside in 
Fishingereek townshi|>, 1 w:(s present at eonvers:ition between 
defend;int and C;impbell. Heard the whole of the eonversation, 
Daniel M'llenry did no( say anything about five hundred men (o 
resis( the draft, nor speak of being armed, nor about h.alf a mil- 
lion of men in the North to go to w:vr, nor of dying at home if 
dr:vfted. C^impbell e ime to defeiuhint ;ind said he would like to 
got some id" our men to till tpiota of eoming draft. l)efend:int 
said he did not think we wouKl have any men to spare as we 
were making preparations to till our own township. He said we 
would have to work liquet men enough to do it. C:»mpbell said 
l\e would like to h;ivo some or nmst get some. Defend:int ;isked 
him why he did \\o\ get them nearer home, out of his own town- 
ship ; if we did not interfere with their men he did not think it 
rinht iov him (CampbelT) to eome (o onr township and interfere 
with ours. C;impbell said he had a right to get men wherever 
he eould get them. Oefendant s;ud he knew he had but he did 
in>t think a gi'utleman would aet in th;it style when he knew wo 
were trvino- io elear our own township. Daniel M'Henry 
told him he should not have a man if he eould help it till wo 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA GOUNIY. 471 

could see vvhat'we could do uilli owv own men, and the bell rung- 
for dinner. I liave lived over ten years with Daniel JVI'IIcnry. 
There was nothing said at dinner concerning tlie draft. They ap- 
jjeared a good deal excited and could not agree, and stopped it. 

There was a man named Wolf drafted into the army and while 
there his wife was confined Defendant gave me orders to give- 
her anything she wanted. Wolf owed him at the same time. He 
died after his return and defeiuhint forgave her the debt. I am 
a nephew to defendant. A young man named Mllenry had 
l)een in the army and came home wounded. Defendant got up an 
extra dinner, went with a hors(i and carriage and brought them 
to a free dinner and told liini if he wantetl to ride out he could 
have his horse and carriage. Wolf was no relation. Last Feb- 
ruary Zinnnerinan came home on furlough, ttc. I met Carn]>bell 
fiisl in I lie Ijar-ioom. I went in witli him to dinner and dined 
with them. 

Cross cxaini/ied: — I am a nephew of the accused ; was his clerk 
four or five years and then became his j^artner. We dissolved 
last spring a year. The conversation was a quarter of an hour. 
It laslfd a little bit Towards the last they were a good bit ex« 
cited; there was some pretty rougli language. 1 think the lie 
was exchanged between them — used some oatlis. I think Camp- 
bell gave the lie iirst. Daniel was talking about secession; Camp- 
bell said it was a lie. Defendant said our towns^hi]) had done 
more than theirs; Campbell said it was a lie. Campbell said some 
thing about secession; Defendant said it was a lie. He said he 
considered himself as loyal a man as Campbell ; he had done as 
much for the war and would test loyalty with him in any way he 
had a mind to. Defen(hiiit said if Campbell called him 'secesh' 
he was a liar. Campbell said he had come there for volunteers 
;ind he had a right to get them he thonglit. Nothing was said 
about drafted men that I heard of. 1 do not know that he said 
at that time that he would go if drafted ; I have heard liim say at 
other times lie would go or get a substitute. Campbell did not 
say he had got all the men he wanted ; I do not know that he 
said he had got any. Defendant did not say there would be trouble 
in the North if continued to draft men. I could remember the 
whole conversation ; there was some general con vei'sation which 
T caniu)t remember unless my attention is dii-ected to it. I have 



472 //isTom' or COLT. y HI. I (\)rxTy. 

o^ivoii ;ill the oonvoi\-;;Uiou about the volimtoors; tl\oy oouvorsod 
but !i sliort tiino. thov (.'onvorsoil nbout bounty anil volnntoi'vs. 
V>erh:ii>s not over ton niinntos. I havo stated all that was said. 



THE KAN rz MEKTINC^. 

Hut a single reserved point t^on wliieli evidenee for the 
prosecution was given) remains tor further exposition, in or- 
der that the whole strength of the case against our eiti/.ens 
shall be eoniplotely presented. We refer to the meeting held 
at the house o\' John Kantz in Henton township on the 1-Uh 
day of August. ISiU, in eonseqnenee of the arrival of troops in 
the eounty, and of the eireulation of reports that property was to 
be burnt and destroyed by them, and by persons from the lower 
end of Luzerne county. AVe havo at hand in the records of the 
tri.als the means of judging what wore the objects of that 
mooting, wliat was said and done by those who attended it. 
and what character is to be assigned to it in our history. Hut 
in ti'eating the subject of that meeting we shall not contine our- 
selves to the testhuouy given by the government witnesses, nor 
even strictly to the military records before us. We shall use the 
testimony given on both sides at the trials, and resort, as occasion 
niay in\ite. to other and independent sources of information. 

Tiu: TniF. Wuf.x rr was Uki.o: — The date of the Rautz moot- 
ing deserves particular notice. It was the 1-kth of August, IStU, 
the daiz/olloirhiff the arrival of troops at JBIoomsburg, and most 
of those who attended it came to it in the afternoon. It was 
called suddenly and it assembled because the troops came, and 
because exciting and alarming reports were abroad. That meeting- 
did not cause the military inroad ; on the contrary, the armed 
occupation caused and produced it. Troops did not c»>me to the 
county because of the Kantz meeting. They were ordered here, 
and a part of them were in fact here, before the meeting was 
hold. On August 13th, eighty mounted men and forty infantry 
with two pieces of artillery, arrived in Bh omsburg. Tliey 
were followed by other troops, no doubt under orders issued prior 
to the I4th. t'*!! the n^orniui:: of the UUh. two hundred and tiftv • 



HLSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 473 

more Jirrivcd, uiid within u few days, by additions, the army of 
occupation was made to number one thousand men. 

It is i»erfectly phiin then and undeniable that the Rantz meeting 
cannot be plead as an excuse or justification for sending troops into 
our county. Those troops were ordered here without any possible 
reference to a meeting which had not then been held or projected 
and which never would have been held or thought of, if the troops 
had not been sent. 

Who Co.Mrosp:i) It: — The meeting was made up of several 
classes of persons who are to be carefully distinguished from each 
other, and it is to be observed also that some attended earlier and 
some later in the day, that apart left before the meeting ended, 
and that liantz himself was absent a part of the time. Taken al- 
together, the persons who attended may be described as follows: 
— P^irst, Non rejjorting drafted men, of whom (so far as we now 
remember) not one was ever seized and punished by the military 
authorities ; Second, citizens who attended from curiosity and 
without any foimed or definite object, (these constituted the lar- 
gest class ;) Third, several persons who attended to prevent, by 
their advice and infiuence, any imprudent or improper action by 
the meeting. We rej^eat, these several classes of persons are not 
to be confounded with each other and the same judgment applied 
to each, for the same motives and conduct Avere not common to 
all. It is not our purpose to acquit all who attended, from cen- 
sure for imprudence, or to justify those men who had been draft- 
ed in their failure to respond to the call of the Government, but it 
is our j)urpose to show from the testimony which we shall pro- 
duce that the meeting together of the citizens was not criminal, 
that it was produced by reports of danger to ]>erson and jiroperty 
in the neighborhood, and that a just discrimination must be made 
between the motives and conduct of the different classes of jjer- 
sons who attended. Having done this we shall next show that 
the military authorities, (obviously from political reasons and in- 
stigated by men in this county who had their ear,) proceeded to 
seize and imprison men whose conduct at the Rantz meeting was 
innocent and in fact laudable, while they passed by, uncensured 
and unpunished, those who were to blame. In fact, it will appear, 
that the man most ])n)minent at that meeting in counselling vio- 



474 niiS'rORY OF COIATMBTA COUNTY. 

lence and who was properly liable to puiiisliment under the law as 
a non-reporting drafted man, was the very man taken into their 
confidence and favor and used by them as their ])rincipal witness 
to se(uire tlie conviction of innocent and upright citizens. 

Its C'Ausk: — Nathan J. //csk, (a government witness, now 
dead,) tc>stified on the trial of J). M'llenry, that "on the morning 
of tile 14tli of August, about 7 or H o'clock, Rantz notified him of 
the meeting; that he went to Kantz's through curiosity to see 
what was going on ; that he went there about ten o'clock in the 
forenoon and left about noon, and that he heard at the meeting 
that the soldiers at liloomsburg and the Harvey ville men were 
coming up to burn tiie projierty in and around Benton." 

Upon tiic tiial of fb)lin l\antz, the same witness, i)eing more 
fully exaniiiu'd, testitied with still gri'ater completeness on this 
point. He said, "it was reported around by dilfirent |»ersons that 
soldii'rs w iTc coming u[> to help some citizens who had been try- 
ing \o taki' drafted men, and that they would burn the buiMings 
of those that were drafted and of them that resisted. 'I'lu re was 
no op|)ositi(>n made or rt'sistance olVercd to the soldiers when tiu'y 
canu' up" * * * "I lu'ard the rei»orl, as to the object of soldiers a 
day, or three or foui', before this meeting, I heard afterwards that 
the object was because they heard thesoldieis W('re going to burn 
and destroy — was to protect iheir property from soldiers and citi- 
zens from other ])laces ; from Kairmount who had been trying to 
arrest draft ei I nu'u, and that brought on the shooting." * * * It 
was reported among the nuMi who met at the barn that citizens 
were coming from Kairnioinit :nid llarveyville to burn and assist 
in burning pro|)erty. ***•'! heard that repoi't four or live days 
before the meeting." 

Confirmatory of this evidence was tlu' testimony of a number 
of other witnessi's examini'd u})on the trials for the prosecution 
and I'oi' thi' defense. But we shall conline ourselves to the testi- 
mony of governnu'ut witnesses. Iv. L. F. CoUey testilied on his 
brother's trial, "there was great excitement in the neighborhood. 
It was a connnon talk that the soldiers would burn the houses of 
the drafti'd nuui.'' 

iSilas A'arns, testitied, in the IM'lTcnry trial, "that he heard the 
storv that the soldiers were coming there to burn and destroy 



HLSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 475 

|)ro|>(ity; lie lieard it that day at the meeting." Chas. Gibhens 
also, testified, "that he heard it said at the meeting that the sol- 
diers wore corning to burn houses and kill children." 

It thus appcjars with sufficient clearness from the evidence for 
the prosecution (without resorting to other sources for information) 
that exciting and alarming reports were rife in the neighborhood 
when the meeting was held, and before, and that they constituted 
one of the leading causes of the meeting if they did not alone 
jjroduce it. A great part of those who attended went to it like 
Nathan J. Hess, from motives of curiosity, but it was a curiosity 
stimulated by alarm and without any formed intention regarding 
the action which shou]«l take place. As to all such persons, (and 
they constituted the great mass of the meeting,) there can l>e no 
imputation of any criminal design or unlawful pur])Ose. 

It may be said that the rejiorts to which we have referred and 
tlie feais founded upon them were alike groundless ; that there 
was in fact no datiger to the persons or property of citizens and 
IK) necessity for consultation in regard to the impending invasion. 
11' all this should be conceded, the explanation we have given of 
the Ixantz meeting would still remain ; it might still be regarded 
as the result of excitement and of a real apprehension of danger 
among the people. But we ore not at all certain that there were 
no good grounds for excitement and alarm. Threats had been 
freely uttered at Harveyville and in this county against the so- 
called "Fishingcreek insurgents," and troops in large numbers, 
beyond any public requirement for the arrest of drafted men, w^ei-e 
being introduced into the country. The idea of visiting the Fish- 
inircreek country with fire and sword was certainly entertained 
and such visitation was openly threatened, and troops were pre- 
pared or collected apparently for that very work. Therefore, an 
expi-ctation or fear among the people that violence would be used 
and injury inflicted upon thetn, was not unreasonable or prepos- 
terous. 

Irs ru<»(Ki',i)iN<;s: — There was no organization of the meeting 
l)y the choice of officers, nor any record kept of what was done. 
No resolutions were adojtted or proposed, nor was any question 
whate/er submitted to a vote. It was therefore quite Informal 
and had no official or regidar character as an organized body. Be- 



476 irrSTOKY OF rOLrMIiFA cor^TY. 

sides, us already mentioned, tlie siinie })ersons did not eonipose it 
throughout. Some attended in the forenoon and tlien U>ft; otliers 
eame in tlie afternoon. Kantz himself nujst have been absent a 
good part of tlie time, for upon his trial, E. J. M'llenry testified 
as follows : 

"I saw Kant/, at my house on Sunday. August Hth, about 12 
o'eloek. I live three miles from him. lie has a farm about live 
miles from where he lives, whieh he nmst pass my house to s2;o 
and see." 

Now it is obvious that to a meeting- of this irregular kind, 
without organization and shifting in its membership, we eannot 
apply the same rules or reasoning whieh would apply to one of a 
regular eharaeter and uniform eomj>osition. An individual mem- 
ber of the meeting ean only be held responsible for what oecurretl 
while he was aetually present and to whieli he direetly eontribu- 
ted by speeeh or eonduet. Presumptive or implied responsibility 
upon him as a member of the meeting for the aetsof his assoeiates, 
is out of the iiuesti(.)n and eannot be assumed. Henee it beeomes 
important, in order to form a jtroper judgment of the Kantz tueet- 
ing, to distinguish and diseriniinate between the diflerent elasses 
of persons who were there, and to explore the motives and traoe 
the eonduet of eaeh. Some men, it is said, eame armed to the 
meeting ; squads were at one time formed in the highway; three 
persons made brief speeehes or rt marks in the barn, and there 
was much of conversation during the day among those present. 
These are the salient facts presented by the testimony for our ex- 
amination ; but in examining tluiu the remarks we have already 
made nmst be kept steadily in view, so that an intelligent, dis- 
criminating, complete, and satisfactory judgment shall be reached 
npon our general question, and at the same time fair treatment 
and full justice be extended to all individual citizens concerned. 

Dk.vfted Mkn Pkksknt: — These, as distinguished from other 
citizens, were in a position of contempt to the conscription laws, 
for they liad not responded to the draft. Their number was not 
large nor was there any formed association to resist their arrest 
as was falsely pretended: but some of them were no doubt dis- 
posed toward violent counsels, or at all events to continued eva- 
sion of tlieir dutv under the law. Thev constituted, therefore, 



JIT STORY OF COLUMBTA COUNTY. All 

tlie objectionable ingredient of the meeting and to all of them 
the adviee given by Daniel M'llenry upon another occasion was 
most ai)i»ro|)riate, to-wit: that instead of "skedaddling around" 
they should r(q)ort for duty. But it is to be remembered that not 
one of the drafted men present at the Rantz meeting (so far as we 
can. learn) was ever tried or punished by the military authorities, 
ulthougli sonje of them w(;re subsequently in their power. On 
the contrary two of them were produced as notable witnesses for 
t he government upon the trials at Harrisburg and were treated 
rather as objects of favor and commendation than of Cf-nsure or 
punishment. We allude to Edward MTIenry and Silas Karns, 
whose testimony, though given under some degree of coercion 
and imperfect in cpiality, was used with fatal effect against inno- 
cent and U|)right men. 

TiiK Fou.MiNc <»i- vSt^iADs: — Karns (who was the fairer witness 
of the two) stated in his testimony, that at the meeting "they 
foi'med into companies and s<piads to be placed in different places 
to proU'd property. Nothing was done duringthe day until some 
time ill the afternoon." * * * "There were different companies 
or scpjads of men formed ; could not tell how many. I belonged 
to one of these squads. Ily. Kline commanded it. We propose 
to go to the mountain and stay tfiere to see what the result was. 
This company was mostly composed of drafted men. We went 
to the mountain to see what the soldiers were going to do ; to see 
the rt'sult of the soldiers coming up." * * * "J am drafted in first 
three year's draft — in the fall of 1803." 

From other parts of the evidence it clearly api)ears that most 
of the sfpiads never met afterwards, and that not the slightest 
attempt was jnade in any quarter to resist or annoy the soldiers 
when they came into the neighborhood. The squad movement 
which was foolish, improper and wrong, was aljandoned or given 
up without any overt a(;t, and resulted only in the exodus of a 
small niiiiil»cr (of whom the witness Karns was one) to the North 
^loiintaiii. 

Who Wkkk Akkkstki) : — The men at the Rantz meeting who 
were <q>en to (^ensure, as we have already remarked, were not held 
responsible for their conduct. They escaped, or nearly all of them 
escaped, the stroke of ])Ower. But with innocent men or those 



478 irZS'rOJiY OF C0LU3IBIA COUNTY 

little llablo to blame, the ease was different, and will now be our 
business to point out particular instances of arrest and punish- 
ment, for alleged pai'ticipation in the Rantz meeting, wliieli were, 
beyond all «piestion, unjust and outrageous. 

John Hantz: — We have already called attention to the fact 
tliat iNFr. Rantz was absent from home about noon, two or three 
miles distant. The evidence of E. J. iM' Henry on this j)oint as 
given heretofore, was distinct and conn)lete. Besides, upon the 
Rant/, trial, John O. Dildine, a rejuitable gentleman, also testified 
as follows : — "1 saw Rantz coming home about 4 j». m., on Sunday 
August 14th. He has a farm about live miles from where he lives, 
in the direction whence he was conning. I live three fourths of a 
mile from him. He has a son in the army who is a minor." 

As Karns and others testify that there was nothing done in 
the forenoon, and as Rantz appears to have been absent from 
noon until about the time the meeting adjourned, he can hardly 
be held responsible for any proceedings which took place. Inde- 
pendent of the fact that this meeting was held on his pretnises, 
there was very little evidence against IMr. Rantz on his trial, ex- 
cept that he had made excited or extravagant remarks on several 
occasions, which were pretty well accounted for by Richard Stiles, 
(a witness examined against him,) who said : — '"I consider Rantz 
a man who talks considerable.'' His loose talk however (suj)pos- 
ing it to be correctly reported) was accompanied by very distinct 
acts which gave it an innocent complexion. He t'urnislied a minor 
son to the army, he subscribed $100.00 to raise a bounty fuiui for 
his district, he declared the ''bovs," (or volunteers) must be assist- 
ed, and he waited u})on the soldiers and informed them that "they 
could hunt up all the drafted men and arrest them, and they would 
not be disturbed." Rantz was however arrested and severely 
punished. He was convicted (as we have heretof'oie shown) after 
an imperfect and unfair trial before the Military Connnission at 
Harrisburg, ami underwent more than eight months of dungeon 
life. But his piison doors were at last opened by ^Andrew John- 
son shortly after he succeeded to the duties of the Presidential 
ottice. We are informed that the cases of Mr. Rantz and of several 
of the other prisoners wert' i)eiiding before President Lincoln, for 
consideration, at the time of his death, and that they were taken 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 479 

u]), acted u})on and disposed of by his successor without any new 
apjilicatioii, request or solicitation. Very promptly all the prison- 
ers remaining in custody were pardoned and discharged. 

Samuel A})plemari : — This gentleman is recorded as having 
undergone an imprisonment for 53 days. It appears in the evi- 
dence that he resides in the immediate neighborhood of Kantz ; 
that he went to the meeting in the afternoon, but was there only 
about 15 minutes and then returned home. He does not seem to 
have taken any part in the meeting, or to have given any other 
pretext for his arrest. 

Joseph Coleman, another victim, aged 68, a surviving soldier 
of the war of 1SI2, was at Mr. Appleman's house on the 14th of 
August, when Daniel M' Henry arrived tliere, accompanied by his 
wife, child, and a niece, on his way to visit a relative. Mr. Cole- 
man spoke to M'lTenry and referring to the Rantz meeting asked 
him to go up to it and induce the people "to go home to tht-ir 
business." In this request he was joined by Mr. Absalom 
M' Henry who was there at the time. Upon D. M' Henry's re- 
marking that they themselves should go up, they replied that he 
had better go ; that he was more competent than they were and 
could accomplish more. Thereupon D. M'Henry went up to the 
met'ting accompanied by Absalom M'Henry. He left his people 
at Appleman's, and abandoned the visit he had intended to make. 
These facts are fully set forth in the testimony of Absalom 
M'Henry and of Samuel Appleman given before the Military 
Commission on tlie Hith day of December, 1864. 

It will, then, be seen that Mr. Coleman was instrumental in 
sending a gentlemm to the meeting to discourage and disperse it. 
We next hear of him as an arrested man. He was seized and 
taken to Fort MilHiii without any regard for his years or his in- 
nocence, and was kept there for a period of 49 days, when he was 
discharged without trial, under an order issued by Gen. Couch. 
Meantime, his farm was occupied for a military encampment and 
extensive depredations were committed upon his property. For 
these no compensation has ever been made. 

Daniel M' I/eiiry's arrest is the only additional one we will 
iri«Mi(ion, in this particular connection, although many others, 
outr.i"-eous in <-har:icter. might be named. The testimony of Ab- 



4S0 



JIl.SJ'OKY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



sjilom ]\r'ITonry. to wliu'li roiVroiu'o lias already boon mado, ox- 
plains oloarly tho oironnistaiioos undor whioh D. IM'lIoniy wont to 
tho Kant/, mooting, and also what was said and dono by liini 
wliilo thoro. Wo shall thorol'oro givo it in full, adiling tho tosti- 
inony of John Hakor giv«Mi at tho sauio tiino. 

Absalom M //t /in/, sirorn : — "1 livo in .laokson township, Col- 
umbia oounty ; am a farmor. 1 kn(>w Kdward I\rilonrv : hi> is n\y 
son: 1 know Daniol M'llonry ; saw liim on tho Mti\ of August. 
\\v oanio to Samuol Apploman's whovo 1 Avas. 1 was thoro a little 
boforo hinj. .losoph C\Woman was j>iisont. 1 askod l^aniol M'- 
llonry if ho was going up to tlio mooting: ho s;iid ho had not in- 
tondod to g<\ ho was g«>ing anothor oourso. llo thou got out of 
his wagon :ind lurnod it. I told him 1 w'uld liko him to go up 
and soo what thoy woro d»>ing thoro :is ihoy might go into moas- 
uros that I did not oonsidor right and I wouhl liko him to gt^ up 
and spoak and disoourago thorn, lli' wont into tho houso and ho 
s:iid no word about going up. 1 ;igain ;vskod him and wo wont. 
Wo t:dkoil :is wo wont along th;it wo should adviso thorn to dis- 
porso and not do anything contrarx to hiw, and ho advisod mo to 
s[>oak to thom as T was older. NN'o w:ilkod up to tho Ivautz barn, 
llo mado a spoooh : his spoooh w:is sliort. llo t;ilkod vory muoh 
as wo h;ul spokon. llo told thom thoy had hotter go home and if 
the st>ldiors did oomo ;vnd burn their houses they had tho law to 
f:ill b;u'k o\\, and tho neighbors would not leave thom sutler. 1 
think 1 ho;ird tho whole of his spoooh distinotly and that w:is the 
loading point. 1 w:is pretty oh>se ti> hini. lie did not lulviso tho 
n\on to stand together. If ho h:vd s;iid it 1 would luvve remember- 
ed it. There was some oonversatiim between us and ho w;inted 
drafted men to pay or report. Kdw:»rd M" Henry saiil the drafted 
men should st;uid together and ho wimld bo with ihoni. 

CroS{i-K.vaniin(d : — l);iniol MlliMuy did not say ho believed 
tho peoi»le woro un:inimous in what they had undort.nkou. The 
objoot of tho mooting at Kant/'s — thoy met to eonsnlt what they 
should (h^ if tho soldiers should oomo up : whether thoy should 
stand luit :ind del\Mul themselves if thoy should injuro them. Thoro 
was a gooil ntany dr:»ftod men thoro. Ed. M'llonry was at the 
further I'ud o\' tho barn and 1 eould not hoar all ho s;ud and 1 
would h:no r:nhor ho would not have spoken, llo :ul\ isod the 



HIHTORY OF (JOLUMBIA (JOIJNTY. 4 Ml 

*lr;ift(!f] rrifri to Htick tog<;t her if tlic KoUliciH carrio to carry out 
tlieir plan. I difl not underHtand that they intended to rebel 
aj^airiHt th(^ lawH unless it was in self-defence. The drafted men 
intended to resist if the soldiers came to arrest tliern ; so I thought. 

Re- JlJj-arninc.d : — I)ani<;l M'Hcnry advised \\u: peojilc to dis- 
perse and go home." 

Jolin Baker, Hworn: — "I n;side in Benton townsliip; a w'ag<ni 
maker. I was at the Ilantz mer-ting on the 14th r»f August last. 
I saw Daniel M'llenry there about 3 P. M. or after. He spoke a 
little while; could not tell the words. Tie talked to persuade the 
meeting 1o rlisj)erse. He; thought they might be very cautious, 
that some malicious person might commit some depredations. His 
remarks were not in favor of the meeting; the substance of his 
speech was against the meeting. I saw Edward M'Henry there. 
I can't word his speech. He said they would have trouble and as 
for his j»art he would not go. His remarks were in favor of resist- 
ance. Daniel M'Henry is a true and loyal man I think. 

CrosH Kramined : — I started from liome after dinner; got 
back at early supper time. The people were forming V.>efore I got 
to the barn. Daniel M'Henry was not there long. I did not see 
him long. T saw him come to the barn. I do not remember of 
seeing him after lie made his speedi." 

"^fo the same purpose with the foregoing was the testimony of 
James Evans, who was also present at the Rantz meeting and was 
examined as a witness for tlie defence. 

The government witness, Silas Karns, stated M'Henry 's ren)arkfi 
somewhat diffeiently, though substantially to the same effect. He 
admitted that "Daniel M'Henry did not advise them to resist the 
soldiers," and that "he advised them not to go on l>iit to liold on 
and see what was done in the matter." 

Such tlien are the facts in relation to Daniel M'Henry 's connec- 
tion with the Kant/, meeting. He went to the meeting upon re- 
quest to oppose all violent and imprudent counsels, and to induce 
those who were there to disperse quietly and go home, and he 
carried out his intention faithfully and fully. 



482 HIS TO RY OF COL UMBIA CO UNTY. 

The Spekcues : — Rem arks were made in the barn, as the wit- 
nesses infonn ns, by SaTimel Kline, Daniel IMTTenry and Edward 
M'FT in y. They were brief l)nt were not all to the same pnrpose 
or made with the same ol>jeet After some observations by Kline, 
I). M'Henry spoke in tlie manner ahead }'■ described and very prop- 
erly and wisely. Then Ed. M'lTenry made some excited remarks. 
He said (amon<>- other tliinizs) as 'e])orfed by the witness Karns, 
that '■he vai liO'. (is tl>.<? ni'in tha*. hal sp ke hefor:' hhn; that 
some men ha I pi'omised to protect tlieai and when tlie -rial came 
refused — some men had done so. He did ' ot name who they 
wei'e. I conld not tell what ho did say ; I heard wliat I have 
stated ; some tliini:;s said I coidd not recollect to tell liere. Some 
men had backed ont." 

'j'he meaninti- of all this is very evident. D. M'Henry's remarks 
in favor of doing- nothing in the way of resisting the soldiers, 
that they should wait and see what was done and that even if 
pro[)erty was burned they had the law to fall back upon, were 
vei-y unwelcome to Ed. M'Henry, and angered him. Hence his 
bluster and protest; his disagreement with the previous speaker 
and his accusation that some men had backed out. 

Protection of the property and families of drafted men and of 
other citizens against an apprehended raid upon them had been 
the topic of consideration, and squads of observation with refer- 
ence to this object exclusively were afterwards formed, composed 
however of a portion only of the persons present. Resistance to 
the arrest of drafted men does not seem to have b' en discussed 
at all or avowed as an object at the meeting, but it is likely that 
Ed. M'Henry and some others in his position desired to promote 
their personal safety by ulterior measures not then proposed. 
Be this as it may, there was a direct issue made at the meeting 
between Daniel and Edward M'Henry; between the man of peace 
and the man of violence ; between the law-abiding citizen on the 
one hand and the draft-skulk on the other. 

Now what was done by the military authorities in regard to 
these two men '? How were they regarded and treated respectively 
by the chiefs of the occupation and by the agents of military jus- 
tice? We well know what was done. The man whose conduct 
was upright and worthy of praise was seized and put in prison 
for four months, and was persecuted and impoverished by an un- 



HISTOIIY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 483 

just nnd in;ili<;ii:i'a prosecution. The otliev, tliough arrested, 
was allowed to go forth free aul uupiiiiishe;! aud was put under 
govenimeut i»ay as a witness against tlie very man whose i)eace- 
ful (;ouns<.']s he had oj>pos(.'(l and spurni'(l! 



THE CLUr. MHKTiX(;s OF 1863. 



One of the principal clnrges made against our citizens in the 
trials at Ilarrishiirg. was that they had oi'_'ani/,ed a secret organi- 
zation or society to resist tlie draft. This cliarge (which was en- 
tirely false) ap|»eared in all the cases tried and was contained in 
the printed form of accusation used by tlie Judge Advocate. 
Names and dates were tilled in the printed form, in each case, but 
the sub^tunce of the accusation was the same in all the cases, and 
convictions upon it were had. The form of the accusation as it 
appeared in the charges and specifications against Stott E. CoUey, 
one of the p'-isoTiers, was literally as follows : — 

Specification : — "In tliis. that he the said Stott E CoUey, a cit- 
izen of Columbia county, Pennsylvania, did unite, confederate 
and combine with John Rantz, Rohr Mllenry ind many other 
disloyal persons whose names are unknown, and form or unite 
with a society or organization commonly known and called by the 
name of the '-Knights of the (xolden Circle," the object of which 
society or organization was and is to resist the execution of the 
draft, and pri-vent persons who have been drafted under the pro- 
visions of the said act of Congress, approved March 3d, I860, ami 
the several supplements thereto, from entering the military ser- 
vice of the United States. This done at or near Benton town- 
ship, Columl)ia county, Pennsylvania, on or about August 14, 
1804, and at divers times and places before and after said men- 
tioned day." 

Theie are three averments in denial of this charge which were 
established beyond dispute by the evidence and which we shall 
now state and sustain. 

1, That the (so-called) "secret meetings," referred to in this 
charge, were held in the s|iring of 18G3 and none l:;terthan about 



484 /rrs TO R Y O F CO L UM /i TA CO UN T Y. 

the month of INIay of that year : consoqiuMitly that they wore h<'ld 
nearh/ one year and a half boforo tl\i> arrests were mnde at the 
end of August 1864. 

2 That they were politieal ehibs simply, and had no unhvwful 
or improper objeet ; and particuhvrly tliat they were not intended, 
nor organized and eondueted, to oppose tlie eonseription laws of 
the Tnited States. 

,'V That they were not e.alled or known, during their existence 
by tlie name of "Knights of the Golden Circle,"' nor was any 
such name ever assigned to them in any (piarter until tlu> time 
of the trials or shortly before. 

(.)n the Uantz trial, on this point we have the following evi- 
dence : 

David Savage, ti>ri>rfi : — 1 am a member of those secret Asso- 
ciations. The only secret about them was the pass word. We 
were sworn to support the constitution of the Ignited States and 
of Pennsylvania, and the laws. There was no organization to re- 
sist *he draft. .Vlmost all the persons belonging to this Associa- 
tion subscribed money to pay bounties, itc. The Associations 
were ])urely |>olitical. Kantz said to me he had been in to see 
the soldiers, and told them they could hunt up all the drafted men 
rtn«l arrest them, and they winild not be disturbed. 

Nirhola,< Kindt, sirorn: —I was a member of these Associa- 
ti>ns. They ceased last May a year 1 think. The password was 
the *)nly secret in it. The obliiration was to support the c-mistitu- 
tion of the United States and of Pennsylvania and the laws ac- 
cording thcr to. There was no organizaticm to resist the draft. 

Martin .liniitt rnian. siror/r. — 1 was .a member of tliese Associa- 
tions. They ceased last spring a year. The oath was as stated by 
the last witness. There was ni) organization to resist the draft. 
The tmlv S' cret was the sign of recognition. Never heard these 
organizations called Knights of the Golden Circle, till lately, and 
tliat by outsiders. 

()n the trial of Stott K. Collcy, the following very conclusive 
testimony was given for the defence: 

,T(ieoh lYelii>'er. .■^iror?i : — "T reside in Renton : am a farnu'r. T 



HlSTOUy Oh (JOLUMJilA (JOUNTY. 48.'> 

knew of iiieotiiifrs in .lackson IovviikIuj). I wiis tliert; twice. Knew 
of nothiiiGT Hecret about them but their signs. I was initiated; 
whether there or not cannot say positively. The strangers were 
only excluded when signs were given. They were callerl "JJetno- 
cratic Lodges'' as far as I heard. Those that could speak, spoke. 
We were lo support the Constitution and laws of llie United 
States; nothing was said about the conscript act; nothing said 
that I ever licard of about i-esistiiig the conscription act. 

(JroHH Ej-<iiiutt(d: — Never he ird the oalh but twice; we were 
to support the Constilulion of the State and of the United Slates, 
and :il! conslit ut ional laws.'" 

William Ask, Hvjorn: — "I was at secret meetings in sjiring of 
1.S03 in Henton township; I hk t Ed. Arilenry there; there were 
;i few initialed that evening; Ilirani Asli was llieie, William Aj)- 
pleman, K. IJoyd. The obligation was to sujipoit the Constitu- 
tion of the United Slates and the State «if Pennsylvania ; noihing 
in the oalh about resisting the conscrij/tion act. I wa.s in when 
persons were initiated. 

Cross- Examined: — T reinembtr P2d. M'Henry because he spoke 
at ineeiings; I only attended two meetings; he spoke at the first 
meeting. I could not tell all he said or give the substance. He 
<lid not advise the jieople to lake up arms. I did not hear him say 
drafted men should \U)X, leport. The oath only bound us to sup- 
jioil each other as far as the laws went. 1 was never a regular 
niernlx'r. The signs were the secrets. I was no mend^er and j)aid 
no ulteniion to the signs. I was not in all the time; I was not 
present during the whole initiation. Did not see Stott E. Colley 
there. The oath was to support the C>jnstiluti<jn of the U'^nited 
States, and State of Pennsylvania." 

Win. lirink, sworn: — "I live in Jackson township. I attended 
meetings in spring of IH&6, 1 only atten<led one place: Ed. M*- 
Jlenry was theie a couj)le of times. I was initiated They called 
it their "'Club Meeting. " (Some have called it the 'Golden Circle,' 
bill ihe name was 'Club Meeting.') There was noihing secret only 
the signs. Thtre tras a siibscriptinn to laise bounty money for 
volunteers oiw. evening 'w/ien I vas in. We raised over $7UU ; — 
/loir niuc/i 7/iorc 1 cannot tell. They lead fiom Constiturujn ai.d 



480 irrsTORY or Columbia county. 

a ne vspainT. Once, a iiino numtlis' solilirr spoke and Ed. M'Heiny 
objcH'tod to a soldier being a leader, and I told M'llenry to behave 
himself: it broke up tlie meeting. Nothing said about resisting 
the (irafl. Kd\var<l IM'IIenry had talked about it : he allowed they 
ought to raise funds to keep drafted iniui at home." * * * 

JJiraiii .I,s7/, ^irorji: — "I was at sciiool house in Benton, in 
18(il^ ; Ed. M'Henry was tliere. I was initiateil The obligation 
was to support the Constitution of Pennsylvania and of the 
ITnited States ; not a word in the oath about conseriplion act. 
They were trying to raise funds to raise volunteers. There was 
nothing secret about the meetings except the signs. A stranger 
coidd be in tlie room when the oath was administered. Tlie meet- 
ings were called 'Union Clid>' and 'Democratic Club.' 

Cross-e.ratNhud: — We did not take an oath to suppoit each 
other: never such an oath did I take. No such obligation taken 
by the members, at any such meeting I was ;it.'" 

tlo/ni Saraf/e, sirorii: — "I live in Jackson township; am a 
farnu-r. I was ;it one so-called secret meeting in ,l;ickson town- 
ship in 1S63. We took an obligation to support the Constitution 
and haws of the ITnited States. I c:dled it same society it was 
over the township. I do not know that Ed. McHenry beloiiged 
to it. Nothing said in o;vth about resisting conscription act or 
draft. The secret was signs. 

Cross-exai/il/ied: — The signs were to know each other, and 
whenever got into trouble to let one another know. Took na 
oath to support each other. The sign was merely to know each 
other when we met. It runs in my mind tliere w as nothing about 
helping e:u'h other: that we would know each other by the signs 
if we were to meet one another ; some couUl helj> e:uh other out." 

Jfartin A. Am»n'r»iaf>, sironi: — 'd live in Fishingcreek town 
ship. I was initi:ited into the so-called secret meetings in Fish- 
ingcreek. « * * The oath was to support the Constitution of 
Pennsylvania :ind of the United States, nothing in the oath :ibout 
the conscription act, nor anything about resisting the draft. The 
last meeting was in March or Ajiril. 1808, that I attended. T/ie 
mcmbr/'ti of the Society raised money to pay rohinteei-s.'* 



HIHTORY OF COLUMBIA C0UN1Y. 487 

Wc'liiivfli ii'tolon; given tilt! testimony (>r A;in>n Sinitli ;in<l 
Williiun Kv.'ins, governinent witnesses, very iiiuch to the s:iine 
[dirpose ;in(l effect with the foregoing testimony concerning the 
Chih meetings. C'harles (iihlions, unother government witness, 
testilied tliiit he "iittended three or four of the so-called secret 
meetings," hut no question was asked him regarding the character 
or the proceedings which took place wh(Mi he was ]»resent. I'lie 
inference to he drawn from this fact is, that he could testify to 
notliing wiiich w(juld ondemn them or cast suspicion upon the 
motives or conduct of the persons who attended them. 

VV^e have tfien one dozen rej)Utab]e witnesses who testify to the 
iiin'i(;(3iit and lawful character of the Clid> meetings of 1HG3, 
against a single witness upon the other side. JlJcery witness ex- 
(ttniaed in relation to those Club meethtys whether for the gov- 
ernment, or for the defense, saoe Ed. M^ Henry, pronounced 
their vindication from all censure or enil imputation. 



SPECIAL CASES. 



THE CASE OF WILLIAM KESSI-ER. 



The case of William Kesslerof Jackson township in this county, 
occurring about the time under di(;cussion, is both instructive and 
interesting. Kessler was improperly enrolled and his name was 
drawn in a draft. When the officer or person employed for the 
]»urpose gave notices to the men drafted at- that time, he was in- 
formed thai Kessler was non compos mentis, tliat he had recently 
escaped from tlie IIarris\)urg liUnaiic Asylum, was utterly and 
notoriously unfit for military service and that notice to him would 
V)e idle and absurd. No notice was therefore served in the case, 
but some time afterwards Kessler was arrested as a deserter and 
hurri" d away from home for trial and punishment. Nothing can 
more fidlv show the unfitness of military tribunals for the ad- 
ministration of justice to the citizen, than the proceedings in his 
case. In the Congressional debates of 1807, we find the follow- 
ing remarks made by Mr. Huckalew, in the Senate, in reft rence to 
this case : 



488 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

"T know one oaso of jv luan fresh from the Poniisylvania State 
Lunatic Asylinu who was reported upon one of these lists [of non- 
report in*;- (h-af ted men ;] no notiee was served u})on him or on 
any one else: he was carried olV and tried before a military tribu- 
nal at lIarris\>uro; and put in prison, and under the sentence pass- 
ed upon him lu' was loaded down with a ball and chain — an in- 
sane man. The case was heard ra})idly, summarily ; nobody ap- 
peared for him ; the court did not knctw that he was insane ; they 
asked him some questions, he gave absurd replies, and they sup- 
posed he was an incorrigible offender. It was necessary to ap- 
peal to the President in that case and have the man pardoned in 
order to discharge him from liis prison and from bonds." Cong. 
Globe \st Sess. -iOth Con. l\ GG2. 

The following letter was written, pending the application to 
the President for Kessler's pardon and discharge from Fort 
Mittiin. 

'•W.\siiiN(; roN, July 24, 1865. |_ 
INIonday afternoon. \ 

Dkau Siu. — 1 had an interview with the President, on Saturday 
and brought the case of Kessler to his notice. The record of the 
conviction not being among the jtapeis 1 went to-day to the otlice 
of the.Iudge Advocate General (but Holt is absent) and found it. 
A report from that oilrtce will be realy at 10 o'clock to-morrow 
when I will go again to the President and have the case determin- 
ed. The record says the Defendant confessed the facts and said 
he never intended to report, whereupon the sapient commission 
gave him tic) i/cars with ball and chain ! 
Yours very truly, 

C. R. BUCKALEW." 

COI.. J. G. FUKKZE. 



We next give the order of discharge which was issued from 
the War Department: 

War DlsrART^lKNT, ^ 

Adjvtant Gknkkak's Ori-ici: [- 
Washington, July 2oth, I860. ) 

Special Oroers, I, ^^^.^^.^^^ » 

Tlie unexpired portion of the sentence of the Gener:vl Court 
Martial in the case of Private Willi:vni Kessler, an un;issigned 



[TTSTORY OF (JOLUMBTA COUNTY. 4S() 

draft(!fl man, from I^emisylvaiiia, Ih remitted. He will be released 
from confinement at Fort MifHiri, PentiHylvania (where he is now 
supposed to be,) discharged the service of the United States, and 
returned in charge of a guard to his home in Jackson township, 
Columbia county, Pennsylvania. 

The (Quartermaster's Department will riunish llie necessary 
transport atifui. 

liy order of the rrcsident of the United States. 

{/Signed.) E. D. TOWNSEND. 

Assistant Adjutant (General. 
Official, 

li. Williams, 

Ass't. Adj't. (Jeiieral. 

It will be observe<l lh;it Kessler was to be sent liome in charge 
of a guard, because he was incapable of taking care of hinjself. 
And ytt hf liad undeigone protracted imprisonment, under a se- 
vere and ignominious sentence, for an offence wliich, from the 
very nature of tlie case, he was incapable of committing ! 



TIIK CASK OK DYKU I,. < IIAIMN. 



This gentleman was, in lSfi4, a meichant and justice of the 
peace resident at New C'olumbus on the bolder of Luzerne county, 
and had previously lepresented that county in the Legislature. 
He was arrested and taken to Benton cliurch. ^Ist August, 18G4, 
and thence, with the other citizen jjrisoners, to Fort MifHin on 
the Delaware, where he was detained until taken to Ilarrisburg 
for trial on the MJth of December following. On the 2Hth of 
J)ec('Miinr he was tried before the Military Commission and 
promptly and honorably ac(juitted. He was finally discharged 
from custody on Saturday the 31st of the same month and jjer- 
inittedto return home, having been precisely /bwr months within 
llic grasp of military power. 

The following is the otlicial announcement of the finding in 
his case, as ai)jiroved by Maj. Gen. Cadwallader, in general orders 
No. 4, dated at head (piaiteis. Department of Pennsylvania, Phil- 
adelphia, January 14tli, \H(')'). 

"Before a Military Commission which convened at Harrisburg, 
Pa., pursuant to Special Orders * * and of which Brig. General 



4it() irrs'/'onv or Columbia county. 

Tluiiiuis A. Kowlcy, V. S. Vols., is |in'si(^('iit, wore .'irr;iiL!,ne(l and 
triod :" * * * 

"2ii(l — Di/iV L. Ch<ipiii.. ;\. v\[\/.vu o^ Liizcnic coimty, I'a., on 
the follow ing cliari;'*' and s|ircilii':i(ion : 

Chaiujc: — Aiding and alx'ttinji,- resistance to the draft. 

iSpi'cijicdtioti: — ^Inlhis; thai the said Dyer L. Chaitin, did 
Furnish, sell and deliver to oni' I^'i'ancis M. Ikeler, gun caps and 
two pounds of lead, more (M- less, to be usi'd aii'ainst United 
States soldiers coining- up the valley of I<'ishinL!,'i're( k, in C\)lunil)ia 
county, l*:i., knowing the same were to be used for the [nirpose of 
resisting the said soldiers of tlie United States: 

'I'iiis done on or ;d)out August 11th, 1S()4, at or about the vil- 
lage of New Columbus, Lu/erne county, ]*ennsylvania. 

'I\) wliich chaige and s|)ecilication tho accused, Dyer L. Cha- 
pin, a citi/.en of Lu/,erne county, Pennsylvania, plead "'not (]uUty^' 

niidiiig: — The Coinniission after mature deliberation on the 
evidence adduced, Hnds tlie accused. Dyer \j. Ciiapin, a citizen 
of liUzerno county, Pennsylvania, as folU)ws : 

Of the Speciticatioii, Not Guilty. 

Of the Charge Not Guilty. 

And the Commission does therefore acquit him." 
The accusation on which Mr. Chapin was tried ai)pears almoHt 
farcical uj>on its face ; but slight and frivolous as it was, it was 
found to be unjust and false. Jiesides, it was either concocted 
some time after his ariest or made to lake the place of more 
material matters of accusation whicli could not be sustained. It 
was first heard of, or produced in a formal manner, when Col. 
Albright came upon his expedition as an evidence hunter toward 
the end of Septend>er, but othtr matters of accusation, or a ditfer- 
t'ut form o'( tlie same accusation, wH)uld seem to have been 
bruited about before. \Ve have heard that a bill or voucher o{ 
Mr. Chapin's for "-2 lbs of lead," was read or rej>orted as "2 bl)ls, 
of lead;' tlu' ch'ar inference being th.Mt he was engaged in pro- 
curing or furnishing sni>iilies for the so called "insurrection." 
.Vnother wonderful statement made concerning liim is ventilated 
in the eoi'ri'spoiulenei' which we subjoin. W'e submit it without 
remai'ks as it fidly explains itsi'lf. 



iiisTonr or columbta covnty. ■v.)\ 

(■(>Kl{i;SI'(iNI»KN( K. 

Nkw CoHMIU'S, 1*.\. } 
jNInrcli, 2d, 1870. j" 

MkSSRS. 1'. ( ". \\',\l>.-\\ (ll. I 11, AM> .I.ACdl'. FlT/.(;H{.\l l>, — Jjidr 

•Sirs: — Will you do iin' tlic l;i\or to ihmIiico to wriliiig ;i st:il('iiK'Mt 
niJidc ill your | rt'soni c by (iwyriii 'I'yrcuiiui conccniiiiLC :i rcjiort 
tliat lie li:id juit iu circuhiliou :il)OUt seeing uiy icaui liiiuliiig a 
(•;iMiioii llii<.iUij;li '1\)\\ II Hill, the hitUT j art of tht Miiniiicr ol I.S04 
and ol)lim' 

Yours very lesjiuctrullv 

I). I.. Cumin. 

Town Hii.i., 1'a. \ 
Miircii 3i\, 1870./ 
Hon. D. L. CiiAi'i-N. — JJear Sir: — Your favor of the second in- 
stant in before us, and contents nottd. In coni][»liance with your 
retiueist we aiine.v the following Htatenient. 

About the time the military forces of tlie United States were 
marched up Fishingcreek, in the latter part of the summer of 
18(il, it was reported that (Jwyiiii Tyrenian liad occasion to be up 
hite one bright moonlight night, and had seen your team pass 
through Town Hill between midnight and daylight with a cannoD 
which your learn was hauling to Henloii or Fishingcreek in Col- 
umbia county for the coiiscrij)t8, who it was rei)orted were congre- 
gating there in a large force to resist the draft. Subsequently we 
were in A. J. Hess' store in Town Hill, and heard him ask Gwynn 
Tyrenian about seeing your team hauling a cannon to the con- 
scripts ill lieiiton and Fishingcreek, in answer to which Gwynn 
Tvieman replied, that he had never seen your team hauling a 
cannon or anylhiiig of the kind ami that he had started the 
report just to create an excitement. 

ivespeclfully Yours, 

P. C Wadswortii, 
Jacob FrrzcjiKUALU. 

In the following letter received from Mr. Chapiii, that gentle- 
man refers to certain jjajters and gives some interesting details of 

his case. 

Nkw CoiXMius, March 7th, 1870. 

('. r>. IJu()( KWAV, Es*,)., — Dear Sir. — Enclosed iind a letter to, 

and I'loiii Messrs. ^Va.lsv^()rth and I'^il/gerald. 1 hardly know 



492 HIISTOKY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

what more to soiul you. I will, however, annex a brief sketch of 
my career for about 17 years previous to my arrest by tlie mili- 
tary. I moved to New C\)hiinbus, A])ril 1st. 1847, and engaged 
in the mercantile business. In ISo^ I was elected a justice of the 
peace, in Huntingdon townslii|), and was re-elected again in 
1858 in the same townshij), which was strongly republican, with- 
out opposition. In 1850, I was elected a member of the Legisla- 
ture from Luzerne county. In 18(U, I was elected a justice of 
the peace again. Arrested August 31st, 1864, by the military, 
and transported with a rush to Fort MitHin where I remained 
until the 19th of December. 1864, (hiring which time I sulfered 
severely with tlie ague and rheumatism, which disabled me to 
such an extent that I was obliged to use crutches for some time. 
On the 18th of December, 1864, an order came to Fort Mifflin 
for my removal to Ilarrisburg for trial, where I arrived on the 
evening of the 19th. and was marched up to Canterbury Guard 
House near the State Cai)itol Hotel, where I was kept with Dan- 
iel iM'Henry and others. Daniel jM'IIenry's trial closed and mine 
was to come next. I was called for on Tuesday, December 27th, 
but the Commission was not ready. December 28th, was called 
for again ; this time the Military Commission was ready. I was 
arraigned before the Star Chamber and one w^itness, F. M. Ikeler, 
examined against me, and N. J. Hess was asked one question and 
my trial was over. It lasted about one hour. I did not call a 
witness. On Saturday an order came for my discharge and it 
appeared strange enough to be permitted to walk the streets of 
Harrisburg without a guard by my side, or in the rear. I ai rived 
at home on the 2d of January, 1864. About the 12th of Decem- 
ber, 1864, Colonel Eastman, the comuiaudaut of Fort MitHin, sent 
for me to come to his quarters, where, of course, I made my ap- 
pearance; when he inquire<l if 1 knew what I was arrested for, I 
answered, that I did not : then I asked him the same question, and 
received for an answer that I was arrested for resisting the draft 
in Columbia county. I very pointedly informed him I did not 
live in Columbia county, which apj)eared to surprise him very 
much ; he then informed me that he had a letter that my wife 
had written Governor Curtin, which he handed me to read. Gov- 
ernor Curtin had forwarded my wife's letter to the War Depart- 
ment and thev had sent it to Fort IMitHin. whether to increase the 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 493 

sevority of tny iniprisonment, or relax the iron grasp of tyranni- 
cal rlespotism I knew not — she talked plainly to them at any rate. 
During my interview with Colonel Eastman, I told hira T had 
nothing to regret, that I had never resisted the draft or advised 
others to do so, and if I liad my life to live over again I did not 
think I would act diffei'ently from what I had since the war com- 
menced. I have not got a copy of F. M. Ikeler's evidence before 
the Military Commission. I think it can be had of A. J. Herr, 
Esq., who was my attorney before the Military Commission. It 
differed materially from the two affidavits, of his, I gave you, 
taken in Fishingcreek or Benton. Soon after my arrest in 1864, 
a report was in circulation that som * of the intensely loyal in 
New Columbus were to be arrested, and in great haste they re. 
ported to Colonel Stewart at Benton, who, very generously, in- 
formed them that he would noiify them when he wished to see 
them. ****** 

I think this, with the other })apers I gave you, gives a brief 
outline of my arrest and imprisonment, and you are at liberty to 
put it together in such shape as you may think best. Should you 
require any further information I will cheerfully give it, if in 
my power. Yours very Respectfully, 

D. L. CHAPIN. 

P. S. — I might remark here that it is not customary for mer- 
chants to ask their customers what they intend to do with their 
purchases. T had sold fjun caps and lead for seventeen years, to 
any one of my customers who called for it and John Ikeler's chil- 
dren had been in the habit of coming to the store frequently. 

D. L. C. 

He was tried for resisting the draft, though he had been one of 
the most active mei in his section in assisting to furnish soldiers 
for the war. In oncluding his cise we will ask our readers to 
peruse the following statement written by Mr. Chapin in prison 
Dec. 14, lSf)4, every word of which is indubitably true. 

'Fort Mikfun, Dec. 14, 1864. 

On or about the 7th of August 1862, Myron Fellows who was 
then living with me, made up his mind to enlist in the army and 
try a-id raise a squad of volunteers to entitle him to a Lieuten- 
ancy. I rejtlied that I was very sorry to lose his services, but, if 
he had made up his mind to enlist, I would piocure him all the 



494 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 

assistance 1 could in procuring volunteers. In about one week 
we recruited between sixty and seventy men. On or about the 
twelfth of August, 1862, the company recruited were to .rendez- 
vous af. Town Hill preparatory to starting for the Rail Road De- 
pot at Shickshiuny. James Tubbs and myself called the volun- 
teers up in line, Myron Fellows being Jinavoidably absent. 1 
made out a roll and helped to get. the recruits conveyances to 
transport them to Shickshinny, where they remained a few days 
when E. S. Osborne Esq. joined them with thirty or forty men. 

Myron Fellows yi^'lded his right to the position of Captain and 
accepted that of First Lieutenant. The Company was attached 
to the 149th P. V. Roy Stone was elected Colonel. A short 
time after in the same year C. K. Hughes began recruiting a com- 
pany to whom I furnished a spring wagon to haul his music and 
speakers to r*^cruiting meetings, or as they were called war meet- 
ings, for nearly a month, and frequently went with him to aid in 
recr\iiting his company which when full was attached to the 143rd 
Regiment P. V. 

Srcond. — When the dr;ift was made under the State law in 1862 
the Borough of New Columbus in which I live was exempt. Our 
quota was 14, and we had in the military service 18 volunteers 
leaving a credit for New Columbus Borough of four Tuen after 
filling all calls made for volunteers. In 1863 New Columbus 
Borough was enrolled with Huntington Township, and our credit 
was absorbed in the deficiency in the township. The draft was 
ordered and the Borough being attached to the Township we 
could do nothing toward filling our quota with volunteers. Some 
six or seven were drafted who all reported and paid their commu- 
tation or went into the army except two, one of them was strick- 
en off, and the other belonged to the 143rd Regiment P. V. Un- 
der the next call in the winter of 1864, the quota of New Colum- 
bus Borough was two. A meeting of those liable to the draft 
was called. I offered a resolution that each one liable to the 
draft should pay twenty five dollars each to raise funds to pay 
local bounty of $275.00 to eaoh volunteer, which passed. I drew 
up a sub.^cription and signed twenty five dollars, subsequently 
increased it to $30.00, to make up the deficiency which was more 
than any one else })aid. The men were protuired and our quota 
filled. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 4<)5 

UiKler tlie next call our quota was filled by my offering a reso- 
lution before the Town Council which was passed to levy a tax to 
pay bounty to volunteers, which was levied and enough collect' d 
to pay $300.00 local bounty to volunteers to fill our quoia, the 
last of May 1864. 

Under the next call for 500,000 the quota of New Columbus 
Borough was Jour. I offered a resolution before the Town 
Council, which passed, authorizing the council to issue B >r<)ugh 
Bonds j^ayable in one, two, and three years to raise money to i)ay 
$300,00 bounty to each volunteer. The volunteers were i-Uiiag 'd 
and promised '^A2o local bounty each, h aving $5)0 to be raised 
among 15 or 20 men liable to the draft and some not able to ]»iy 
anything. Hei'e my efforts to fill our quota with voluntt-ers were 
about to fail. I th'Mi proposed to those liable to the d.-al't t.) get 
the men ready to start to Scranton on Tuesday morniu!i the 3)th 
of August an<l raise all the money they could and I w>) ild ad- 
vance the rest. The day ai-rived and to make up the deiiciency 
I paid six hundred and twenty-eight dollars. John llogert and 
R. S. ]>ingham went to Scranton with the V' lunt'-ers on the 30th 
day of August 1S64 and returned with the Provost Marshal's re- 
ceii)t the same evening before I left my office. 

The next morning August 31, 1864, I was arrested and sent to 
Fort MifHin where I am now confined a citizen prisoner, without 
knowing what great crimes I am accused of." 



A CASE OF HANGING. 



COMMHIA COUNTY, SS. 

Leonard R. Cole, of Jackson township, in said 
county, being duly sworn according to law, saith : 

That he is a son of Ezekiel J. Cole of said township of Jack- 
son, and is sixteen years of age. That on Saturday afternoon 
November 5th, three soldiers came to his father's house and 
searched it. They then went to the barn and deponent started 
to the orchard near it to drive out the sheep to another field. 
One of the soldiers stopped him and took him to the stable in the 
barn. Two of them were there. They said they would make 



■i!)(i //is7'()/n' or ror.DtniA corxrw 

WW toll \> horo mv t'alhor \v;i>*. 1 toM \\\c\\\ 1 dul not know : thai 
ho had ^ono on Monday wook \o tlie mountain, np Wost oifek 
ga|), to hunt, and U>ld hln\ tl>i> way (lu'vo. Onriny; tlio examina- 
tion thoy put a roju' around uiy nook, aiul throw it ovor a mow 
l>olo and drew on it. Chio i>t' thom liold the i\>po and tho otliur 
had a book to sot licnvn what 1 said. Tho ono with tlio hook dl- 
rootod till" othor to pull hardor. Ho said my tathor had boon 
thoro two hoiM-s botoro. thoro was no nso lionyinu" it. I donioil ho 
had boon thoro. Tho ropo was puUoil until my hools woro drawn 
otV tho tK>or, .-md I wasblimlod and unabh> to spoak. ^ly mothor 
and KU/.aboth Ki>bbins approaohin>;' thoy took ofT tlio ropo, and I 
stHiiijoroil out of tlio stablo. (^no of thom hat! a ropo with him 
and tl\ov oluainod anothor piooo in tho stabU> and tiod tho two to- 
gothor to draw mo up. 1 had answorod tho tpiostions thoy Inul 
askod mo. and had not ixivon thom any unoivil languagv. 

1 do not ki\ow tho namos of tho soldiors in tho stablo, but 
would know thom upon sooinu' thom. Tho third ono was Ephraim 
Klim\ oi Honton township. llo was at tho oorn orib botwoon 
tho liouso and barn. 

l.Ft>N \un K. C'oi.K. 

Sworn and subsoribovl bot'oro mo Novombor 7th, lS(i4. 

.IeSSK C\>l.K>l.\N, 

Prothouotary. 
1^ 

TllK KlSlllNi; (.MJK.KK CONH^^EDKKACY. 

Tho stalo slandors about this subjoot havo boon so ofton and so 
th<>rouiihly rofutod that wo soUKmu pay muoli attention to thom. 
Wo oi^py. howovor, an artiolo on tho subjoot by tlio oditor of tho 
Shtnandoah Ihrahl, 1ST-, an Indopoudont journal, whioh how- 
ovor supports a portion of tho Kojniblioan tiokot. Tho writer was 
a member of tho ".Vrmy of Invasion," and knows whereof ho 
speaks : 

So it is with tho ohariro of fathorino- the "Fishing Crook Con- 
fodoraev" whioh is oast upon tho statesn\an like shoulders of 

in OK Vl.KW. 

Yet wo know this oharge is false, for wo wore on tho spot and 
took part in the oolebratoil eampaiL::n to orush it. "Well do we re- 



in STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 41)7 

iiioinbor the }jcroic cliarge we made on the supposed battlements 
of tlie confederates after a fortnight's preparation, reconnoitering, 
scouting and picketing, and quite vivid is the picture still in our 
minds «jf the disgusted countenances of the one thousand braves 
as they reached the summit of the mount where we were taught 
to Vjelieve the Fisliing Creek army was massed and which for one 
long monlli we had regarded with awe and expectancy, and found 
not a man, nor the meanest evidence that a man had ever Ijeen 
there. Such was our extreme disappointment that our sojourn 
in ("oiuml^ia county was shortened none too soon and but a few 
days ehijised before not a soldier was to be seen where for six 
weeks all had Vjeen bustle, an<l activity. The Government was 
beautifully fooled by a few jjeople who wanted to see the soldiers. 
In a word, impartial reader, let us inform you, that such a thing 
as a confederacy to resist the U. S. Government never existed in 
Columbia county, that the trouble that existed there during that 
interesting pi-riod (jf time when the draft was so severe, auKumt- 
ed to nothing more than what existed in this and other counties 
of the State, and that was the desertion of a few men that had 
been drafted and their refusal to appear when summoned in de- 
fence of their country. No open resistance, no organization in 
opposition to the federal authorities, nothing but the act of a few 
men who fled to escape being forced into the army — and this is 
the history of the "Fishingcreek Confederacy." 



CAPTAIN SILVERS' ST ATP:MENT— COLONEL STEW- 
ART CONTRADICTED. 

State of Pennsylvania, county of Columbia, »s.: 

Personally appeared before me, a notary public, in and for the 
said county, Captain William Silvers, who, being by me first <luly 
sworn, dej.oses and says that he has carefully read a lengthy article 
in the I'liihidelphiu Kvening Bulktin^oi Saturday, September 2l8t 
inst.,about Mr. Buckalew and the so-called "Fishingcreek Confeder- 
acy," together with the affi<lavit of Colonel Charles Stewart making 



49S HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

charges against Mr. Buckalew. wlucli are so false that I tliink 
it a duty as a citizen and a neighbor to correct them — not for any 
political result, but in justice to Mr. IJuckalew, and with the as- 
surance that I know more about the draft troubles in this county 
than eitlier the editor of the Bulletin or Colonel Charles Stewart, 
who was in this county but a short time. Deponent further says 
that after he was disabled and honorably discharged from the 
army he was appointed by Governor A. G. Curtin draft commis- 
sioner for Columbia county, and was subsequently appointed dep- 
uty provost marshal of the thirteenth district, which office he held 
until tlie close of the war, and therefore thinks he had better op- 
portunity of knowing the affairs of this county during the war 
than the editor of the Bulletin or Colonel Stewart. The latter 
asserts that he had received orders from General Couch to proceed 
to the Fishingcreek, Columbia county, and ''to kill, capture, or 
drive these men out of the country." This is materially different 
from the orders given deponent as deputy provost marshal by 
either General Couch or Major R. I. Dodge, i)rovost marshal of 
the State, both of whom were here. Dei»onent's orders from both 
were to be tinn with the men charged with desertion, but to use 
no violence unless under compulsion. The statement of Colonel 
Stewart is false also in stating that Mr. Buckalew addressed the 
''Rantz meeting" on Sunday, August 14, 1864. I was informed 
of an intended meeting the Saturday night previous, and proceed- 
ed through the woods to watch the movement, but Mr. Buckalew 
neither addressed the meeting nor was he at any time present. At 
the trial of the arrested men at Harrisburg, nor since, until this 
campaign, was he accused of being there. Colonel Stewart states 
another falsehood when he says that he detailed Lieutenant Magee 
to arrest Mr. Buckalew, and that the latter absented himself, and 
that Magee could not arrest him. I could have arrested j\Ir. Bucka- 
lew at any time had I received orders so to do, either at his home 
or whilst Congress was in session. I further assert that Colonel 
Stewart while here, arrested alleged deserters and received money 
from them, giving them written discharges, but that the men were 
subsequently held to service ; and that I wrote to him asking his 
authority for so doing ; he replied by stating that "the Govern- 
ment wanted tnoncy and not un'iiP Whereujjon T reported the 
facts to the provost marshal- and he was inunediately relieved 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 499 

from his coiiiiiiiukI. I fuithennore swear that in all my searches 
through Columbia and Sullivan couuties I never found the least 
trace of earthworks or fortifications, nor did 1 have any knowledge 
of artillery to resist the draft or United States troops. 

WlFJ.IAM Su.VKKS. 

Sworn to and subscribed before mc, this 30th day of September^ 
1872. Wm. Pkacock, 

[ska I,.] Notary Public 






500 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY- 



^j^i=:PEnsr:Di2^ i^o, i. 



PLEA OF JOHN RANTZ. 



To !ill the cliavijes and specitioations John Rantz, the prisoner, 
when in a court of proper jurisdiction will })load not guilty, but 
respectfully" begs leave to tile the following written plea to the ju- 
risdiction of this court ; 

1. The charges involve high and infamous crimes, and the 
Constitution of the United States expressly provides that no per- 
son shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous 
crime unless on a presentment or indictment by a grand jury, ex- 
cept in cases ainsing from the land or naval forces, or in the 
militia, wheti in active service in time of war or public danger. 
(Amendment Cuist. Art. 5.) And again : "In all criminal cases 
the prisoner shall enjoy the right of a speed)'^ public trial by an 
impartial jury of the State and district where the crime shall 
have been committed.'' (Amendment to the Const. Art. 6.) 

These provisions were adopted after the organization of the 
Government of the United States under the Constitution and for 
the purpose of placing the trial by jury entirely beyond the 
j)c)wer of Congress and all other bodies of the Government. The 
Constitution, as originally adopted, contained the following pro- 
visions on the subject : "The trial of all crimes, except in cases 
of impeachment, shall be by jury ; and such trial shall be held in 
the State where such crime shall have been committed." (Art. 4, 
Sec. 2.) So jealous were the people of the right in question that 
they recpiired the amendment tpioted, notwithstanding the origi- 
nal provision. 

The defendant is a citizen of the United States and of the State 
of Pennsylvania, not in the land or naval forces or in the militia 
in active service. He is therefore not within the exception of 
Article 3 of amendments above cited. That exception does not 
affect his rights any more than if it did not exist. The several 



HISTOEY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 501 

provisions of the Conslitutioii are absolute as to liiiii ; and if an\ 
constitutional provision can p.otect a right it would seem that he 
ought to be protected from a trial not in confonnity with them. 
It seems tnat he cannot, in fairness, be tried without being pre- 
sented by a grand ]nvy, or tried without Vk petit jury of the dis- 
trict wherein the alleged offences were committed. 

But it may be said that we are in a state of war ; that the writ 
of habeas corpus is suspended ; and the provisions in question are 
under similar suspension. But there is iio provision for the sus- 
pension of any branch of the Constitution. The Constitution in- 
ileed authorizes the suspension of the habeas corpus act — a law of 
the land, generally adojtted in the States prior to the Constitu- 
tion. The right of trial by jury, however, is placed on a different 
and higher ground. It is secured by these several absolute pro- 
visions of the Constitution against all chances and under all cir- 
cumstances. The fiat that suspends it must be potent enough to 
abolish every princii)le of the Constitution, and all those primor- 
dial rights that existed before the Constitution and so far as hu- 
man foresight provide against their invasion, protected by plain 
constitutional provisions. 

If it should be contended then, that the powei' necessary f( r the 
suspension of the habeas corptis involves in its exercise the sus- 
pension of the light of trial by jury, he begs leave to say that, in 
his opinion, it cannot, for the following reasons: 

Ist. The trial by jury is placed by the Constitution among the 
original reserved rights of the people, and must, in favor of natural 
liberty, be held safe as against the exercise of any doubtful power 
upon the principle of construction applied to constitutions, that 
grants of power are to be construed strictly as againsL the power 
and in favor of liberty. 

2. But being last in point of time and of e pial authority with 
the provisions in relation to the suspensions of habeas corpus, the 
amendments must be held to restrain tliat provision so far as may 
be necessary to the perfect enjoyment of the rights asserted in 
the amendments. 

3. Simply, however, because they are amendments to the Con 
stitution, e\eiything in that instiunitnt that may in any view be 
held to impair rights therein asserted must give way to them. To 
that extent they change and modify the powers conferred on the 



502 HISTORY OF COTATMBTA COUNTY. 

Government, in the original instrument. The riglit of triiil by 
jury in the e:uses referred to cannot be impaired — nnicli less taken 
away — by the suspension of the habeas corpus, nor indeed by 
any order of the Executive or law of Congress. To this effect 
see 2d Story on Con., See's 1,778 to 1,795, inclusive. 

4. But not only may this right of trial by jury be regarded as 
aftirmatively asserted and secured to the citizen by the provis- 
ions of the Constitution, but any and every other mode of trial 
must be taken to be exclnded and prohibited. Thus : "No })er- 
son shall be held to answer for any capital or otherwise infamous 
crime unless in case of jtresentmcnt and indictment by a grand 
jury,'' tfcc, clearly precludes the notion of any other form of 
trial. 

The old common law and great statutes of England, brought 
over with them by the founders of the English colonies, and in 
force at the time of the adoption of the Constitution of the 
United States, excluded all other modes of trial of any citizen 
not in the military conunission. Mr. Justice Story, as already 
cited, expressly appeals to and (piotes Magna Charta upon this 
point and in snp[)ort of this position. The oOth chapter of this 
great act is as fola>ws : 

"No freeman shall be taken or imi)risoned, or disseized or out- 
lawed, or banished, or in any way destroyed ; nor will we pass 
upon him unless by the lawful juilgment of his peers, or by the 
law of the land.'' 

"The judgment of his peers," here alluded to, says Story, "is 
the trial by jury, who are called the peers of the party accused, 
being of like condition and equal." He also expressly says ; 

"When our more immediate ancestors removed to America 
they brought this great privilege with them, as their birth right 
and inheritance, as a part of that admirable common law which 
had fenced round and interposed barriers on every side against 
the approaclies of arbitrary power." P. 1779. 

]->ut this denial of any other form of trial, and especially that 
by military commissions, was asserted in the "Petition of Rights" 
passed in the third year of Charles the First. It is therein en- 
acted and established. "That no man of what state or condition 
should be put out of his laiuls or tenements, n(n- taken, nor im- 



HISTOIiY OF COLUMBIA 00UN2Y. -)03 

jiri.soiR'd, nor disinherited, nor ]»ut to deatli witlioiit due i)rocess 
of law." 

And in speaking of the commissions, aforesaid, the act nseth 
the following terms: 

"Which commisssions, and all others of like nature, are wholly 
and directly contrary to the said law and statutes of the realm." 

Similar language was employed in the Bill of Rights passed at 
the time of the Revolution of 1688. 

And it may be safely stated that since that time no jn-oceed- 
ings of this nature luive taken place in England against any person 
not a member of the army or navy or in the militia in actual ser- 
vice. Indeed, a distinguished English Judge has said : "Mar- 
tial law as of old docs not exist in England at all," and is con- 
trary to the Constitution, and has been for a century totally ex- 
j.lodiMl." (Irant vs. Gould 2 Hume Bl. 69 I Hale P. C. 246 Kale 
com. law C 2, 36 ; This, it has been remarked by a learned 
judge, "is correct, as to the connnunity generally, both in war 
and peace." 

By an act approved July 31, 1864, Vol. 12, statutes at large, 
l»age 2184, conspiracies are defined, and the mode of punishment 
provided, namely : By trial in the Circuit or Disti'ict Court of 
the United States of the proper circuit or district. 

Can these parties be tried before any other tribunal '. We 
hold not. By the President's i»roclaraation of Sept. 24th, 1862, 
suspending the writ of habeas corpus, it was ordered, "That 
during the existing insurrection and as a necessary measure for 
suppressing the same, all rebels and insurgents, their aidei's and 
abettors, within the rnited States, etc., shall be subject to martial 
law and liable to trial and punishment by court niai'tial oi- mili- 
taiy cotnniission." Without stopping to in(iuire whether the 
liroclaniation was authorized, and if so. whether it embraced per- 
sons charged with committing a substantial offense within a 
State not in insunectioii, and when the couits ;ire in full exercise 
of their powers, the defendant claims that it has been sujterceded 
by the act of Congress of the 3rd of Marcii, 1863, (Vol. 12, stat- 
utes at large 77')) relating to the writ of hahi'un corpus and the 
I'resident's proclamation, based thereon of the loth of September, 
1862. 



504 BISTOIiY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

The first section of the act of 1863, authorizes the President to 
suspend the writ of habeas corpus. 

The second requires the Secretary of State and of War to re- 
port to the Judges of the United States Circuit and District 
Courts the names of persons held in military custody by order of 
the President in their respective districts, and if the grand juries 
of the proper districts fail to find bilL<, it is the duty of the judges 
to have all such persons discharged on taking the oath of allegi- 
ance and giving bond if required. 

The third section provides that all persons so held and not re- 
ported, shall be entitled to a discharge in the same manner as is 
provided in the second section, after a failure on the part of the 
proper Grand Jury to indict him. 

Here are all the sections of this act which bear on the question 
and it will be seen that while they contemplate and sanction mil- 
itary arrests, they do not countenance or authorize military trials. 
On the contrary ihey fairly discountenance them. 

The President's proclamation based on this act, limits the sus- 
pension of the habeas corpus to persons amenable to military 
law, or to the rules and articles of war, &c. No order is contain- 
ed in this proclamation in regard to trials, and the infei'ence is ir- 
resistible that the proper courts are left to act under the rules of 
law upon that subject, and these are too well defined to require 
comment. Civil courts try offences against the law committed 
by citizens. Military courts and commissions try such as are sub- 
ject to the rules and articles of war, and the defendant claims 
that he does not fall within that class. 

5. The recent act giving military courts jurisdiction of of- 
fences against the civil laws, when committed Ly soldiers, excludes 
citizens by its silence from any such jurisdiction, and leaves them 
to be tried by the civil courts for all such offences. See Rev. reg. 
1863, p. 541. 

But all doubt, if there could be any on this question, is put to 
rest by the act of 3rd of March, 1863, entitled or known as the 
Enrollment Act, where it is expri ssly provided, That where per- 
sons are charged with resistina: the draft, they shall be forthwith 
delivered to the civil authorities.^'' and upon conviction be pun- 
ished. Statutes at large, vol. 12, p. 735, pi. 25. 

The President's proclamation of 15th of September, 1863, pro- 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 505 

fesses to conform to tlie statute, indeed makes the statute the rule 
of action under the proclamation, and does not impair the right of 
trial by jury. We have, however, in the enrollment act of the 
24th of July, 1864, the Executive and legislative construction of 
the then existing law, for the hearing of the party in such like 
cases is exclusively assigned to a Couit of competent jurisdiction 
and the Circuit Court of the United States, in the district in which 
the offence was committed, is specified as the only proper tribunal. 
Statutes at large, vol. 13, p. 8, j)l. 12. 

The defendant further desires the commission to consider this 
question in determining that of the jurisdiction, viz: Can the 
sentence of this court be j)leaded in bar to a prosecution upon in- 
dictment for the offence charged in the civil courts ? It would 
seem not, in view of the recent legislation of Congress, already 
cited. The legislation clearly gives jurisdiction of this case to 
the civil courts, and upon their failure to try and convict him en- 
titles him to be discharged, either upon terms or absolutely. 

In view of these considerations, the defendant resjjectfully sub- 
mits that he is not triable by this commission, not being within 
the jurisdiction thereof, or any other military tribunal whatever. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

JOHN RANTZ. 




Jt^^t 



50(3 HISTOllY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



MILITARY TRIALS AT HARRISBURG. 



Some note ought to be made of the military trials ihiir look 
place in this city, during the late civil war, and I may i'lcniise 
that, living on the spot at the time, I believed then and lidieve 
now, that they were arbitrary and unconstitutional, were w liolly 
unnecessary and without justification, jjalliation, or excuh<'. It 
must be recollected,that we in Pennsylvania were living, or thought 
we were, in a State which was not engaged in the rebellion :igainst 
the government; but it turned out that we were mistaken, <>i' the 
War Department was; for notwithstanding the legislation <>n the 
subject, by our State legislature and by Congress, the W:ir De- 
partment arrested the citizens of this State, and tried them by 
military commission, as if the State was in open rebellion. :Mid as 
if all the courts in the State had been closed; and this, too, alter 
the State had sent two hundred thousand men to suppress (he 
rebellion. 

The Constitution of the United States has provided in the 
third article that "the trial of all critnes, exctpt in cases <>f im- 
peachment, shall be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the 
Str^te where such crime shall have been committed ;" and tin n in 
the amendments to the Constitution, article 5, that "no |>eison 
shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, 
unless on a. presentment or indictment of a grand Jury, except in 
cases arising in the land or naval forces or, in the militia wImmi in 
actual service, in time of war or public danger," "nor be deprived 
of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.'' And 
in article sixth, "in all criminal prosecutions the accused si i all 
enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury 
in the State and district wherein the crime shall have been com- 
mitted, which district shall have been previously ascertain"/ hy 
lamr 

Our State legislature in order to prevent any person from Liiv iitg 
aid or assistance to the rebellion, passed an act on the \'^\\\ of 
April, 1861, by which, in one lengthy section, they provide for 



HItiTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 507 

every possible case, in which any person could give aid or comfort 
to the "enemies of this State or tlie United States of America," 
and also where any one should persuade any person or persons 
from entering the service of this State or the United States "or 
induce any person to abandon such service'' and enacting that 
'•every person so offending, and being legally convicted thereof, 
shall be guilty of a high misdemeanor and shall be sentenced to 
undergo solitary imprisonmeiit in the penitentiary at hard labor 
not exceeding ten years, or be fined in a sum not exceeding five 
thousand dollars, or both, at the discretion of the court." 

Congress, by an act passed 3d March, 1863, directed that where 
[)ersons are charged with resisting the draft they "shall be forth- 
with delivered to the civil authorities." 

And by the act approved on the 31st of July, 1864, further 
provided for the trial and punishment of conspiiacies against the 
government, and directed and required these trials to be had 
before "the Circuit or District Court of the United States for the 
proper circuit or dis^trict." 

As many perhaps as twenty or thirty private citizens, all living 
east or north of the Susquehanna river, principally in Luzerne or 
Columbia counties, were arrested at their homes and tried by 
military tribunals in this city in the year 1864 or 1865. Some of 
the trials were held in the lower room of the north corner of 
Market street and River alley, others in the most easterly upper 
room of the court house over the court room. The mode of trial 
was by three military men sitting as a military court, with a per- 
son acting as judge advocate, who took no oath to perform his 
duty honestly, but whose decision on every point was taken as 
conclusive. A guard stood at the door, and no person was admit- 
ted but the one witness called and the counsel of the prisoner. 
Every cpiestion was retpiired to be suV)mitted in writing. It was 
with great difficulty that the prisoner's counsel could gain admit- 
tance to the prisoner's room to see the prisoner. He was required 
on every visit to produce an order from the provost marshal. The 
charges against these persons were generally the same; either for 
combining to resist the draft, or uttering disloyal sentiments and 
threatening to resist the othcers of the government. The writer 
was never ac(piainted with any one of these ))risoners. 

These offences were such as the State courts were authorized 



r)08 I/I>STOBY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

by the act above cited to try, and on conviction to punish. And 
they were the very kind of cases for which Congress had specially 
provided by legislation and had directed and required to be tried 
before the United States Circuit or District Courts of the proper 
district. 

The prisoners in every instance pleaded to the jurisdiction of 
the military court ; that is, denied that the court had jurisdiction 
in the case, and asked that tliey be tried by the State Court, as 
provided by the Act of Assembly, or by the United States Court 
as directed by Act of Congress. Hut these })leas were disregard- 
ed by the War Department. That Department had the military 
in its hands and would treat every other branch of the govern- 
ment with contempt. The Act of our State Legislature and the 
State courts, the Act of Congress a<id the United States Courts, 
as well as the Constitution of the land, were all treated with utter 
contempt, and the party arrested was tried in each case as if we 
had no written Constitution and no law, and as if the states not 
in rebellion were under a military despotism. The evidence in 
most of these trials revealed a case so trilling and insignificant as 
to be only fit to be heard before the quarter sessions ; and after a 
stately and elaborate military trial nearly every prisoner was ac- 
quitted. 

In no instance, I believe, was any man arrested with arms in 
his hands, or in a military company, but every cue was arrested 
at his peaceable home. A large force, of ])erhaps seven hundred 
soldiers, had been sent to Columbia county, and after encamping 
there f- r ten days they arrested about forty farmers in the neigh- 
borhood, all of whom were at their respective homes, and many 
of them in bed with their families, at the time of arrest. These 
prisoners were all taken to Fort Mifflin and afterwards brought 
to this city for trial. Had any of these n;en violated the Act of 
the State Legislature, or the Act of Congress, and been tried in 
the State or the United States courts and convicted and punished; 
no reasonable man could have objected or found fault with the 
proceeding ; but these prisoners were unnecessarily dragged away, 
in the face of the Act of our Legislature and the Act of Congress, 
in contempt of the courts, and tried at the seat of government, as 
if to cast contempt upon the reputation of this Commonwealth 
and her citizens. I have not heard of a single instance in which 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 509 

any civil or military officer had been injured in an attempt to ar- 
rest any of these prisoners. Hut if it was necessary to take a 
military fon-e to the ground to arrest them, then why were they 
not taken before the civil courts for trial ? If the Court of Col- 
umbia county could not be trusted with the trial, why were the 
prisoners not taken to the United States Court at Williamsport, 
in the adjoining county, pursuant to the Act of Congress? All 
these courts were open and unobstructed by the rebellion. No 
armed rebel ever set his foot on the eastern shore of the Susque- 
hanna, nor within otie hundred miles of the place where these 
prisoners lived and were arrested ; and no State or United States 
Court east of the Susquehanna was ever closed or interfered with 
by the rebellion. Indeed, some of these trials were held in our 
court house while our court was sitting. I ask then, where was 
the necessity for these trials by the military ? It was not pretend- 
ed that the prisoners tried were in the army "in actual service in 
time of war or public danger." Some of them could not belong 
to the army, for one, a farmer by occupation, named Samuel M'- 
Henry, was seventy years of age. The mode of trial in some of 
the cases would have disgraced any military despotism in Europe, 
and is a scandal to the age in which we live. 

Take for instance the case of Daniel M'Henry, of Columbia 
county. The charges ag^^inst him were substantially thftse above 
stateil. The trial proceeded before three military men for a day 
or more, ii'hen suddenly one of these judges or members of the 
court disapj)eared. and a new man in military dress, who had not 
been present at the trial, nor heard any of the evidence, appeared 
and claimed to take the place of the absentee without consulting 
the prisoner. The counsel for the prisoner of course objected, and 
the two remaining officers or jurors or judges, agreed to adjourn 
the case until they could hear from Washington. In a few days 
afterwards the }>risoner was informed that the War Department 
liad been heard fi-oju and the trial inimt proceed. A'd it did pro- 
ceed. Those who gave the orders in the War Department no doubt 
hoped that notwithstanding this scandalous violation of the rights 
of the citizens and of the Cotistitution of the United States, some 
effort would be made by an U'iscruptdous partisan Congress, which 
lost no opportunity to show its contempt for the Constitution and 
whifh treated the Suj^reme Court of the United States with un- 



510 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUN'TY 

mitigated hatred, to screen them afterwards from tlio consequen- 
ces of their acts. But it must be recollected that Congress can 
pass no law that contravenes the Constitution of the ITnited States. 
Congress was created by the Constitution and is inferior to it. 
Til is conduct of the War Department, exhibiting the most strin- 
gi ut exercise of a military despotism, was not attempted to be 
justified; but our courts were overawed and would not have dared 
to grant a writ of habeas corpus in any case, and I am confident 
that if any man had declared publicly that these trials were in the 
face of the Constitution, he would have been j)icked up on the 
same day, by the military at the point of the bayonet, and would 
have been subjected to a trial before this very military court 
whose power and jurisdiction he utterly denied. 

When one prisoner was \ip for trial a piece of paper was pinned 
over his head having written on it the words, "Death to Traitors." 

However trifling the offenses for which these men were tried, 
yet the punishment authorized by our State law of imprisonment 
for ten years in the penitentiary, made the crime an infamous 
one, and therfore clearly within the Constitution which requires 
a presentment or indictment. 

The people of this whole land ought to understand that the 
Constitution of the United States is tlie foundation of our gov- 
ernment, and the Supreme Court of the United States is the ju- 
dicial expounder of the Constitution. If the Supreme Court of 
the United States can be so manipulated by Congress, as to 
become a political partisan institution, instead of a judicial one, 
and the constitution can be construed in such a way as to con- 
travene the whole genius of our government in establishing a 
military despotism over the whole land, because of a partial re- 
bellion, that there is an end to all appeal to civil government. 
The people must either submit to this military despotism in the 
hands of the War Department, or offer open resistance, and stand 
upon their rights guaranteed to them by our form of government. 
It would I'O useless to talk of amending the Constitution or 
making a new one. for if a Constitution framed bj' Washington 
and the men of tlie vcvolulion can be treated with contempt and 
disregarded, no reasonable man would suppose that a Constitu- 
made by the men of the present day, or by the men of any future 
iicneration would be reoarded. 



HIti TOR Y OF C O L UMB 1. 1 CO UNT Y. 511 

I -"Ifiunly bel I've that it u.i-; m-ver i itcinlfd Ity tlit; fiameis 
oi till Constitution to coiifiT Lpoii llu- militai'y the powers that 
ha\'' Ix-eii claiiiie<l aii<l exei(i>(<l hy thi iii in tlie late war. 

1 a-k the (juestion who, what in i.i ol' common sense in this 
broa'l land ever beli^-ved that tlie ("onstitution framed by Wash- 
ington and liis com])eers, establislied as a rule of iroverniiient, 
thai \v lien a reb<Uion takes phice in om- j)ait of tlie Union, the 
])eo|»lf in every other part are to be snl>jected to a military .ies- 
jtotiMH in the hands of the War Department, until the rebellion is 
suppiessed? This is the great question that lies at the founda- 
tion of these military trials. 

Doe.-, it not furnish further evidence of a military despotism, 
that alter men have been draj^ged away from the civil courts, 
tricfl by a tribunal unknown to the laws, and acquitted {-.Vi was 
the case with most of these men,) that after h)eing turned loose 
they >iiould be denied in every case all knowledge of the name of 
the person at whose instance they had been arrested. 

Take another illustration of the workings of this military law: 
A drunken officer galloped one day furiously up and down our 
streels. and rode across the pavement in the centre of the town 
into a large hotel on horseback, then turned and rode out again. 
When remonstrated with by the police, he arrested the police, 
took them into the house and put them under guard, whilst his 
aids Hourished their naked pistols in tiie faces of the citizens who 
came in to look on. No magistrate nor court would have dared 
to issue a warrant for the arrest of these military rowdies, and no 
warrant could have been executed. But the conduct of these mil- 
itary men was of course all right and necessary as a "war meas- 
ure"' hccause a rebellion existed in the ^Southern /States. 

Do the leaders of the present party in Congress reflect that if 
they -hill by their repeated assaults oil the judiciary, and their ef- 
fort < lu make it ])artisan, destroy its independence, its stability 
and lidelity, that in a short time their party may pass into a min- 
oril V, .ind their si/ccessors in office may iniitate their bad example 
and show themselves as reckless and <lesperatc as the present lead- 
ers .' and if they shoidd prove so, what then? With a Supreme 
Court which is a mere shuttlecock between political parties, what 
will the Constitution be worth to the i)eople of the whole land? 
what pn^tection will it afford to any man? 



.,12 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Wlial would any citizen of Pennsylvania say while living, as 
he supposes, securely under tiie Constitution of the United Slates 
if he was told that a rebellion had been inaugurated in New Eng- 
land, and that instantly every person in Pennsylvania had been 
divested of his right of personal security, and of trial by jury, 
guaranteed to him by the constitution, and that any day or hour, 
for any expression of o})inion he was liable to be picked up at the 
point of the bayonet, by a hie of soldiers, to be tried by three 
strangers, in military dress, and whether convicted or not, would 
be sent to Fort Delaware, to sleep in an apartment below the 
surface of the surrounding water, and have an open privy used by 
a dozen of men kept in the room in which he drank and 
slept? what would he say to such law, as the law of the land? 
the law insisted upon and practiced upon in Pennsylvania, at its 
seat of governnvent, in the late civil war. Can it be pretended 
that when a citizen, not in the army, is arrested by the mili- 
tary, and when the civil courts are all open and unobstructed in 
the administration of justice, the military can try him, and when 
acquitted, if the prisoner asks why he was tried, and at whose 
instance he was arrested, he may be ansvyered "that is none of 
your business ; it is a matter about which you have no right to 
inquire ; you can go !" If this is so, then why were our civil 
courts established? Are the people living in a State not in rebel- 
lion to be treated as if they were slaves or brutes? Had the 
War Department placed in every other county in the State, as 
they did in this, a military court, and that court, backed by its 
soldiers, had demanded the right to try all the criminal business 
of the county, it is doubtful whether the claim would have been 
resisted. 

To a person who would stand by and look on at these mili- 
tary proceedings it was perfectly astonishing to see with what 
ease a civil government, founded on a written Constitution and 
laws, could be made, by usurpation, to slide over into a military 
one. 

Had we now a Congress that respected or regarded the interest 
of the peo})le, we might hope that some proceeding would be 
adopted repudiating all these military trials where the civil courts 
were open and had jurisdiction. 

It is very evident that the construction put upon the Constitu 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 513 

tion by the War Department in the late war on the subject of 
raihtary arrests and military trials, leaves to the citizen, living in 
a State not in rebellion, no personal security whatever, and treats 
him as if he lived in a land where the government is a sheer mili- 
tary despotism. Whether the people of the United States are 
willing to allow the construction of the War Department to stand 
as a precedent in case of another insane rebellion or not, is a ques- 
tion of such vast import as ought to command the attention of the 
j)eople of this whole land from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 
Harrisburg, 1867. H. A., 2d street. 



514 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 



.i5^i=:PE:isriDi2c: InTO. 2, 

UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT. 

MIOTARV TRIALS OF CIVILIANS. 



THE INDIANA CONSPIRACT CASES. 

Argument of the Hon. Jeremiah S. Black. 



In September, 1864, L. P. Milligan, W. A. Bowles, Stephen 
Horsey, and others, were arrested and brought before a military 
commission at Indianapolis, Indiana, charged with being members 
of the order of "American Knights," or "Sons of Liberty," in 
league with armed rebels, and with having conspired to release 
the rebel prisoners of war confined in the United States military 
prisons at Indianapolis, Chicago and Rock Island. The three 
parties named, after a protracted trial, were found guilty of the 
charges and specifications preferred against them, and condemned 
to death. The findings and sentence were approved by the Pres- 
ident and promulgated by the War Department on tlie 2d of May 
1865, and the 19th day of the same month was fixed for the exe- 
cution. On the 10th of May, however, they applied by petition 
to the circuit court of the United States for the district of Indi- 
ana (Judges Davis and McDonald) for a writ of habeas corpus, or 
for an order of discharge, under the act of Congress approved 
March 3. 1863, entitled "An act relating to habeas corpus, and 
regulating judicial proceedings in certain cases." The judges of 
the circuit court were divided in opinion upon this apj)lication, 
and certified the following questions, on which they diifered, to 
the Supreme Court for decision : 

1. "On the facts stated in said petition and exhibits, ought a 
writ of habeas corpus to be issued according to the prayer of 
said petition ?" 

2. "On the facts stated in said petition and exiiibits, ought 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. .31 o 

the said parties to be discharged from custody, as in said petition 
prayed ?'' 

3. "Whether, upon the facts stated in said petition and exhib- 
its, tlie military commission mentioned therein had jurisdiction 
leij^ally to try and sentence said parties in manner and form as in 
said petition and exhibits is stated?" 

After the action of the circuit court, certifying tlie case to the 
Supreme Court for final decision, the President commuted tlie sen- 
tence of the petitioners to imprisonment for life. 

The argument of these questions, which commenced on the 5th 
and terminated on the 13th of March, 1866, was conducted on the 
part of the petitioners by J. E. McDonald, Esq., of Indiana, Hon. 
J, A. Garfield, of Ohio, Hon. J. S. Black, of Pennsylvania, and 
David Dudley Field, of New York ; and on behalf of the United 
States by B. F. Butler, Esq , of Massachusetts, Hon. H. Stanberry, 
of Ohio, and Hon. James Speed, Attorney General of the United 
States. The argument of Mr. Jii,AOK for the petitioners was 
as follows : 

May it please your Honors: 

I am not afraid that you will umh-rrate the importance ol this 
case. It concerns the rights of the whole people. Such ques- 
tions have generally been settled by anus. But since the be<riu- 
ning of the world no battle has ever been lost or won upon which 
the liberties of a nation were so distinctly staked as they are on 
the result of this argument. The pen that writes the judgment 
of the C »urt, will be mightier for good or for evil than any sword 
tViat ever was wielded by n>ortal arm. 

As might be < xpecteil from the nature of the subject, it has 
been a good deal <liscussed elsewhere, in legislative bodies, in 
public asseml)lies, and in the newspaper press ot the country. 
J-lut there it has been mingled with interests and feelings not 
very friendly to a correct conclusion. Here we are in a higher 
atmosphere where no passion can disturb the judgment or shake 
the even balance in which the scales of reason are held. Here it 
is purely a judicial question ; and I can speak for my colleagues 
as well as myself, when I say that we have no thought to suggest 
which we do not suppose to be a fair element in the slrictly legal 
judgment which you are require 1 to iiKike up. 



oI6 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY- 

In psrforming the duty assigned to me in the case, I shall nec- 
essarily refer to the mere rudiments of constitutional law ; to the 
most commonplace topics of history, and to those plain rules of 
justice and right which pervade all our institutions. I beg your 
honors to belitve that this is not done because I think thatjthe 
Court, or any member of it, is less familiar with these things than 
I am. or less sensible of their value ; but simply and only because, 
according to my view of the subject, there is absolutely no other 
way of dealing with it. If the fundamental principles of Amer- 
ican liberty are attacked, and we are driven behind the inner 
walls of the Constitution to (defend them, we can repel the as- 
sault only with those same old weapons which our ancestors used 
a hundred years ago You must not think the worse of our ar- 
mor because it happens to be old-fashioned and looks a little rusty 
from long disuse. 

The case before you presents but a single point, and that an 
exceedingly plain one. It is not encumbered with any of those 
vexed questions that might be expected to arise out of a great 
war. You are not called upon to decide what kind of a rule a 
military commander may impose upon the inhabitants of a hostile 
country which he occupies as a conqueror, or what punishment 
he may inflict upon the soldiers of his own army or the followers 
of his camp ; or yet how he may deal with civilians in a beleag- 
uered city or other place in a state of actual siege, which he is re- 
quired to defend against a public enemy. This contest covers no 
such ground as that. The men whose acts we complain of erect- 
ed themselves into a tribunal for the trial and punishment of citi- 
zens who were connected in no way whatever with the army or 
navy. And this they did in the midst of a community whose so- 
cial and legal organization had never been disturbed by any war 
or insurrection, where the courts were wide open, where judicial 
process was executed every day without interruption, and where 
all the civil authorities, both State and national, were in full exer- 
cise of their functions. 

My clients were dragged before this strange tribunal, and after 
a proceeding, which it would ^■e mere mockery to call a trial, they 
were ordered to be hung. The charge against them was put into 
writing and is found on this record, but you will not be able to 
decipher its meaning. The relators were not accused of treason ; 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 517 

for nothing is iinjtuted to tlieiii which, if true, would come within 
tlie definition of that crime. It was not conspiracy under the act 
of 18G1 ; for all concerned in this business must liave kno^n that 
co!is|)iracy was not a capital otfc se. If the connuission* rs were 
able to read English, they could not help but see tliat it was made 
])unisliable even by fine and imprisonment, only upon condition 
that the parties should first be convicted before a circuit or dis- 
trict court of the United States. The judge advocate must have 
meant to charge them with some offense unknown to tln^ laws, 
which he chose to make capital by legislation of his own, and the 
connnissioners were so [)rofoundly ignorant as to think that tlie 
legal innocence of the parties made no difference in the case. I 
do not say what Sir James Mackintosh said of a similar proceed- 
ing ; that the trial was a mere consjjiracy to commit willful mur- 
der upon three innocent men. The commissioners are not on trial; 
tliey are absent and undelended; and they are entitled to the ben- 
efit of that charit) which presumes them to be wholly unacquaint- 
ed with just principles of natural justice, and quite unable to com- 
prelu'nd either the law or the facts of a criminal cause. 

Keeping the character of the charges in mind, let us come at 
once to the simfjle question upon which the court below divided 
in opinion : Had the commissioners jurisdiction — were they in- 
vested with legal authority to try the relators and put them to 
death for the offense of which they were accused ? We answer, 
no; and therefore the whole proceeding from beginning to end 
was utterly null and void. On the other hand, it is absolutely 
necessary for those who oppose us to assert, and they do assert, 
that the commissioners liad compl<^te legal jurisdiction both of 
the subject-matter and of the parties, so that their judgment upon 
the law and the facts is absolutely conclusive and binding, not 
subject to correction nor open to inquiry in any court whatever. 
Of these two opposite views, you must adopt one or the other 
for there is no middle ground on which you can possibly stand. 

1 need not say, (for it is the law of the horn books,) that where 
a court, (whatever may be its power in other resi)e<;ts,j presumes 
to try a man for an offense of which it has no right to take judic- 
ial cognizance, all its proceedings in that case are null and void. 
If the parly is accjuitted, he cannot plead the acquittal afterwards 
in bar of another prosecution; if he is found guilty and sentenced^ 



518 HIS TOBY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

he is entitled to be relieved from the punishment. If a circuit 
court of the United States, shouhi undert-ike to try a party for an 
oifense clearly within the exclusive jurisdiction of the State 
courts, the judgment could have no effect. If a c 'unty court in 
the interior of a State should arrest an officer of the Federal navy, 
try him, and order him to be hung for some offense against tlie 
law of nations, committed upon the high seas or in a foreign port, 
nobody would treat such a judgment otherwise than with mere de- 
rision. The Federal courts have jurisdiction to try offenses 
against the laws of the United States, and the authority of the 
State courts is confined to the punishment of acts which are made 
penal by State laws. It follows that where the accusation does 
not amount to an offense against the law of either the State or the 
Federal (jrovernmeiit, no court can have jurisdiction to tiy it. 
Suppose for example that the judges of this Court, should organ- 
ize themselves into a tribunal to try a man for witchcraft, or 
heresy, or treason, against the Confederate States of America, 
would anybody say that your judgment had the least validity ? 

I care not, therefore, whether the relators were intended to be 
charged with treason or conspiracy or with some oifense of which 
the law takes no notice. Either or any way, the men who under- 
took to try them had no jurisdiction of the subject-matter. 

Nor had they jurisdiction of the 7:)«r^/cs. It is not pretended 
that this was a case of impeachment, or a case arising in the land 
or naval forces. It is either nothing at all or else it is a simple 
crime against the United States, conunitted by private individuals 
not in the public strvice, civil or military. Persons standing in 
that relation to the Government are answerable for the offenses 
which they may commit, ordy to the civil courts of the country. 
So says the Constitution, as Ave read it; and the act of Congress 
of March 3, 1863, which was passed with express reference to 
persons precisely in the situation of these men, declares that they 
shall be delivered up for trial to the proper civil authorities. 

There being no jurisdiction of the subject-matter or of the 
parties, you are bound to relieve the petitioners. It is as much the 
duty of a judge to protect the innocent as it is to punish the 
guilty. Suppose that the Secretary of some department shoidd 
take it into his head to establish an ecclesiastical tribunal here in 
the city of Washington, composed of clergymen "organized to 



HIS TOR Y OF COL UMBIA CO UNI Y. 519 

convict" everybody who prays after a fusliioii inconsistent with 
the supposed safety of the State. If he would select the mem- 
bers with a"proper regard to the odium theologicum, I think I 
could insure liini a coiuinission tliat would hang every man and 
woman who might be brought before it. But would you, the 
judges of the land, stand by and see their sentences executed? 
No ; you would interpose your icrit of prohibition, your habeas 
corpus, or any other process that might be at your command, 
lietweeu them and their victims. And you would do that for 
precisely the reason which requires your intervention here — 
because religious errors, like political errors, are not crimes which 
anybody in this country has jurisdiction to punish, and because 
ecclesiastical commissions, like military commissions, are not 
among the judicial institutions of this people. Our fathers long 
ago cast them both aside among the rubbish of the dark ages ; and 
they intended that we, their children, should know them only that 
we might blush and shudder at the shameless injustice and the 
brutal ciiielties which they were allowed to perpetrate in other 
times and other countries. 

Bui our friends on the other side are not at all impressed with 
these views. Their brief corresponds exactly with the doctrines 
projiounded by the Attorney General, in a very elaborate official 
paper which he published last July, upon this same subject. He 
then avowed it to be his settled and deliberate opinion that the 
military might '-take and kill, try and execute,' (I use his own 
words) persons who had no sort of connection with the army or 
navy. And though this be done in the face of the open courts, 
the judicial authorities, according to him, are utterly pow'erless 
to prevent the slaughter which may thus be carried on. That is 
the thesis which the Attorney General and his assistant counselors 
are to maintain this day, if they can maintain it, Avith all the 
power of their artful eloquence. 

We, on the other hand, submit that a jierson not in the military 
or naval service cannot be punished at all until he has had a fair, 
open, public trial before an impartial jury, in an ordained and 
established court, to which the jurisdiction has been given by 
law to try him for that specific offense. There is our proposition. 
Between the ground we take and the ground they occupy, there 
is and there can be no foniproniise. It is one way or the other. 



520 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

Our proposition ought to be received as true without any argu- 
ment to support it ; because if that, or "something precisely equiv- 
alent to it, be not a part of our law, this is not what we have 
always supposed it to be, a free country. Nevertheless 1 take upon 
myself the burden of showing affii'matively not only that it is true, 
but that it is immovably fixed in the very framework of the Gov- 
ernment, so that it is utterly impossible to detach it without de- 
stroying the whole political structure under which we live. By 
removing it you destroy the life of this nation as completely as 
you would destroy the life of an individual by cutting the heart 
out of his body. I proceed to the proof. 

In the first place, the self evident truth will not be denied that 
the trial and punishment of an offender against the Government 
is the exercise of judicial authority. That is a kind of authority 
which Avould be lost by being diffused among the masses of the 
people. A judge would be no judge if everybody else were a 
judge as well as he. Therefore in every society, however rude or 
however perfect its organization, the judicial authority is always 
committed to the hands of particular persons, who are trusted to 
use it wisely and well ; and their authority is exclusive ; they can- 
not share it with others to whom it has not been committed 
Where, then, is the judicial power in this country? Who are the 
depositaries of it here ? The Federal Constitution answers that 
question in very plain words, by declaring that '■'■the judicial poto- 
er of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, 
and in such inferior courts as Congress may from time to time 
ordain and establish.'''' Congress has, from time to time, ordain- 
ed and established certain inferior courts ; and in them, together 
with the one Supreme Court to which they are subordinate, is vest- 
ed all the judicial power, properly so called, which the United 
States can lawfully exercise. That was the compact made with 
the General Government at the time it was created. The States 
and the people agreed to bestow upon that Government a certain 
portion of the judicial power which otherwise would have remain- 
ed in their own hands, but gave it on a solemn trust and coupled 
the grant of it with this express condition that it should never be 
used in any way but one ; that is, by means of ordained and es- 
tablished courts. Any person, therefore, who undertakes to ex- 
ercise judicial power in any other way not only violates the law 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 521 

of the hiiid, but he treacherously trainples upon the most import- 
ant part of that sacreil covenant which holds these States togeth- 
er. 

May it please your honors, you know, and I know, and 
everybody else knows that it was the intention of the 
men who founded this Republic to put the life, liberty, and 
property of every person in it under the protection of a 
regular and permanent judiciary, separate, apart, distinct, 
from all other branches of the Government, whose sole and 
exclusive business it should be to distribute justice among the 
people according to the wants and needs of each individual. 
It was to consist of courts, always open to the complaint of the 
injured, and always ready to hear criminal accusations when 
founded upon probable cause ; surrounded with all the machinery 
necessary for the investigation of truth, and clothed with suffici- 
ent power to carry their decrees into execution. In these courts 
it was expected that judges would sit who would be upright, 
honest, and sober men, learned in the laws of their country, and 
lovers of justice from the habitual practice of that virtue ; inde- 
pendent because their salaries could not be reduced, and free from 
party jtassion because their tenure of office was for life. Although 
this would place them above the clamors of the mere mob and 
beyond the reach of Executive influence, it was not intended that 
they should be wholly irresponsible. For any willful or corru))t 
violation of t;heir duty, they are liable to be impeached ; and they 
cannot escape the control of an enlightened public opinion, for 
they must sit with open doors, listen to full discussion, and give 
satisfactory reasons for the judgments they pronounce. In ordi- 
nary tranquil times the citizen might feel himself safe under a 
judicial system so organized. 

But our wise forefathers knew that tranquillity was not to be 
always anticipated in a republic : the spirit of a free people is 
often turbulent. They expected that strife would rise between 
classes and sections, and even civil war might come, and they 
supposed, that in such times, judges themselves might not be safe- 
ly trusted in criminal cases — especially in prosecutions for politi- 
cal offences, where the whole power of the Executive is arrayed 
against the accused party All history j)roves that public officers 
of any government when they are engaged in a severe struggle to 



o22 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

retain their })hices, become bitter and ferocious, and liate those 
who oppose them, even in the most legitimate way, with a rancor 
which they never exliibit towards actual crime. This kind of 
malignity vents itself in prosecutions for political offences, sedi- 
tion, conspiracy, libel, and treason, and the charges are generally 
founded upon the information of hireling spies and common dela- 
tors, who make merchandise of their oaths, and trade in the blood 
of their fellow men. During the civil conunotions in England, 
which lasted from the beginning of the reign of Charles I. to the 
revolution of 1688, the best men, and the purest patriots that ever 
lived, fell by the hand of the }iul)lic executioner. Judges were 
made the instruments for indicting the most merciless sentences 
on men, the latchet of whose shoes the ministers that prosecuted 
them were not worthy to stoop down and unloose. Let nie say 
here, that nothing has occurred in the history of this country to 
justify the doubt of judicial integrity which our forefathers seem 
to have felt, On the contrary, the highest compliment that has 
ever been paid to the American bench, is embodied in this simple 
fact; that if the executive officers of this Government have ever 
desired to take away the life or liberty of a citizen contrary to 
law, they have not come into the courts to get it done, they have 
gone outside of the courts, and stepped over the Constitution, and 
created their own tribunals, composed of men whose gross ignor- 
ance, and supple subservience could always be relied on for those 
base uses to which no judye would ever lend himself. But the 
framers of the Constitution could act only upon the experience of 
that country whose history they knew most about, and there they 
saw the brutal ferocity of Jeffreys and Scroggs, the timidity of 
Guilford, and the base venality of such men as Saunders and 
Wright. It seemed necessary therefore, not only to make the 
judiciary as perfect as possible, but to give the citizen yet another 
shield against the wrath and malice of his Government. To that 
end they could think of no better provision than a public trial be- 
fore an impartial jury. 

I do not assert that the jury trial is an infallable mode of ascer- 
taining truth. Like everything human, it has its imperfections. I 
only say that it is the best protection for innocence and the surest 
mode of punishing guilt that has yet been discovered. It has borne 
the test of a longer experience, and borne it better than any other 



HLSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 523 

legal iiistiiiitioii iliat over existed atnoiii): nuMi. England owes 
more of her freedom, her grandeur, and lier prosperity to that, 
than to all other causes put together. It has had the approbation 
not oidy of those wlio lived under it, but of great thinkers who 
looked at it calmly from a distance, iindjudgrd it impartially : 
Montes(piieu and DeTocqueville speak of it w ith an admiration as 
rapturous as Coke and Blaekstone. Within the present century, 
the most enlightened states of continental Europe have trans- 
planted it into their countries; and no people ever ado{)ted it once 
and were afterwards willing to part with it. It, was only in 1830 
that an interference with it in Belgium provoked a successful in- 
surrection which permanently divided one kingdom into two. In 
the same year, the revolution of the Barricades gave the right of 
trial by jury to every Frenchman. 

Those colonists of this country who came from the British Is- 
lands, brought tliis institution with them, and they regarded it as 
the most precious part of their inlieritance. The immigrants from 
oilier })laces where trial by jury did not exist became e<pially at- 
tached to it as soon as they understood wliat it was. There was 
no sul)ject upon which all the inhabitants of the country were 
more j)erfectly unanimous than they were in their delermination 
to maintain this great right unim[)aired. An attempt was made 
to set it aside and substitute military trials in its place, by Lord 
Dunmore, in Virginia, and General Gage, in Massixchusetts, ac- 
cora[>anied with the excuse which [has been repeated so often in 
late days, namely, that rebellion had made it necessary: but it ex- 
cited intense j)oj)ular anger and every colony from New Ham{)shire 
to Georgia, made common cause with the two whose rights had 
been especially invaded. SuVjsequently the Continental Congress 
thundered it into the ear of the world, as an unendurable outrage, 
sufficient to justify universal insurrection against the authority of 
the Government which had allowed it to be done. 

If the men who fought out our revolutionary contest, when they 
came to frame a government for themselves and their posterity, 
had failed to insert a provision making the trial by jury perpetual 
and universal, they would have covered themselves all over with 
infamy as with a garment; for they would have proved themselves 
basely lecreant to the principles of that very liberty of which they 
professed to be the special champions. But they were guilty of 



524 Hli^TORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

iiosiu'h treachery. They not only took care of ttie trial by jury, but 
they reguhited every step to be taken in a criminal trial. They 
knew very well that no people could be free under a government 
which had the power to punish without restraint. Hanulton ex- 
pressed in the Federalist, the universal sentiment of his time, 
when he said, that tlie arbitrary power of conviction and j)Unish- 
ment for pretended offenses, had been the great engine of despot- 
ism in all ages and all countries. The existence of such a power 
is utterly incompatible with freedom. The difference between a 
master and his slave, consists only in this : that the master holds 
the lash in his hands and he may use it without legal restraint, 
wJiile the naked back of the slave is bound to take whatever is 
laid on it. 

But our fathers were not absurd enough to put unlimited power 
in the hands of the ruler and take away the protection of law from 
the riglits of individuals. It was not thus that they meant "to se- 
cure the blessings of liberty to themselves and their posterity." 
They determined that not one drop of the blood which had been 
shed on the otiier side of the Atlantic, during seven centuries of 
contest with arbitrary })Ower. should sink into the ground ; but 
the fruits of every popular victory should be garnered up in this 
new government. Of all the great rights already won tliey threw 
not an atom away. They went over JIagna Charta, the J^etition 
of Eights, the JBill of Rights, and the rules of the common law, 
and whatever was found there to favor individual liberty they 
carefully inserted in their own system, improved by clearer ex- 
pression, strengthened by heavier sanctions, and extended by a 
more universal api)lication. They put all those provisions into 
the organic law, so that neither tyranny in the executive, nor 
party rage in the Legislature could change them without destroy- 
ing the Government itself. 

Look for a moment at the i)articulars and see how carefully 
everything connected with the administration of punitive justice 
is guarded. 

1. No ex post facto law shall be passed. No man shall be 
answerable criminally for any act which was not defined and 
made punishable as a crime by some law in force at the time 
when the act was done. 

2. For an act which is criminal he cannot be arrested without a 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. .525 

judicial warrant fouiuled on proof of j)roV)able cause. He shall 
not be kidnapped and shut up on the mere report of some base 
spy who gathers the materials of a false accusation by crawling 
into his house and listening at the key-hole of his chamber door. 

3. He shall not be compelled to testify against himself. He 
may be examined before he is committed, and tell his own story 
if he pleases; but the rack shall be put out of sight, and even 
his conscience shall not lie tortured ; nor shall his unpublished 
{>apers be used against him, as was done most wrongfully in the 
case of Algernon Sydney. 

4. He shall be entitled to a sjteedy trial ; not kept in prison for 
an indefinite time without the opportunity of vindicating his 
innocence. 

5. He shall be informed of the accusation, its nature, and 
grounds. The public accuser must put the charge into the form 
of a legal indictment, so that the party can meet it full in the 
face. 

6. Even to the indictment he need not answer unless a grand 
jury, after hearing the evidence, shall say upon their oaths that 
they believe it to be true. 

7. Then comes the trial, aYid it must be before a regular court, 
of competent jurisdiction, ordained and established for the State 
and district in which the crime Avas committed; and this shall not 
be evaded by a legislative change in the district after the crime is 
alleged to be done. 

8. His guilt or innocenc:" shall be determined by an impartial 
jury. These English words are to be understood in their English 
sense, and they mean that the jurors shall be fairly selected by a 
sworn officer from among the peers of the party, residing within 
the local jurisdiction of the court. When they are called into 
the l)o\- he can purge the panel of all dishonesty, prejudice, i)er- 
sonal enmity, and ignorance by a certain number of peremptory 
challenges, atid as many more challenges as he can suf'tain by 
showing reasonable cause. 

9. The trial shall be public and 0))en, that no underhand ad- 
vantage may be taken. The party shall be confronted with the 
witnesses against hira, have compulsory jirocess for his own wit- 
nesses, and be entitled to the assistance of counsel in his defense. 

10. After the evidence is heard and discussed, unless the jury 



526 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA GO UNI Y 

shall, upon their oaths, xmanimously agree to surrender him up 
into the hands of the court as a guilty man, not a hair of his head 
can be touched in way of punishment. 

11. After a verdict of guilty he is still protected. No cruel or 
unusual punishment shall l)e inflicted, nor any punishment at all, 
except what is annexed by tlie law to his offense. It cannot be 
doubted for a moment that if a person convicted of an offense not 
capital were to be hung on the oi'der of a judge, such judge would 
be guilty of murder as plainly as if he should comedown from the 
bench, tuck up the sleeves of his gown, and let out the prisoner's 
blood with his own hand. 

12. After all is over, the law continues to spread its guardian- 
ship around him. Whether he is acquitted or condemned he shall 
never again be molested for that offense. No man shall be twice 
put in jeopardy of life or limb for the same cause. 

These rules apply to all criminal prosecutions. But, in addition 
to these, certain special regulations were required for treason — 
the one great political charge under which more innocent men 
have fallen than any other. A tyrannical government calls every- 
body a traitor who shows the least unwillingness to be a slave. 
The party in power never fails, when it can, to stretch the law on 
that subject by construction, so as to cover its honest and consci- 
entious oj)ponents. In the absence of a constitutional provision 
it was justly feared that st'Uutes might be passed which would 
put the lives of the most ])atriotic citizens at the mercy of the 
basest minions that skulk about under the pay of the Executive. 
Therefore a detinitiou of treason was given in the fundamental 
law, and the legislative authority could not enlarge it to serve the 
purpose of jiartisaii malice. The nature nnd amount of evidence 
required to prove the crime was also prescribed, so that prejudice 
and enmity might have no share in the conviction. And lastly, 
the punishment was so limited that the propei'ty of the party 
could not be confiscated and u<ed to rewai'd the agents of his 
persecutors, or strij) his family of their subsistence. 

If these provisions exist in full force, unchangeable and irre- 
pealable, then we are not hereditary bondsmen. Every citizen 
may safely pursue his lawful calling in the open day ; and at 
night, if he is conscious of innocence, he may lie down in security 
and sleep the sound sleep of a freeman. 



HLSTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 527 

I say they are in force, and they will remain in force. We 
have not surrendered them, and we never will. If the worst 
comes to the M'orst we will look to the living God for His help, 
and defend our rights and the rights of our children to the last 
extremity. Those men who think we can be subjected and ab- 
jected to the condition of mere slaves are wholly mistaken. The 
great race to which we belong has not degenerated so fatally. 

But how am I to prove the existence of these rights ? I do 
not ])ropose to do it by a long chain of legal argumentation, nor 
by the production of numerous books with the leaves dog-eared 
and the pages marked, If it depended upon judicial precedents, 
I think I could ])roduce as many as might be necessary. If I 
claimed this freedom, under any kind of prescription, I could 
prove a good long possession in ourselves and those under whom 
we claim it. I might begin with Tacitus and show how the con- 
test arose in the forests of Germany more than two thousand 
years ago ; how the rough virtues and sound common sense of 
that people established the right of trial by jury, and thus started 
on a career which has made their posterity the foremost race that 
ever lived in all the tide of time. The Saxons carried it to 
England, and were ever ready to defend it with their blood. It 
was crushed out by the Danish invasion; and all that they suffer- 
ed of tyranny and oppression during tlie period of their subjuga- 
tion r»^sulted from the want of trial by jury. If that had been 
conceded to them the reaction would not have taken place which 
drove back the Danes to their frozen homes in the North. liut 
those ruffian sea-kings could not understand that, and the reaction 
came. Alfred, the greatest of revolutionary heroes and the 
wisest monarch that ever sat on a throne, made the first use of 
his power, after the Saxons restored it, to re-establish their ancient 
laws. He had promised them that he would, and he was true to 
them because they had been true to him. i>ut it was not easily 
done: the courts were op}»osed t'» it, for it limited their power — a 
kind of power that everybody covets — the power to punish with- 
out regard to law. He was obliged to hang forty-four judges in 
one year for refusing to give his subjects a trial by jury. When 
the historian says that he hung them, it is not meant that he put 
them to death without a trial. He had them impeached before 
the grand council of the nation, the Wittenagemote, the parlia- 



528 HISTOBY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

merit of that time. During the subsequent period of Saxon 
domination no man on English soil was powerful enough to refuse 
a legal trial to the meanest peasant. If any minister or any king, 
in war or in peace, had dared to punish a freeman by a tribunal of 
his own appointment, he would have roused the wrath of the 
whole population ; all orders of society would have resisted it ; 
lord and vassal, knight and squire, pi'iest and penitent, bocman 
and socman, master and thrall, copyholder and villein, would 
have risen in one mass and burnt the offender to death in his 
castle, or followed him in his flight and torn him to atoms. It 
was again trampled down by the Norman conquerors ; but the 
evils resulting from the want of it united all classes in the effort 
which compelled King John to restore it by the Great Chartei*. 
Everybody is familiar with the struggles which the English 
people, during many generations, made for their rights with the 
Plantaganets, the Tudors, and the Stuarts, and which ended final- 
ly in the revolution of 1688, when the liberties of England were 
placed upon an impregnable basis by the Bill of Rights. 

Many times the attempt was made to stretch the royal author- 
ity far enough to justify military trials ; but it never had more 
than temporary success. Five hundred years ago Edward II 
closed up a great rebellion by taking the life of its leader, the 
Earl of Lancaster, after trying him before a military court. 
Eight years later that same king, together with his lords and 
commons in Parliament assembled, acknowledged with shame 
and sorrow that the execution of Lancaster was a mere murder, 
because the courts were open and he might have had a legal trial. 
Queen Elizabeth, for sundry reasons affecting the safety of the 
State, ordered that certain offenders not of her army should be 
tried according to the law martial. But she heard the storm of 
popular vengeance rising, and, haughty, imperious, self-willed as 
she was, she yielded the point; for she knew that upon that sub- 
ject the English people would never consent to be trifled with. 
Strafford, as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, tried the Viscount 
Stormont before a military commission, and cut off his head. 
When impeached for it, he pleaded in vain that Ireland was in a 
state of insurrection, that Stormont was a traitor, and the army 
would be undone if it could not defend itself without appealing 
to the civil courts. The Parliament was deaf ; the King himself 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 529 

could not save liini; he was condemned to suffer death as a 
traitor aud a murderer. Charles I. issued commissions to divers 
officers for the trial of his.enemies according to the course of mil- 
itary law. If rebellion ever was an excuse for such an act, he 
could surely have pleaded it ; for there was scarcely a spot in his 
kingdom, from sea to sea, where the royal authority was not dis- 
puted by somebody. Yet the Parliament demanded in their pe- 
tition of right, and the King was obliged to concede, that all hia 
commissions were illegal. James II claimed the right to suspend 
the operation of the penal laws — a power which the courts denied 
— but the experience of his predecessors taught him that he could 
not suspend any man's right to a trial. He could easily have con- 
victed the seven bishops of any offence he saw fit to charge them 
with if he could have selected their judges from among the mer- 
cenary creatures to whom he had given commands in his army. 
But this he dared not do. He was obliged to send the bishops 
to a jury and endure the mortification of seeing them acquitted. 
He, too, might have had rebellion for an excuse, if rebellion be 
an excuse. The conspiracy was already ripe which a few months 
afterwards made him an exile and an outcast ; he had reason to 
believe that the Prince of Orange was making his preparations on 
the other side of the channel to invade the kingdom, where thous- 
ands burned to join him; nay, he pronounced the bishops guilty 
of rebellion by the very act for which he arrested them. He had 
raised an army to meet the rebellion, and he was on Ilounslow 
Heath reviewing the troops organized for that purpose, when he 
heard the great shout of joy that went up from Westminster Plall, 
was echoed back from Temple Bar, spread down the city and over 
the Thames, and rose from every vessel on the river — the simul- 
taneous shout of two hundred thousand men for the triumph of 
justice and law. 

If it were worth the time, I might detain you by showing how 
this subject was treated by the F'rench Court of Cassation in 
Geoff roy's case, under the constitution of 1830, when a military 
judgment was unhesitatingly pronounced to be void, though 
ordered by the King, after a j)roclamation declaring Paris in a 
state of siege. Fas est ah hoste doceri : we may lawfully learji 
something from our enemies — at all events we should blush at the 
thought of not being equal on such a subject to the courts of 



530 HIS TOR T OF COL UMBIA CO UNTT. 

Virginia, Georgia, Mississippi, and Texas, whose decisions my 
colleague, General Garfield, has read and commented on. 

The truth is, that no authority exists anywhere in the world 
for the doctrine of the Attorney General. No judge or jurist, 
no statesman or parliamentary orator, on this or the other side of 
the water, sustains him. Every elementary writer from Coke to 
Wharton is against him. All military authors who profess to 
know the duties of their profession admit themselves to be under, 
not above, the laws. No book can be found in any library to 
justify the assertion that military tribunals may try a citizen at a 
place where the courts are open. When I say no book, I mean, 
of course, no book of acknowledged authority. I do not deny 
that hireling clergymen have often been found to disgrace the 
pulpit by trying to prove the divine right of kings and other 
rulers to govern as they please. It is true, also, that court syc- 
ophants and party hacks have many times written pamphlets, and 
perhaps large volumes, to show that those whom they serve 
should be allowed to work out their bloody will upon the people. 
No abuse of poAver is too flagrant to find its defenders among 
such servile creatures. Those butchers' dogs that feed upon 
garbage and fatten upon the offal of the shambles are always 
ready to bark at whatever interferes with the trade of their mas- 
ter. 

But this case does not depend on authority. It is rather a 
question of fact than of law. 

I prove my right to a trial by jury just as I would prove my 
title to an estate if I held in my hand a solemn deed conveying 
it to me, coupled with undeniable evidence of long and undis- 
turbed possession under and according to the deed. There is the 
charter by which we claim to hold it. It is called the Constitu- 
tion of the United States. It is signed by the sacred name of 
George Washington, and by thirty-nine other names, only less 
illustrious than his. They represented every independent State 
then upon this continent, and each State afterwards ratified their 
work by a separate convention of its own people. Every State that 
subsequently came in acknowledged that this was the great 
standard by which their rights were to be measured. Every man 
that has ever held office in the country, from that time to this, 
has taken an oath that he would support and sustain it through 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY. 531 

good rei)ort am! through evil. The Attorney General himself 
became a party to the instrument when he laid his hand upon the 
gospel of God and solemnly swore that he would give to me and 
every other citizen tlie full btMietit of all it contains. 

What does it contain ? This, among other things : 

"The trial of all crimes except in cases of impeachment shall be 
by jury." 

Again : "No person shall be held to answer for a capital or 
otherwise infamous crime unless on a presentment or indictment 
of a grand jury, except incases arising in the land or naval 
forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or 
public danger ; nor shall any person be subject for the same 
oflFense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb, nor be com- 
pelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor 
be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of 
law ; nor shall private property be taken for public use without 
just compensation." 

This is not all ; another article declares that "in all criminal 
prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and 
public trial by jhi impartial jury of the State and district where- 
in the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have 
been previously ascertained by law ; and to be informed of the 
nature and cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the 
witnesses against him ; to have compulsory process for the wit- 
nesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his 
defense." 

Is there any ambiguity thei-ef If that does not signify that a 
jury trial shall be the exclusive and only means of ascertaining 
guilt in criminal cases, then I demand to know what words or 
what collocation of words in the English language would have 
that effect? Does this mean that a fair, open, speedy, public 
trial by an impartial jury shall be given only to those persons 
against whom no special grudge is felt by the Attorney General, 
or the judge advocate, or the head of a department? Shall this 
inestimable privilege be extended only to men whom the admin- 
istration does not care to convict? Is it conBned to vulgar crim- 
inals, who commit ordinary crim^■s against society, and shall it 
be denied to men who are accused of such offenses as th'se for 
which Sydney and Russell wcro belieaded, and Alice Lisle was 



032 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY- 

hung, and Elizabeth Gaunt was burnt alive, and John Bunyan was 
imprisoned fourteen years, and Baxter was whipped at the cart's 
tail, and Prynn had his ears cut off t No ; the words of the Con- 
stitution are all-erabracing — 

"As broad and general as the casing air." 

The trial of ALL crimes shall be by jury. ALL persons ac- 
cused shall enjoy that privilege — and NO person shall be held to 
answer in any other way. 

That should be sufficient without more. But there is another 
consideration which gi\es it ten fold power. It is a universal 
rule of construction, that general words in any instrument, though 
they may be weakened by enumeration, are always strengthened 
by exceptions. Here is no attempt to enumerate the particular 
cases in which men charged with criminal offenses shall be enti- 
tled to a jury trial. It is simply declared that all shall have it. 
But that is coupled with a statement of two specitic exceptions : 
cases of impeachment; and cases arising in the land or naval forces. 
These exceptions strengthen the application of the general rule 
to all other cases. Where the law-giver himself has declared 
when and in what circumstances you may depart from the general 
rule, you shall not presume to leave that onward path for other 
reasons, and make different exceptions. To exce[)tions, the 
maxim is always applicable, that expressio tijiius exelusio est 
alterms. 

But Ave are answered that the judgment under consideration, 
was pronounced in time of war, and it is therefore at least, mor- 
ally excusable. There may or there may not be something in that. 
I admit that the merits or demerits of any particular act, whether 
it involve a violation of the Constitution or not, depend upon the 
motives that prompted it, the time, the occasion and all the at- 
tending circumstances. When the people of this country come 
to decide upon the acts of their rulers, they will take all these 
things into consideration. But that presents the political aspect 
of the case with which, I trust, we have nothing to do here. I 
decline to discuss it. I would only say, in order to prevent misap- 
prehension, that I think it is precisely in a time of war and civil 
commotion, that we should double the guai'ds upon the Constitu- 
tion. If the sanitary regulations which defend the health of a 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 533 

city are ever to be reluxcd, it oiiglit certainly not to be done when 
pestilence is abroad. When the Mississippi shrinks within its 
natural channel, and creeps lazily along the bottom, the inhabi- 
tants of the adjoining shore have no need of a dyke to save them 
from inundation. But w hen the boon.ing Hood conies down 
from above, and swells into a volume which rises high above the 
plain on either side, tlien a crevasse in the levee, becomes a most 
serious thing. So in peaceabb- and quiet times, our legal rights 
are in little danger of being overborne ; l)ut when the wav e of ar- 
bitrary power laslies itself into violence and rage, and goes surg- 
ing up against the barriers which were made to confine it, then 
we need tlie whole strength of an unbroken Constitution to save 
us from destruction. IJut this is a question which properly I e- 
longs to the jurisdiction of the stump and the newspaper. 

There is another quasi political argument — necessity. If the 
law was voilated because it could not be obeyed, that might be 
an excuse. ]}ut no absolute compidsion is pretended here. These 
commissioners acted, at most, under what they regarded as a 
moial necessity. The choice was left them to obey the law or 
disobey it The disoliedience was only necessary as means to an 
tiid which they thought desirable ; and now tliey assert that 
though these means are unlawful and wrong, they are made right, 
because without them the object could not be accomp